Gene Symbol: aldh1a2
Description: aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A2
Alias: fb50h01, raldh2, retinal dehydrogenase 2, neckless, nls, no-fin, nof, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2
Species: zebrafish
Products:     aldh1a2

Top Publications

  1. Stafford D, Prince V. Retinoic acid signaling is required for a critical early step in zebrafish pancreatic development. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1215-20 pubmed
    ..In addition to being required for pancreatic specification, RA has the capacity to transfate anterior endoderm to a pancreatic fate. ..
  2. Keegan B, Feldman J, Begemann G, Ingham P, Yelon D. Retinoic acid signaling restricts the cardiac progenitor pool. Science. 2005;307:247-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, retinoic acid signaling creates a balance between cardiac and noncardiac identities, thereby refining the dimensions of the cardiac progenitor pool. ..
  3. Lepilina A, Coon A, Kikuchi K, Holdway J, Roberts R, Burns C, et al. A dynamic epicardial injury response supports progenitor cell activity during zebrafish heart regeneration. Cell. 2006;127:607-19 pubmed
    ..Our findings reveal injury responses by myocardial and epicardial tissues that collaborate in an Fgf-dependent manner to achieve cardiac regeneration...
  4. Radosevic M, Robert Moreno A, Coolen M, Bally Cuif L, Alsina B. Her9 represses neurogenic fate downstream of Tbx1 and retinoic acid signaling in the inner ear. Development. 2011;138:397-408 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings permit modeling of the complex genetic cascade that underlies neural patterning of the otic vesicle. ..
  5. Waxman J, Keegan B, Roberts R, Poss K, Yelon D. Hoxb5b acts downstream of retinoic acid signaling in the forelimb field to restrict heart field potential in zebrafish. Dev Cell. 2008;15:923-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results offer new perspectives on the mechanisms regulating organ size and the possible causes of congenital syndromes affecting both the heart and forelimb. ..
  6. Kinkel M, Sefton E, Kikuchi Y, Mizoguchi T, Ward A, Prince V. Cyp26 enzymes function in endoderm to regulate pancreatic field size. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7864-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Such feedback can maintain consistent levels of RA signaling, despite environmental fluctuations in RA concentration, thus ensuring a consistent size and location of the pancreatic field. ..
  7. Begemann G, Schilling T, Rauch G, Geisler R, Ingham P. The zebrafish neckless mutation reveals a requirement for raldh2 in mesodermal signals that pattern the hindbrain. Development. 2001;128:3081-94 pubmed
    We describe a new zebrafish mutation, neckless, and present evidence that it inactivates retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type 2, an enzyme involved in retinoic acid biosynthesis...
  8. Stafford D, White R, Kinkel M, Linville A, Schilling T, Prince V. Retinoids signal directly to zebrafish endoderm to specify insulin-expressing beta-cells. Development. 2006;133:949-56 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that RA will have important applications in the quest to induce islets from stem cells for therapeutic uses...
  9. Gongal P, Waskiewicz A. Zebrafish model of holoprosencephaly demonstrates a key role for TGIF in regulating retinoic acid metabolism. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:525-38 pubmed
    ..The consequences of abnormal RA levels for forebrain patterning are profound, and imply that in human patients with TGIF deficiencies, increased forebrain RA levels contribute to the development of HPE. ..

More Information


  1. Alsop D, Matsumoto J, Brown S, Van der Kraak G. Retinoid requirements in the reproduction of zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;156:51-62 pubmed
    ..shown that the ovaries and testes express enzymes that synthesize and metabolize the hormone retinoic acid (RA) (raldh2 and cyp26a, respectively), and RA receptors (raraa, rarga, rxrba, rxrbb, rxrga but not rxrab)...
  2. Gongal P, March L, Holly V, Pillay L, Berry Wynne K, Kagechika H, et al. Hmx4 regulates Sonic hedgehog signaling through control of retinoic acid synthesis during forebrain patterning. Dev Biol. 2011;355:55-64 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that Hmx4 is required for the initiation and maintenance of aldh1a2, the principal RA-synthesizing gene...
  3. Grandel H, Lun K, Rauch G, Rhinn M, Piotrowski T, Houart C, et al. Retinoic acid signalling in the zebrafish embryo is necessary during pre-segmentation stages to pattern the anterior-posterior axis of the CNS and to induce a pectoral fin bud. Development. 2002;129:2851-65 pubmed
    ..We report the identification and expression pattern of the zebrafish retinaldehyde dehydrogenase2 (raldh2/aldh1a2) gene. Raldh2 synthesises retinoic acid (RA) from its immediate precursor retinal...
  4. Prabhudesai S, Cameron D, Stenkamp D. Targeted effects of retinoic acid signaling upon photoreceptor development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2005;287:157-67 pubmed
    ..An enzyme involved in RA synthesis, RALDH2, was immunocytochemically localized to retinal progenitor cells and the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), ..
  5. Maves L, Kimmel C. Dynamic and sequential patterning of the zebrafish posterior hindbrain by retinoic acid. Dev Biol. 2005;285:593-605 pubmed
    ..Our results support a new model of dynamic RA action in the hindbrain, in which a temporally increasing source of RA is required to sequentially initiate progressively more posterior rhombomere identities...
  6. Kawakami Y, Raya A, Raya R, Rodriguez Esteban C, Izpisua Belmonte J. Retinoic acid signalling links left-right asymmetric patterning and bilaterally symmetric somitogenesis in the zebrafish embryo. Nature. 2005;435:165-71 pubmed
  7. Dobbs McAuliffe B, Zhao Q, Linney E. Feedback mechanisms regulate retinoic acid production and degradation in the zebrafish embryo. Mech Dev. 2004;121:339-50 pubmed
    ..zebrafish we have investigated the expression of cyp26a1, an enzyme that inactivates RA, and its relationship to raldh2, one of the enzymes that produce RA from retinal...
  8. Canestro C, Postlethwait J, Gonzalez Duarte R, Albalat R. Is retinoic acid genetic machinery a chordate innovation?. Evol Dev. 2006;8:394-406 pubmed
    ..We propose a new hypothesis in which lineage-specific duplication and loss of RA machinery genes could be related to the morphological radiation of deuterostomes. ..
  9. Begemann G, Marx M, Mebus K, Meyer A, Bastmeyer M. Beyond the neckless phenotype: influence of reduced retinoic acid signaling on motor neuron development in the zebrafish hindbrain. Dev Biol. 2004;271:119-29 pubmed
    ..The main biosynthetic enzyme responsible for RA signaling in the hindbrain and spinal cord is Raldh2. However, neckless/raldh2-mutant (nls) zebrafish exhibit only mild degrees of anteriorization in the neural ectoderm, compared to ..
  10. Kudoh T, Wilson S, Dawid I. Distinct roles for Fgf, Wnt and retinoic acid in posteriorizing the neural ectoderm. Development. 2002;129:4335-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, cyp26 has an important role in linking the Fgf, Wnt and RA signals to regulate AP patterning of the neural ectoderm in the late blastula to gastrula embryo in zebrafish. ..
  11. Pittlik S, Domingues S, Meyer A, Begemann G. Expression of zebrafish aldh1a3 (raldh3) and absence of aldh1a1 in teleosts. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..teleost genomes for the presence of Raldh family members and have found that teleost fish possess orthologs of Aldh1a2 and Aldh1a3 only. Here we describe the expression of aldh1a3 in the zebrafish, Danio rerio...
  12. Blum N, Begemann G. Retinoic acid signaling controls the formation, proliferation and survival of the blastema during adult zebrafish fin regeneration. Development. 2012;139:107-16 pubmed publisher
  13. Xu F, Li K, Tian M, Hu P, Song W, Chen J, et al. N-CoR is required for patterning the anterior-posterior axis of zebrafish hindbrain by actively repressing retinoid signaling. Mech Dev. 2009;126:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that N-CoR is essential for early hindbrain patterning by actively repressing retinoid signaling. ..
  14. Kikuchi K, Holdway J, Major R, Blum N, Dahn R, Begemann G, et al. Retinoic acid production by endocardium and epicardium is an injury response essential for zebrafish heart regeneration. Dev Cell. 2011;20:397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..endocardium undergoes morphological changes and induces expression of the retinoic acid (RA)-synthesizing enzyme raldh2. By one day posttrauma, raldh2 expression becomes localized to endocardial cells at the injury site, an area that ..
  15. Emoto Y, Wada H, Okamoto H, Kudo A, Imai Y. Retinoic acid-metabolizing enzyme Cyp26a1 is essential for determining territories of hindbrain and spinal cord in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2005;278:415-27 pubmed
    ..Such a phenotype is the opposite of that of the mutant for Raldh2, an enzyme that synthesizes RA...
  16. Liang D, Zhang M, Bao J, Zhang L, Xu X, Gao X, et al. Expressions of Raldh3 and Raldh4 during zebrafish early development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:248-53 pubmed publisher
    ..However, only Raldh2 ortholog is identified in zebrafish. Here, we report the identification of raldh3 and raldh4 genes in zebrafish...
  17. Asai Coakwell M, French C, Berry K, Ye M, Koss R, Somerville M, et al. GDF6, a novel locus for a spectrum of ocular developmental anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2007;80:306-15 pubmed
    ..These results underscore the value of integrated clinical and molecular investigation of patients with chromosomal anomalies...
  18. Hernandez R, Putzke A, Myers J, Margaretha L, Moens C. Cyp26 enzymes generate the retinoic acid response pattern necessary for hindbrain development. Development. 2007;134:177-87 pubmed
    ..We present a ;gradient-free' model for hindbrain patterning in which differential RA responsiveness along the hindbrain anterior-posterior axis is shaped primarily by the dynamic expression of RA-degrading enzymes. ..
  19. Wang J, Panàkovà D, Kikuchi K, Holdway J, Gemberling M, Burris J, et al. The regenerative capacity of zebrafish reverses cardiac failure caused by genetic cardiomyocyte depletion. Development. 2011;138:3421-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates that genetic depletion of cardiomyocytes, even at levels so extreme as to elicit signs of cardiac failure, can be reversed by natural regenerative capacity in lower vertebrates such as zebrafish. ..
  20. Alexa K, Choe S, Hirsch N, Etheridge L, Laver E, SAGERSTROM C. Maternal and zygotic aldh1a2 activity is required for pancreas development in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8261 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of our mutant (aldh1a2(um22)) to neckless (aldh1a2(i26)), a previously identified aldh1a2 mutant, revealed similarities in residual endodermal gene ..
  21. Mercader N, Fischer S, Neumann C. Prdm1 acts downstream of a sequential RA, Wnt and Fgf signaling cascade during zebrafish forelimb induction. Development. 2006;133:2805-15 pubmed
    ..tbx5 is required for Fgf signaling in the limb bud leading to activation of prdm1 expression, which in turn is required for downstream activation of fgf10 expression. ..
  22. de Jong J, Davidson A, Wang Y, Palis J, Opara P, Pugach E, et al. Interaction of retinoic acid and scl controls primitive blood development. Blood. 2010;116:201-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies establish a new connection between RA and scl during development that may participate in stem cell self-renewal and hematopoietic differentiation. ..
  23. Rojas Muñoz A, Rajadhyksha S, Gilmour D, van Bebber F, Antos C, Rodriguez Esteban C, et al. ErbB2 and ErbB3 regulate amputation-induced proliferation and migration during vertebrate regeneration. Dev Biol. 2009;327:177-90 pubmed publisher
  24. Jiang L, Li K, Lin Q, Ren J, He Z, Li H, et al. Gambogic acid causes fin developmental defect in zebrafish embryo partially via retinoic acid signaling. Reprod Toxicol. 2016;63:161-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate the potential teratogenicity of GA and provide evidence for a caution in its future clinic use. ..
  25. Ningappa M, So J, Glessner J, Ashokkumar C, Ranganathan S, Min J, et al. The Role of ARF6 in Biliary Atresia. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0138381 pubmed publisher
    ..3 susceptibility locus encompassing the ARF6 gene. arf6 knockdown in zebrafish implicates early biliary dysgenesis as a basis for BA, and also suggests a role for EGFR signaling in BA pathogenesis. ..
  26. Wu T, Yang J, Yu F, Liu B. Cardiotoxicity of mycotoxin citrinin and involvement of microRNA-138 in zebrafish embryos. Toxicol Sci. 2013;136:402-12 pubmed publisher
    ..5. Furthermore, the heart areas of CTN-exposed embryos demonstrated an elevated levels of aldh1a2 and cspg2 messenger RNA; these 2 cardiac-related genes are known to be involved in retinoic acid (RA) pathway as ..
  27. Liang D, Jia W, Li J, Li K, Zhao Q. Retinoic acid signaling plays a restrictive role in zebrafish primitive myelopoiesis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30865 pubmed publisher
    ..rescued by 4-diethylamino-benzaldehyde, a retinal dehydrogenase inhibitor, or partially rescued by knocking down aldh1a2, the major retinal dehydrogenase gene that is responsible for RA synthesis during early development...
  28. Pittman A, Gaynes J, Chien C. nev (cyfip2) is required for retinal lamination and axon guidance in the zebrafish retinotectal system. Dev Biol. 2010;344:784-94 pubmed publisher
  29. Vaccari E, Deflorian G, Bernardi E, Pauls S, Tiso N, Bortolussi M, et al. prep1.2 and aldh1a2 participate to a positive loop required for branchial arches development in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2010;343:94-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In fact, we show that prep1.2 is positively regulated by RA and required for the normal expression of aldh1a2 at later stages, particularly in tissues involved in the development of the branchial arches and pectoral fins...
  30. Holly V, Widen S, Famulski J, Waskiewicz A. Sfrp1a and Sfrp5 function as positive regulators of Wnt and BMP signaling during early retinal development. Dev Biol. 2014;388:192-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of a low dose of sfrp5 mRNA causes an increase in dorsal retina marker gene expression. We propose a model in which Sfrp proteins function as facilitators of both BMP and Wnt signaling within the dorsal retina. ..
  31. Gibert Y, Gajewski A, Meyer A, Begemann G. Induction and prepatterning of the zebrafish pectoral fin bud requires axial retinoic acid signaling. Development. 2006;133:2649-59 pubmed
    ..By rescuing pectoral fin induction in the aldh1a2/neckless mutant with exogenous RA and by blocking RA signaling in wild-type embryos, we find that RA acts as a permissive ..
  32. Xu T, Chen L, Hu C, Zhou B. Effects of acute exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers on retinoid signaling in zebrafish larvae. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2013;35:13-20 pubmed publisher
    ..While a significant up-regulation was observed in the transcription of retinal dehydrogenase (raldh2), the transcription of retinol binding protein (rbp1a), retinol dehydrogenase (rdh1), cellular retinoic acid ..
  33. Beker van Woudenberg A, Snel C, Rijkmans E, De Groot D, Bouma M, Hermsen S, et al. Zebrafish embryotoxicity test for developmental (neuro)toxicity: Demo case of an integrated screening approach system using anti-epileptic drugs. Reprod Toxicol. 2014;49:101-16 pubmed publisher
  34. Verma A, Parnaik V. Heart-specific expression of laminopathic mutations in transgenic zebrafish. Cell Biol Int. 2017;41:809-819 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that transgenic zebrafish models of heart-specific laminopathies show cardiac regeneration and moderate deviations in heart rate during embryonic development. ..
  35. Herrgen L, Ares S, Morelli L, Schroter C, Jülicher F, Oates A. Intercellular coupling regulates the period of the segmentation clock. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1244-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we ask whether Delta-Notch coupling additionally influences the collective period of the segmentation clock...
  36. Miyasaka K, Kida Y, Banjo T, Ueki Y, Nagayama K, Matsumoto T, et al. Heartbeat regulates cardiogenesis by suppressing retinoic acid signaling via expression of miR-143. Mech Dev. 2011;128:18-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data uncover a novel epigenetic link between heartbeat and cardiac development, with miR-143 as an essential component of the mechanotransduction cascade. ..
  37. Retnoaji B, Akiyama R, Matta T, Bessho Y, Matsui T. Retinoic acid controls proper head-to-trunk linkage in zebrafish by regulating an anteroposterior somitogenetic rate difference. Development. 2014;141:158-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our results indicate that RA regulation of the AP difference is crucial for proper linkage between the head and trunk in the vertebrate body plan. ..
  38. Jacobs N, Albertson R, Wiles J. Using whole mount in situ hybridization to link molecular and organismal biology. J Vis Exp. 2011;: pubmed publisher
    ..This gives upper level college students the opportunity to practice modern biological research techniques, leading to a more diversified education and the promotion of future interdisciplinary scientific research. ..
  39. Rodr guez Mar A, Ca estro C, Bremiller R, Catchen J, Yan Y, Postlethwait J. Retinoic acid metabolic genes, meiosis, and gonadal sex differentiation in zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73951 pubmed publisher
    ..Experiments showed that zebrafish express aldh1a2, which encodes an RA-synthesizing enzyme, in the gonad rather than in the mesonephros as in mouse...
  40. Dohn T, Waxman J. Distinct phases of Wnt/?-catenin signaling direct cardiomyocyte formation in zebrafish. Dev Biol. 2012;361:364-76 pubmed publisher
  41. Matsuda H, Parsons M, Leach S. Aldh1-expressing endocrine progenitor cells regulate secondary islet formation in larval zebrafish pancreas. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74350 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings suggest that Aldh1-expressing cells act as both participants and regulators of endocrine differentiation during zebrafish secondary islet formation. ..
  42. Shi Y, Obert E, Rahman B, Rohrer B, Lobo G. The Retinol Binding Protein Receptor 2 (Rbpr2) is required for Photoreceptor Outer Segment Morphogenesis and Visual Function in Zebrafish. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16207 pubmed publisher
  43. Pittlik S, Begemann G. New sources of retinoic acid synthesis revealed by live imaging of an Aldh1a2-GFP reporter fusion protein throughout zebrafish development. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:1205-16 pubmed publisher
    ..During embryonic patterning, the dynamic expression patterns of the aldh1a2 gene, which encodes a retinaldehyde dehydrogenase, provide the major source of RA, whereas the only other ..
  44. Jeradi S, Hammerschmidt M. Retinoic acid-induced premature osteoblast-to-preosteocyte transitioning has multiple effects on calvarial development. Development. 2016;143:1205-16 pubmed publisher
  45. Shimizu T, Bae Y, Hibi M. Cdx-Hox code controls competence for responding to Fgfs and retinoic acid in zebrafish neural tissue. Development. 2006;133:4709-19 pubmed
    ..Expression of fgfs and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 suggested that in the Cdx1a/4-defective embryos, the Fgf and RA signaling activities overlap in the ..
  46. Mathew L, Sengupta S, Ladu J, Andreasen E, Tanguay R. Crosstalk between AHR and Wnt signaling through R-Spondin1 impairs tissue regeneration in zebrafish. FASEB J. 2008;22:3087-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that inappropriate regulation of R-Spondin/LRP6 is absolutely required for TCDD to inhibit fin regeneration. ..
  47. Gemberling M, Karra R, Dickson A, Poss K. Nrg1 is an injury-induced cardiomyocyte mitogen for the endogenous heart regeneration program in zebrafish. elife. 2015;4: pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify Nrg1 as a potent, induced mitogen for the endogenous adult heart regeneration program. ..
  48. Geurtzen K, Knopf F, Wehner D, Huitema L, Schulte Merker S, Weidinger G. Mature osteoblasts dedifferentiate in response to traumatic bone injury in the zebrafish fin and skull. Development. 2014;141:2225-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a fundamental role for osteoblast dedifferentiation in reparative bone formation in fish and indicate that adult fish osteoblasts display elevated cellular plasticity compared with mammalian bone-forming cells. ..
  49. Ye M, Berry Wynne K, Asai Coakwell M, Sundaresan P, Footz T, French C, et al. Mutation of the bone morphogenetic protein GDF3 causes ocular and skeletal anomalies. Hum Mol Genet. 2010;19:287-98 pubmed publisher
    ..By demonstrating the pleiotropic effects of GDF3 mutation, these results extend the contribution of perturbed BMP signaling to human disease and potentially implicate multi-allelic inheritance of BMP variants in developmental disorders. ..
  50. Sugimoto K, Hui S, Sheng D, Kikuchi K. Dissection of zebrafish shha function using site-specific targeting with a Cre-dependent genetic switch. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher
    ..i>Zwitch will extend the utility of zebrafish in organ development and regeneration research and might be applicable to other model organisms. ..
  51. Itou J, Akiyama R, Pehoski S, Yu X, Kawakami H, Kawakami Y. Regenerative responses after mild heart injuries for cardiomyocyte proliferation in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2014;243:1477-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Sham operation induced epicardial aldh1a2 expression but not tbx18 and WT1...
  52. Grandel H, Brand M. Zebrafish limb development is triggered by a retinoic acid signal during gastrulation. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1116-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Preceding the lack of tbx5-expressing limb precursors in RA deficient zebrafish embryos, aldh1a2 and cyp26a1 expression domains are distorted along the gastrula margin suggesting that positional values in the ..
  53. Gibert Y, Bernard L, Debiais Thibaud M, Bourrat F, Joly J, Pottin K, et al. Formation of oral and pharyngeal dentition in teleosts depends on differential recruitment of retinoic acid signaling. FASEB J. 2010;24:3298-309 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that this inductive event is dependent on RA synthesis from aldh1a2 in the ventral posterior pharynx...
  54. Gibert Y, Samarut E, Pasco Viel E, Bernard L, Borday Birraux V, Sadier A, et al. Altered retinoic acid signalling underpins dentition evolution. Proc Biol Sci. 2015;282: pubmed publisher
    ..Our work illustrates that through subtle changes in the expression of rate-limiting enzymes, the RA pathway is an active player of tooth evolution in fish. ..
  55. Xiao Y, Jiang J, Hu W, Zhao Y, Hu J. Toxicity of triphenyltin on the development of retinal axons in zebrafish at low dose. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;189:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to report that TPT can interfere with development of retinal axons in fish at low dose. ..
  56. Yin P, Li Y, Chen Q, Liu Z. Diethylstilbestrol, flutamide and their combination impaired the spermatogenesis of male adult zebrafish through disrupting HPG axis, meiosis and apoptosis. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;185:129-137 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study greatly extends our understanding on the mechanisms underlying of reproductive toxicity of environment estrogens and anti-androgens in fish. ..
  57. Li J, Yue Y, Dong X, Jia W, Li K, Liang D, et al. Zebrafish foxc1a plays a crucial role in early somitogenesis by restricting the expression of aldh1a2 directly. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:10216-28 pubmed publisher
    ..somites of foxc1a knock-out embryos, expressions of fgf8a and deltaC were abolished, whereas the expression of aldh1a2 (responsible for providing retinoic acid signaling) was significantly increased...
  58. Pradhan A, Olsson P. Inhibition of retinoic acid synthesis disrupts spermatogenesis and fecundity in zebrafish. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2015;217-218:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Internal coordinate mechanics docking software showed that WIN 18,446 can bind to the rat, human and zebrafish Aldh1a2 catalytic domain with equivalent potency...
  59. Tornini V, Puliafito A, Slota L, Thompson J, Nachtrab G, Kaushik A, et al. Live Monitoring of Blastemal Cell Contributions during Appendage Regeneration. Curr Biol. 2016;26:2981-2991 pubmed publisher
    ..Our longitudinal clonal analyses of regenerating zebrafish fins provide evidence that connective tissue progenitors are rapidly organized into a scalable blueprint of lost structures. ..
  60. Wei Y, Ma D, Gao Y, Zhang C, Wang L, Liu F. Ncor2 is required for hematopoietic stem cell emergence by inhibiting Fos signaling in zebrafish. Blood. 2014;124:1578-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings identify a novel regulatory mechanism for Ncor2 through Fos-Vegfd-Notch signaling cascade during HSC development in zebrafish embryos. ..
  61. Rydeen A, Voisin N, D Aniello E, Ravisankar P, Devignes C, Waxman J. Excessive feedback of Cyp26a1 promotes cell non-autonomous loss of retinoic acid signaling. Dev Biol. 2015;405:47-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results provide novel insights into the teratogenic mechanisms of RA signaling and the cellular mechanisms by which Cyp26a1 expression can shape a RA gradient. ..
  62. BIRKHOLZ D, OLESNICKY KILLIAN E, George K, Artinger K. Prdm1a is necessary for posterior pharyngeal arch development in zebrafish. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2575-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate an essential role for prdm1a in the development of the zebrafish craniofacial skeleton...
  63. Münch J, González Rajal A, de la Pompa J. Notch regulates blastema proliferation and prevents differentiation during adult zebrafish fin regeneration. Development. 2013;140:1402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of the blastema cell markers msxe and msxb, as well as increased expression of the proliferation regulator aldh1a2. This blastema expansion prevents regenerative fin outgrowth, as indicated by the reduction in differentiating ..
  64. Mathew L, Sengupta S, Franzosa J, Perry J, La Du J, Andreasen E, et al. Comparative expression profiling reveals an essential role for raldh2 in epimorphic regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33642-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparative analysis revealed raldh2, a rate-limiting enzyme for the synthesis of retinoic acid, as one of the most highly induced genes across the ..
  65. Cheng C, Li Y, Marra A, Verdun V, Wingert R. Flat mount preparation for observation and analysis of zebrafish embryo specimens stained by whole mount in situ hybridization. J Vis Exp. 2014;: pubmed publisher
  66. Naylor R, Skvarca L, Thisse C, Thisse B, Hukriede N, Davidson A. BMP and retinoic acid regulate anterior-posterior patterning of the non-axial mesoderm across the dorsal-ventral axis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12197 pubmed publisher
    ..This work clarifies our understanding of vertebrate axis orientation and establishes a new paradigm for how the kidney and other mesodermal derivatives arise during embryogenesis. ..
  67. Castillo H, Cravo R, Azambuja A, Simões Costa M, Sura Trueba S, Gonzalez J, et al. Insights into the organization of dorsal spinal cord pathways from an evolutionarily conserved raldh2 intronic enhancer. Development. 2010;137:507-18 pubmed publisher
    Comparative studies of the tetrapod raldh2 (aldh1a2) gene, which encodes a retinoic acid (RA) synthesis enzyme, have led to the identification of a dorsal spinal cord enhancer...
  68. Seritrakul P, Samarut E, Lama T, Gibert Y, Laudet V, Jackman W. Retinoic acid expands the evolutionarily reduced dentition of zebrafish. FASEB J. 2012;26:5014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..dentition of fish species that retain anterior pharyngeal teeth such as medaka but that medaka do not express the aldh1a2 RA-synthesizing enzyme in tooth-forming regions...
  69. Zhao L, Borikova A, Ben Yair R, Guner Ataman B, Macrae C, Lee R, et al. Notch signaling regulates cardiomyocyte proliferation during zebrafish heart regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data uncover the exquisite sensitivity of regenerative cardiomyocyte proliferation to perturbations in Notch signaling. ..
  70. Groh K, Schönenberger R, Eggen R, Segner H, Suter M. Analysis of protein expression in zebrafish during gonad differentiation by targeted proteomics. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;193:210-20 pubmed publisher
  71. Cunningham T, Zhao X, Sandell L, Evans S, Trainor P, Duester G. Antagonism between retinoic acid and fibroblast growth factor signaling during limb development. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reconcile disparate ideas regarding RA-FGF antagonism and provide insight into how endogenous RA programs the early embryo. ..
  72. Huang S, Ma J, Liu X, Zhang Y, Luo L. Retinoic acid signaling sequentially controls visceral and heart laterality in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28533-43 pubmed publisher
  73. Li N, Kelsh R, Croucher P, Roehl H. Regulation of neural crest cell fate by the retinoic acid and Pparg signalling pathways. Development. 2010;137:389-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings might help to increase our understanding of skeletal and obesity-related diseases and aid in the development of stem cell-based regenerative therapies. ..
  74. Maves L, Waskiewicz A, Paul B, Cao Y, Tyler A, Moens C, et al. Pbx homeodomain proteins direct Myod activity to promote fast-muscle differentiation. Development. 2007;134:3371-82 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal that Pbx proteins modulate Myod activity to drive fast-muscle gene expression, thus showing that homeodomain proteins can direct bHLH proteins to establish a specific cell-type identity. ..
  75. Itou J, Kawakami H, Burgoyne T, Kawakami Y. Life-long preservation of the regenerative capacity in the fin and heart in zebrafish. Biol Open. 2012;1:739-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of epicardial genes, such as wt1b and aldh1a2, in response to heart injury was comparable in two groups...
  76. Wang X, Zhou L, Jin J, Yang Y, Song G, Shen Y, et al. Knockdown of FABP3 impairs cardiac development in Zebra?sh through the retinoic acid signaling pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14:13826-41 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the expression level of the RA synthesizing enzyme Raldh2 did not significantly change in FABP3-MO injected zebrafish...