Gene Symbol: ache
Description: acetylcholinesterase
Alias: zgc:92550, acetylcholinesterase, ziehharmonika, zim
Species: zebrafish

Top Publications

  1. Rico E, Rosemberg D, Dias R, Bogo M, Bonan C. Ethanol alters acetylcholinesterase activity and gene expression in zebrafish brain. Toxicol Lett. 2007;174:25-30 pubmed
    ..we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects promoted by ethanol and its metabolites on zebrafish brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE). There was a significant increase of AChE (33%) activity after acute 1% ethanol exposure...
  2. Behra M, Cousin X, Bertrand C, Vonesch J, Biellmann D, Chatonnet A, et al. Acetylcholinesterase is required for neuronal and muscular development in the zebrafish embryo. Nat Neurosci. 2002;5:111-8 pubmed
    ..After release into the synaptic cleft, ACh is rapidly degraded by acetylcholinesterase (AChE)...
  3. Rico E, Rosemberg D, Senger M, Arizi M, Bernardi G, Dias R, et al. Methanol alters ecto-nucleotidases and acetylcholinesterase in zebrafish brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006;28:489-96 pubmed
    ..Here we tested the acute effect of methanol on ecto-nucleotidase (NTPDase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in zebrafish brain...
  4. Bertrand C, Chatonnet A, Takke C, Yan Y, Postlethwait J, Toutant J, et al. Zebrafish acetylcholinesterase is encoded by a single gene localized on linkage group 7. Gene structure and polymorphism; molecular forms and expression pattern during development. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:464-74 pubmed
    We cloned and sequenced the acetylcholinesterase gene and cDNA of zebrafish, Danio rerio. We found a single gene (ache) located on linkage group LG7...
  5. Pereira V, Bortolotto J, Kist L, Azevedo M, Fritsch R, Oliveira R, et al. Endosulfan exposure inhibits brain AChE activity and impairs swimming performance in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurotoxicology. 2012;33:469-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that the activity of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is one of the most recurrently used biomarkers of exposure to pesticides and there are controversial ..
  6. Richetti S, Rosemberg D, Ventura Lima J, Monserrat J, Bogo M, Bonan C. Acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant capacity of zebrafish brain is altered by heavy metal exposure. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:116-22 pubmed publisher
    ..the effects of the treatment with cadmium acetate, lead acetate, mercury chloride, and zinc chloride in acetylcholinesterase activity and gene expression pattern, as well as the effects of these treatments in antioxidant competence ..
  7. Wu Q, Yan W, Cheng H, Liu C, Hung T, Guo X, et al. Parental transfer of microcystin-LR induced transgenerational effects of developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish offspring. Environ Pollut. 2017;231:471-478 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was remarkably decreased in MCLR parental exposure groups, while the expression levels of ..
  8. Savio L, Vuaden F, Kist L, Pereira T, Rosemberg D, Bogo M, et al. Proline-induced changes in acetylcholinesterase activity and gene expression in zebrafish brain: reversal by antipsychotic drugs. Neuroscience. 2013;250:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study, we evaluated the in vivo and in vitro effects of proline on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and gene expression in the zebrafish brain...
  9. Shamay Ramot A, Khermesh K, Porath H, Barak M, Pinto Y, Wachtel C, et al. Fmrp Interacts with Adar and Regulates RNA Editing, Synaptic Density and Locomotor Activity in Zebrafish. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1005702 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that loss of Fmrp results in increased Adar-mediated RNA editing activity on target-specific RNAs, which, in turn, might alter neuronal circuit formation and behavior in FXS. ..

More Information


  1. Kist L, Rosemberg D, Pereira T, de Azevedo M, Richetti S, de Castro Leão J, et al. Microcystin-LR acute exposure increases AChE activity via transcriptional ache activation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;155:247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..species, in this study we tested the in vitro and in vivo effects of MC-LR at different concentrations on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in zebrafish brain...
  2. Sant Anna M, Soares V, Seibt K, Ghisleni G, Rico E, Rosemberg D, et al. Iron exposure modifies acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) tissues: distinct susceptibility of tissues to iron overload. Fish Physiol Biochem. 2011;37:573-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of iron on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and liver of zebrafish and to investigate the possible correlation with the iron ..
  3. Lin C, Hui M, Cheng S. Toxicity and cardiac effects of carbaryl in early developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;222:159-68 pubmed
    Carbaryl, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, is known to be moderately toxic to adult zebrafish and has been reported to cause heart malformations and irregular heartbeat in medaka...
  4. Lerebours A, Gonzalez P, Adam C, Camilleri V, Bourdineaud J, Garnier Laplace J. Comparative analysis of gene expression in brain, liver, skeletal muscles, and gills of zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to environmentally relevant waterborne uranium concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009;28:1271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..During the depuration phase, uranium excretion was inefficient in brain and skeletal muscles, and expression of most of the tissue-specific genes was repressed or unchanged. ..
  5. da Rocha A, Ferreira J, Barros D, Pereira T, Bogo M, Oliveira S, et al. Gene expression and biochemical responses in brain of zebrafish Danio rerio exposed to organic nanomaterials: carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and fullerenol (C60(OH)18-22(OK4)). Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2013;165:460-7 pubmed publisher
    ..0mg/L). Few biological responses were altered by this NM: decrease in total antioxidant capacity and induction of the expression of the transcription factor Nrf2 when compared to control group. ..
  6. Sun L, Xu W, Peng T, Chen H, Ren L, Tan H, et al. Developmental exposure of zebrafish larvae to organophosphate flame retardants causes neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2016;55:16-22 pubmed publisher
    ..changes that occur in nervous system genes in response to OPFRs and CPF, as well as the altered enzyme activity of AChE and its mRNA level, the underlying mechanisms for neurotoxicity among these organophosphate chemicals might be ..
  7. Wu Q, Yan W, Liu C, Li L, Yu L, Zhao S, et al. Microcystin-LR exposure induces developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish embryo. Environ Pollut. 2016;213:793-800 pubmed publisher
    ..And the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was significantly increased after exposure to 1.6 and 3.2 mg/L MCLR...
  8. Altenhofen S, Nabinger D, Wiprich M, Pereira T, Bogo M, Bonan C. Tebuconazole alters morphological, behavioral and neurochemical parameters in larvae and adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Chemosphere. 2017;180:483-490 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of this fungicide on AChE activity and gene expression in zebrafish larvae and in the adult zebrafish brain...
  9. Hong E, Santhakumar K, Akitake C, Ahn S, Thisse C, Thisse B, et al. Cholinergic left-right asymmetry in the habenulo-interpeduncular pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:21171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies of the newly identified cholinergic gene locus resolve the neurotransmitter identity of the zebrafish habenular nuclei and reveal functional asymmetry in a major cholinergic neuromodulatory pathway of the vertebrate brain. ..
  10. de Oliveira G, Kist L, Pereira T, Bortolotto J, Paquete F, de Oliveira E, et al. Transient modulation of acetylcholinesterase activity caused by exposure to dextran-coated iron oxide nanoparticles in brain of adult zebrafish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;162:77-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest acute brain toxicity by the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and induction of apoptosis.
  11. Jin Y, Liu Z, Peng T, Fu Z. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: a survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2015;43:405-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the transcription of some genes related to neurotoxicity were also influenced by CPF exposure...
  12. Seibt K, Oliveira R, Rico E, Dias R, Bogo M, Bonan C. Typical and atypical antipsychotics alter acetylcholinesterase activity and ACHE expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:10-5 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we have evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of sulpiride, olanzapine, and haloperidol on acetylcholinesterase activity and ache expression pattern in zebrafish brain...
  13. Karami A, Groman D, Wilson S, Ismail P, Neela V. Biomarker responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae exposed to pristine low-density polyethylene fragments. Environ Pollut. 2017;223:466-475 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide evidence that virgin short-term exposure to LDPE fragments has minimal impact on biomarker responses in D. rerio larvae. ..
  14. Arslan Ergul A, Adams M. Gene expression changes in aging zebrafish (Danio rerio) brains are sexually dimorphic. BMC Neurosci. 2014;15:29 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies will be aimed at determining the causal relationships of age-related changes in gene expression in individual male and female brains, as well as possible interventions that counteract these alterations. ..
  15. Dal Forno G, Kist L, de Azevedo M, Fritsch R, Pereira T, Britto R, et al. Intraperitoneal exposure to nano/microparticles of fullerene (C??) increases acetylcholinesterase activity and lipid peroxidation in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:623789 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of nonphotoexcited fullerene C60 exposure in brain acetylcholinesterase expression and activity, antioxidant responses, and oxidative damage using adult zebrafish as an animal ..
  16. Küster E. Cholin- and carboxylesterase activities in developing zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) and their potential use for insecticide hazard assessment. Aquat Toxicol. 2005;75:76-85 pubmed
    ..results showed that the observed cholinesterase activities in the whole embryo may be attributed mainly to acetylcholinesterase with a partial capability to use propionylthiocholine as a second substrate...
  17. Rodriguez R, Haugen R, Rueber A, Huang C. Reversible neuronal and muscular toxicity of caffeine in developing vertebrates. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;163:47-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, caffeine increases the expression of genes involved in synaptic vesicle migration. In summary, our results provide molecular understanding of caffeine toxicity on developing vertebrate embryos. ..
  18. Zhen H, Wen M, Yang Y, Can Z, Hui G, Li X, et al. Toxic effects of HgCl2 on activities of SOD, AchE and relative expression of SOD, AChE, CYP1A1 of zebrafish. Ecotoxicology. 2014;23:1842-5 pubmed publisher
    ..of mercury on fish, zebrafish were exposed in various levels of HgCl2 and the superoxide dismutase (SOD), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured after 1 and 7 days exposure...
  19. Oliveira R, Seibt K, Rico E, Bogo M, Bonan C. Inhibitory effect of lithium on nucleotide hydrolysis and acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2011;33:651-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo effects of lithium on acetylcholinesterase and ectonucleotidase activities in zebrafish brain...
  20. Allebrandt K, Rajesh V, Layer P. Expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aryl acylamidase (AAA) during early zebrafish embryogenesis. Chem Biol Interact. 2005;157-158:353-5 pubmed
    In zebrafish, the onset of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) expression was detected by RT-PCR at 4 hpf (hours post-fertilization)...
  21. Capiotti K, De Moraes D, Menezes F, Kist L, Bogo M, da Silva R. Hyperglycemia induces memory impairment linked to increased acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Behav Brain Res. 2014;274:319-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the memory impairment induced by hyperglycemia is underlined by the cholinergic dysfunction caused by the mechanisms involving the control of acetylcholinesterase function and gene expression.
  22. Gentès S, Maury Brachet R, Feng C, Pedrero Z, Tessier E, Legeay A, et al. Specific Effects of Dietary Methylmercury and Inorganic Mercury in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Determined by Genetic, Histological, and Metallothionein Responses. Environ Sci Technol. 2015;49:14560-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In brain, high MeHg and iHg concentrations induced metallothionein production. Finally, the importance of the fish origin in ecotoxicological studies, here the seventh descent of a zebrafish line, is discussed. ..
  23. Csenki Z, Zaucker A, Kovacs B, Hadzhiev Y, Hegyi A, Lefler K, et al. Intraovarian transplantation of stage I-II follicles results in viable zebrafish embryos. Int J Dev Biol. 2010;54:585-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This early stage oocyte transplantation protocol provides a means to study cellular and molecular aspects of oocyte development in the zebrafish. ..
  24. Vuaden F, Savio L, Piato A, Pereira T, Vianna M, Bogo M, et al. Long-term methionine exposure induces memory impairment on inhibitory avoidance task and alters acetylcholinesterase activity and expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio). Neurochem Res. 2012;37:1545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..the present study we investigated the effects of short- and long-term methionine exposure on cognitive impairment, AChE activity and gene expression in zebrafish...
  25. Downes G, Granato M. Acetylcholinesterase function is dispensable for sensory neurite growth but is critical for neuromuscular synapse stability. Dev Biol. 2004;270:232-45 pubmed
    The enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates synaptic transmission at cholinergic synapses by hydrolyzing the neurotransmitter acetylcholine...
  26. Lopes F, Caldas S, Primel E, da Rosa C. Glyphosate Adversely Affects Danio rerio Males: Acetylcholinesterase Modulation and Oxidative Stress. Zebrafish. 2017;14:97-105 pubmed publisher
    ..peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as the activity and expression of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme, were evaluated in Danio rerio males exposed to 5 or 10?mg/L of glyphosate for 24 and 96?h...
  27. van der Ven K, Keil D, Moens L, Van Leemput K, van Remortel P, De Coen W. Neuropharmaceuticals in the environment: mianserin-induced neuroendocrine disruption in zebrafish (Danio rerio) using cDNA microarrays. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:2645-52 pubmed
    ..Based on the specific molecular impact and the effects on reproduction, we conclude that further investigation of the adverse effects on the brain-liver-gonad axis is needed for a correct ecological risk assessment of antidepressants. ..
  28. Rodríguez Fuentes G, Rubio Escalante F, Noreña Barroso E, Escalante Herrera K, Schlenk D. Impacts of oxidative stress on acetylcholinesterase transcription, and activity in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) following Chlorpyrifos exposure. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015;172-173:19-25 pubmed publisher
    Organophosphate pesticides cause irreversible inhibition of AChE which leads to neuronal overstimulation and death...
  29. Ninkovic J, Folchert A, Makhankov Y, Neuhauss S, Sillaber I, Straehle U, et al. Genetic identification of AChE as a positive modulator of addiction to the psychostimulant D-amphetamine in zebrafish. J Neurobiol. 2006;66:463-75 pubmed
    ..We further show that this behavior is dramatically reduced upon genetic impairment of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) function in ache/+ mutants, without involvement of concomitant defects in exploratory activity, ..
  30. Jeon H, Lee Y, Kim M, Choi S, Park B, Lee S. Integrated biomarkers induced by chlorpyrifos in two different life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) for environmental risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2016;43:166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and catalase (CAT) decreased, whereas that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) did not differ ..
  31. Roex E, Keijzers R, Van Gestel C. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and increased food consumption rate in the zebrafish, Danio rerio, after chronic exposure to parathion. Aquat Toxicol. 2003;64:451-60 pubmed
    b>Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition is widely regarded as a good biomarker of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides (OP)...
  32. Velki M, Meyer Alert H, Seiler T, Hollert H. Enzymatic activity and gene expression changes in zebrafish embryos and larvae exposed to pesticides diazinon and diuron. Aquat Toxicol. 2017;193:187-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Different exposure scenarios were employed and the following endpoints measured: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CES), ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), ..
  33. Dedeh A, Ciutat A, Tréguer Delapierre M, Bourdineaud J. Impact of gold nanoparticles on zebrafish exposed to a spiked sediment. Nanotoxicology. 2015;9:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Gold accumulation in fish tissues demonstrated the lower bioavailability of AuNP compared to ionic Au, and underlined the higher toxic potential of the nanoparticle form. ..