Gene Symbol: aicda
Description: activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Alias: single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase, aid
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Zhao Y, Pan Hammarstr m Q, Zhao Z, Hammarstr m L. Identification of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene from zebrafish: an evolutionary analysis. Dev Comp Immunol. 2005;29:61-71 pubmed publisher
    In the present study, we report the identification of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) encoding gene in frog, dog and chimpanzee, where both somatic hypermutation and class switch recombination (CSR) occurs and in ..
  2. Dancyger A, King J, Quinlan M, Fifield H, Tucker S, Saunders H, et al. Differences in the enzymatic efficiency of human and bony fish AID are mediated by a single residue in the C terminus modulating single-stranded DNA binding. FASEB J. 2012;26:1517-25 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates antibody diversification by deaminating deoxycytidines to deoxyuridine within immunoglobulin genes. However, it also generates genome-wide DNA lesions, leading to transformation...
  3. Abdouni H, King J, Suliman M, Quinlan M, Fifield H, Larijani M. Zebrafish AID is capable of deaminating methylated deoxycytidines. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:5457-68 pubmed publisher
    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) deaminates deoxycytidine (dC) to deoxyuracil (dU) at immunoglobulin loci in B lymphocytes to mediate secondary antibody diversification...
  4. Wakae K, Magor B, Saunders H, Nagaoka H, Kawamura A, Kinoshita K, et al. Evolution of class switch recombination function in fish activation-induced cytidine deaminase, AID. Int Immunol. 2006;18:41-7 pubmed
    ..Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the only known B cell-specific protein required for inducing CSR and SHM in mammals...
  5. Rai K, Huggins I, James S, Karpf A, Jones D, Cairns B. DNA demethylation in zebrafish involves the coupling of a deaminase, a glycosylase, and gadd45. Cell. 2008;135:1201-12 pubmed publisher
    ..embryos we provide evidence for 5-methylcytosine (5-meC) removal in vivo via the coupling of a 5-meC deaminase (AID, which converts 5-meC to thymine) and a G:T mismatch-specific thymine glycosylase (Mbd4)...
  6. Barreto V, Pan Hammarstrom Q, Zhao Y, Hammarstrom L, Misulovin Z, Nussenzweig M. AID from bony fish catalyzes class switch recombination. J Exp Med. 2005;202:733-8 pubmed
    ..Class switching is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), an enzyme expressed in cartilaginous and bony fish that is also required for somatic hypermutation...
  7. Hirose K, Shimoda N, Kikuchi Y. Transient reduction of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is associated with active DNA demethylation during regeneration of zebrafish fin. Epigenetics. 2013;8:899-906 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings illustrate that the transient reduction of 5mC and 5hmC in dedifferentiated cells is associated with active demethylation during regeneration of zebrafish fin. ..
  8. Villota Herdoiza D, Pila E, Quiniou S, Waldbieser G, Magor B. Transcriptional regulation of teleost Aicda genes. Part 1 - suppressors of promiscuous promoters. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:1981-7 pubmed publisher
    ..luciferase reporter system in transfected fish leukocytes and two mammalian cell lines that constitutively express Aicda (activation-induced cytidine deaminase)...
  9. Wei N, Pang W, Wang Y, Xiong Y, Xu R, Wu W, et al. Knockdown of PU.1 mRNA and AS lncRNA regulates expression of immune-related genes in zebrafish Danio rerio. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;44:315-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, on day 0, 2 and 4, the levels of PU.1 and immune-related genes including TCRAC, Rag2, AID, IgLC-1, mIg, and sIg mRNAs were detected using real-time qPCR. The results showed that the levels of PU...

More Information


  1. Shimoda N, Hirose K, Kaneto R, Izawa T, Yokoi H, Hashimoto N, et al. No evidence for AID/MBD4-coupled DNA demethylation in zebrafish embryos. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e114816 pubmed publisher that utilized zebrafish embryos provided a potent mechanism for active demethylation in which three proteins, AID, MBD4, and GADD45 are involved...
  2. Basu U, Wang Y, Alt F. Evolution of phosphorylation-dependent regulation of activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Mol Cell. 2008;32:285-91 pubmed publisher
    Interaction of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) with replication protein A (RPA) has been proposed to promote AID access to transcribed double-stranded (ds) DNA during immunoglobulin light chain and heavy chain class switch ..
  3. Powell C, Elsaeidi F, Goldman D. Injury-dependent Müller glia and ganglion cell reprogramming during tissue regeneration requires Apobec2a and Apobec2b. J Neurosci. 2012;32:1096-109 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify an essential role for Apobec proteins during retina and optic nerve regeneration and suggest DNA demethylation may underlie the reprogramming of cells to mount a regenerative response. ..
  4. Choi J, Kim R, Yoon S, Kim W. Developmental Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Transcriptomic Analysis. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0160763 pubmed publisher
    ..ZnO NP exposure shared similar biological pathways with those observed with ZnSO4 exposure, but six genes (aicda, cyb5d1, edar, intl2, ogfrl2 and tnfsf13b) associated with inflammation and the immune system responded ..