GP

Summary

Gene Symbol: GP
Description: spike glycoprotein
Alias: second secreted glycoprotein, small secreted glycoprotein
Species: Zaire Ebola virus
Products:     GP

Top Publications

  1. Panchal R, Ruthel G, Kenny T, Kallstrom G, Lane D, Badie S, et al. In vivo oligomerization and raft localization of Ebola virus protein VP40 during vesicular budding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:15936-41 pubmed
    ..We also report the successful application of the biarsenic fluorophore, FlAsH, combined with a tetracysteine tag for imaging of Ebola VP40 in live cells. ..
  2. Licata J, Johnson R, Han Z, Harty R. Contribution of ebola virus glycoprotein, nucleoprotein, and VP24 to budding of VP40 virus-like particles. J Virol. 2004;78:7344-51 pubmed
    ..utilized a functional budding assay and cotransfection experiments to examine the contributions of the glycoprotein (GP), nucleoprotein (NP), and VP24 of Ebola virus in facilitating release of VP40 VLPs...
  3. Maruyama T, Rodriguez L, Jahrling P, Sanchez A, Khan A, Nichol S, et al. Ebola virus can be effectively neutralized by antibody produced in natural human infection. J Virol. 1999;73:6024-30 pubmed
    ..Antibodies reactive with nucleoprotein (NP), envelope glycoprotein (GP), and secreted envelope glycoprotein (sGP) were characterized by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation ..
  4. Huang Y, Xu L, Sun Y, Nabel G. The assembly of Ebola virus nucleocapsid requires virion-associated proteins 35 and 24 and posttranslational modification of nucleoprotein. Mol Cell. 2002;10:307-16 pubmed
    ..This distinct mechanism of regulation for filovirus assembly suggests new approaches for viral therapies and vaccines for Ebola and related viruses. ..
  5. Bavari S, Bosio C, Wiegand E, Ruthel G, Will A, Geisbert T, et al. Lipid raft microdomains: a gateway for compartmentalized trafficking of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Exp Med. 2002;195:593-602 pubmed
  6. Wilson J, Hevey M, Bakken R, Guest S, Bray M, Schmaljohn A, et al. Epitopes involved in antibody-mediated protection from Ebola virus. Science. 2000;287:1664-6 pubmed
    ..The identification of protective mAbs has important implications for developing vaccines and therapies for Ebola virus. ..
  7. Elliott L, Kiley M, McCormick J. Descriptive analysis of Ebola virus proteins. Virology. 1985;147:169-76 pubmed
    ..Seven virion proteins were described; an L (180K), GP (125K), NP (104K), VP40 (40K), VP35 (35K), VP30 (30K), and VP24 (24K)...
  8. Alazard Dany N, Ottmann Terrangle M, Volchkov V. [Ebola and Marburg viruses: the humans strike back]. Med Sci (Paris). 2006;22:405-10 pubmed
    ..Chandran et al. have elucidated the mechanism by which Ebola GP is converted to a fusion-active form...
  9. Watanabe S, Noda T, Kawaoka Y. Functional mapping of the nucleoprotein of Ebola virus. J Virol. 2006;80:3743-51 pubmed
    ..These data advance our understanding of the functional region(s) of Ebola virus NP, which in turn should improve our knowledge of the Ebola virus life cycle and its extreme pathogenicity. ..

More Information

Publications85

  1. Baribaud F, Doms R, P hlmann S. The role of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR in HIV and Ebola virus infection: can potential therapeutics block virus transmission and dissemination?. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2002;6:423-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the interaction of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR with HIV and Ebola, discusses the mechanism of DC-SIGN-mediated viral transmission and examines how this process could be inhibited by potential therapeutics...
  2. Jasenosky L, Kawaoka Y. Filovirus budding. Virus Res. 2004;106:181-8 pubmed
    ..Possible budding functions of the viral glycoprotein (GP), as well as the membrane-associated viral protein 24 (VP24), will also be described, and a model for filovirus ..
  3. Takada A, Robison C, Goto H, Sanchez A, Murti K, Whitt M, et al. A system for functional analysis of Ebola virus glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:14764-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, our VSV system should be useful for investigating the functions of glycoproteins from highly pathogenic viruses or those incapable of being cultured in vitro...
  4. Ding G, Wang Z, Gao L, Jiang B. [Research progress on ebola virus glycoprotein]. Bing Du Xue Bao. 2013;29:233-7 pubmed
    ..The glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV is a transmembrane envelope protein known to play multiple functions including virus attachment and entry, ..
  5. Shimojima M, Takada A, Ebihara H, Neumann G, Fujioka K, Irimura T, et al. Tyro3 family-mediated cell entry of Ebola and Marburg viruses. J Virol. 2006;80:10109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibody to Axl inhibited infection of pseudotype viruses in a number of Axl-positive cell lines. These results implicate each Tyro3 family member as a cell entry factor in filovirus infection...
  6. Subbotina E, Kachko A, Chepurnov A. [The properties of Ebola virus proteins]. Vopr Virusol. 2006;51:4-10 pubmed
    ..It also presents information on the role of structural (NP, VP40, VP35, GP, VP30, VP24, and L) and secreted (sGP, delta-peptide, GP1, GP(1,2delta), ssGP) proteins in the viral replication ..
  7. Earp L, Delos S, Park H, White J. The many mechanisms of viral membrane fusion proteins. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2005;285:25-66 pubmed
    ..We also briefly discuss the therapeutic potential of fusion inhibitors in treating viral infections...
  8. Lee J, Fusco M, Hessell A, Oswald W, Burton D, Saphire E. Structure of the Ebola virus glycoprotein bound to an antibody from a human survivor. Nature. 2008;454:177-82 pubmed publisher
    Ebola virus (EBOV) entry requires the surface glycoprotein (GP) to initiate attachment and fusion of viral and host membranes...
  9. Swenson D, Warfield K, Kuehl K, Larsen T, Hevey M, Schmaljohn A, et al. Generation of Marburg virus-like particles by co-expression of glycoprotein and matrix protein. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2004;40:27-31 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, VLPs may be an excellent vaccine candidate against Marburg infection...
  10. Folks T. Ebola takes a punch. Nat Med. 1998;4:16-7 pubmed
  11. Lopez L, Yang S, Exline C, Rengarajan S, Haworth K, Cannon P. Anti-tetherin activities of HIV-1 Vpu and Ebola virus glycoprotein do not involve removal of tetherin from lipid rafts. J Virol. 2012;86:5467-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) is unusual in that it blocks tetherin restriction without apparently altering its cell surface localization...
  12. Mohan G, Ye L, Li W, Monteiro A, Lin X, Sapkota B, et al. Less is more: Ebola virus surface glycoprotein expression levels regulate virus production and infectivity. J Virol. 2015;89:1205-17 pubmed publisher
    ..at high levels disrupts normal cell physiology, and EBOV uses an RNA-editing mechanism to regulate expression of the GP gene...
  13. Ji X, Olinger G, Aris S, Chen Y, Gewurz H, Spear G. Mannose-binding lectin binds to Ebola and Marburg envelope glycoproteins, resulting in blocking of virus interaction with DC-SIGN and complement-mediated virus neutralization. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:2535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrated that MBL binds to filovirus envelope glycoproteins resulting in important biological effects and suggest that MBL can interact with filoviruses during infection in humans...
  14. Brindley M, Hunt C, Kondratowicz A, Bowman J, Sinn P, McCray P, et al. Tyrosine kinase receptor Axl enhances entry of Zaire ebolavirus without direct interactions with the viral glycoprotein. Virology. 2011;415:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Using one of these cell lines, we identified ZEBOV entry events that are Axl-dependent. Interactions between ZEBOV-GP and the Axl ectodomain were not detected in immunoprecipitations and reduction of surface-expressed Axl by RNAi did ..
  15. Groseth A, Str her U, Theriault S, Feldmann H. Molecular characterization of an isolate from the 1989/90 epizootic of Ebola virus Reston among macaques imported into the United States. Virus Res. 2002;87:155-63 pubmed
    ..The sequence determination provides the basis for the development of a reverse genetics system for Ebola virus Reston, which is needed to study differences in pathogenicity among filoviruses...
  16. Iampietro M, Younan P, Nishida A, Dutta M, Lubaki N, Santos R, et al. Ebola virus glycoprotein directly triggers T lymphocyte death despite of the lack of infection. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006397 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we investigated whether the addition of EBOV or its envelope glycoprotein (GP) to isolated primary human CD4+ T cells induced cell death...
  17. Neumann G, Feldmann H, Watanabe S, Lukashevich I, Kawaoka Y. Reverse genetics demonstrates that proteolytic processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is not essential for replication in cell culture. J Virol. 2002;76:406-10 pubmed
    ..virus from cloned cDNA to engineer a mutant Ebola virus with an altered furin recognition motif in the glycoprotein (GP). When expressed in cells, the GP of the wild type, but not of the mutant, virus was cleaved into GP1 and GP2...
  18. Martinez O, Ndungo E, Tantral L, Miller E, Leung L, Chandran K, et al. A mutation in the Ebola virus envelope glycoprotein restricts viral entry in a host species- and cell-type-specific manner. J Virol. 2013;87:3324-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A single viral glycoprotein (GP) mediates viral attachment and entry...
  19. Feldmann H, Volchkov V, Volchkova V, Klenk H. The glycoproteins of Marburg and Ebola virus and their potential roles in pathogenesis. Arch Virol Suppl. 1999;15:159-69 pubmed
    ..Unedited GP mRNA yields the nonstructural glycoprotein sGP, which is secreted extensively from infected cells...
  20. Falzarano D, Krokhin O, Van Domselaar G, Wolf K, Seebach J, Schnittler H, et al. Ebola sGP--the first viral glycoprotein shown to be C-mannosylated. Virology. 2007;368:83-90 pubmed
    ..In this regard, C-mannosylation of sGP may be an anomaly resulting from the unique manner in which this protein is generated as the product of unedited transcripts from the glycoprotein gene of Ebola. ..
  21. Ye L, Lin J, Sun Y, Bennouna S, Lo M, Wu Q, et al. Ebola virus-like particles produced in insect cells exhibit dendritic cell stimulating activity and induce neutralizing antibodies. Virology. 2006;351:260-70 pubmed publisher
    Recombinant baculoviruses (rBV) expressing Ebola virus VP40 (rBV-VP40) or GP (rBV-GP) proteins were generated...
  22. Volchkov V, Volchkova V, Muhlberger E, Kolesnikova L, Weik M, Dolnik O, et al. Recovery of infectious Ebola virus from complementary DNA: RNA editing of the GP gene and viral cytotoxicity. Science. 2001;291:1965-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We created a mutant in which the editing site of the gene encoding envelope glycoprotein (GP) was eliminated. This mutant no longer expressed the nonstructural glycoprotein sGP...
  23. B r S, Takada A, Kawaoka Y, Alizon M. Detection of cell-cell fusion mediated by Ebola virus glycoproteins. J Virol. 2006;80:2815-22 pubmed publisher
    ..viruses (EboV) are enveloped RNA viruses infecting cells by a pH-dependent process mediated by viral glycoproteins (GP) involving endocytosis of virions and their routing into acidic endosomes...
  24. Yang Z, Duckers H, Sullivan N, Sanchez A, Nabel E, Nabel G. Identification of the Ebola virus glycoprotein as the main viral determinant of vascular cell cytotoxicity and injury. Nat Med. 2000;6:886-9 pubmed
    Here we defined the main viral determinant of Ebola virus pathogenicity; synthesis of the virion glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus Zaire induced cytotoxic effects in human endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo...
  25. Weissenhorn W, Calder L, Wharton S, Skehel J, Wiley D. The central structural feature of the membrane fusion protein subunit from the Ebola virus glycoprotein is a long triple-stranded coiled coil. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:6032-6 pubmed
  26. Gregory S, Harada E, Liang B, Delos S, White J, Tamm L. Structure and function of the complete internal fusion loop from Ebolavirus glycoprotein 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The viral glycoprotein (GP) is solely responsible for virus-host membrane fusion, but how it does so remains elusive...
  27. Shahhosseini S, Das D, Qiu X, Feldmann H, Jones S, Suresh M. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against different epitopes of Ebola virus antigens. J Virol Methods. 2007;143:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, Ebola virus like particles (EVLPs) and the aglycosyl subfragment of glycoprotein (GP(1) subfragment D) were used to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against different epitopes of the viral ..
  28. McCarthy S, Licata J, Harty R. A luciferase-based budding assay for Ebola virus. J Virol Methods. 2006;137:115-9 pubmed
    ..Luciferase was found to be incorporated into budding VP40 VLPs. Furthermore, co-expression of EBOV glycoprotein (GP) enhances release of VLPs containing VP40 and luciferase...
  29. Volchkova V, Feldmann H, Klenk H, Volchkov V. The nonstructural small glycoprotein sGP of Ebola virus is secreted as an antiparallel-orientated homodimer. Virology. 1998;250:408-14 pubmed publisher
    The nonstructural small glycoprotein sGP, which unlike the transmembrane GP is synthesized from primary nonedited mRNA species, is secreted from infected cells as a disulfide-linked homodimer...
  30. Han Z, Licata J, Paragas J, Harty R. Permeabilization of the plasma membrane by Ebola virus GP2. Virus Genes. 2007;34:273-81 pubmed publisher
    The glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus (EBOV) is a multifunctional protein known to play a role in virus attachment and entry, cell rounding and cytotoxicity, down-regulation of host surface proteins, and enhancement of virus assembly and ..
  31. Martin J, Sullivan N, Enama M, Gordon I, Roederer M, Koup R, et al. A DNA vaccine for Ebola virus is safe and immunogenic in a phase I clinical trial. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2006;13:1267-77 pubmed publisher
    ..A three-plasmid DNA vaccine encoding the envelope glycoproteins (GP) from the Zaire and Sudan/Gulu species as well as the nucleoprotein was evaluated in a randomized, placebo-..
  32. Wang D, Raja N, Trubey C, Juompan L, Luo M, Woraratanadharm J, et al. Development of a cAdVax-based bivalent ebola virus vaccine that induces immune responses against both the Sudan and Zaire species of Ebola virus. J Virol. 2006;80:2738-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the bivalent cAdVaxE(GPs/z) vaccine, which includes the SEBOV glycoprotein (GP) and ZEBOV GP genes together in a single complex adenovirus-based vaccine (cAdVax) vector...
  33. Wahl Jensen V, Afanasieva T, Seebach J, Stroher U, Feldmann H, Schnittler H. Effects of Ebola virus glycoproteins on endothelial cell activation and barrier function. J Virol. 2005;79:10442-50 pubmed
    ..While the transmembrane glycoprotein GP(1,2) has been shown to cause endothelial cell destruction, the role of the soluble glycoproteins in pathogenesis is ..
  34. Malashkevich V, Schneider B, McNally M, Milhollen M, Pang J, Kim P. Core structure of the envelope glycoprotein GP2 from Ebola virus at 1.9-A resolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:2662-7 pubmed
    Ebola virions contain a surface transmembrane glycoprotein (GP) that is responsible for binding to target cells and subsequent fusion of the viral and host-cell membranes...
  35. Brindley M, Hughes L, Ruiz A, McCray P, Sanchez A, Sanders D, et al. Ebola virus glycoprotein 1: identification of residues important for binding and postbinding events. J Virol. 2007;81:7702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..K114A/K115A, K140A, G143A, P146A/C147A, F153A/H154A, F159A, F160A, and Y162A) competed poorly with wild-type GP for binding to permissive cells...
  36. Falzarano D, Krokhin O, Wahl Jensen V, Seebach J, Wolf K, Schnittler H, et al. Structure-function analysis of the soluble glycoprotein, sGP, of Ebola virus. Chembiochem. 2006;7:1605-11 pubmed publisher
    In addition to the transmembrane protein, GP(1,2), the Ebola virus glycoprotein gene encodes the soluble glycoproteins sGP and Delta-peptide...
  37. Feldmann H, Nichol S, Klenk H, Peters C, Sanchez A. Characterization of filoviruses based on differences in structure and antigenicity of the virion glycoprotein. Virology. 1994;199:469-73 pubmed publisher
    ..of filovirus hemorrhagic disease, were propagated for structural and antigenetic analyses of their glycoprotein (GP). Carbohydrate analysis revealed that N- and O-glycosylation are features of filovirus GPs...
  38. Grolla A, Lucht A, Dick D, Strong J, Feldmann H. Laboratory diagnosis of Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2005;98:205-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the role of field-based laboratory support and its limitations and capabilities in an outbreak response setting, especially in regards to real-time PCR and immunofiltration assays, is presented...
  39. Olal D, Kuehne A, Bale S, Halfmann P, Hashiguchi T, Fusco M, et al. Structure of an antibody in complex with its mucin domain linear epitope that is protective against Ebola virus. J Virol. 2012;86:2809-16 pubmed publisher
    ..and recognizes a distinct linear epitope in the prominent mucin-like domain of the Ebola virus glycoprotein GP. The structure of 14G7 in complex with its linear peptide epitope has now been determined to 2.8 Å...
  40. Marzi A, Akhavan A, Simmons G, Gramberg T, Hofmann H, Bates P, et al. The signal peptide of the ebolavirus glycoprotein influences interaction with the cellular lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR. J Virol. 2006;80:6305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR (collectively referred to as DC-SIGN/R) bind to the ebolavirus glycoprotein (EBOV-GP) and augment viral infectivity. DC-SIGN/R strongly enhance infection driven by the GP of EBOV subspecies...
  41. Gnirss K, K hl A, Karsten C, Glowacka I, Bertram S, Kaup F, et al. Cathepsins B and L activate Ebola but not Marburg virus glycoproteins for efficient entry into cell lines and macrophages independent of TMPRSS2 expression. Virology. 2012;424:3-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The host cell proteases cathepsin B and L activate the Zaire ebolavirus glycoprotein (GP) for cellular entry and constitute potential targets for antiviral intervention...
  42. Subbotina E, Chepurnov A. [Molecular mechanisms of Ebola virus reproduction]. Vopr Virusol. 2007;52:10-6 pubmed
  43. Wool Lewis R, Bates P. Endoproteolytic processing of the ebola virus envelope glycoprotein: cleavage is not required for function. J Virol. 1999;73:1419-26 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the envelope glycoprotein from the Zaire strain of Ebola virus (Ebo-GP) is proteolytically processed into two subunits, GP1 and GP2, that are likely covalently associated through a ..
  44. Takada A, Kawaoka Y. The pathogenesis of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Trends Microbiol. 2001;9:506-11 pubmed
  45. Ruedas J, Ladner J, Ettinger C, Gummuluru S, Palacios G, Connor J. Spontaneous Mutation at Amino Acid 544 of the Ebola Virus Glycoprotein Potentiates Virus Entry and Selection in Tissue Culture. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    Ebolaviruses have a surface glycoprotein (GP1,2) that is required for virus attachment and entry into cells. Mutations affecting GP1,2 functions can alter virus growth properties...
  46. Barrientos L, Martin A, Rollin P, Sanchez A. Disulfide bond assignment of the Ebola virus secreted glycoprotein SGP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;323:696-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings presented here provide the foundation for future studies aimed at defining the structural and functional properties of SGP...
  47. Francica J, Matukonis M, Bates P. Requirements for cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation by Ebola virus glycoprotein. Virology. 2009;383:237-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Cellular pathogenesis can be modeled in vitro by expression of the Ebola viral glycoprotein (GP) in cells, which causes dramatic morphological changes, including cell rounding and surface protein down-regulation...
  48. Das D, Jacobs F, Feldmann H, Jones S, Suresh M. Differential expression of the Ebola virus GP(1,2) protein and its fragments in E. coli. Protein Expr Purif. 2007;54:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The full length Ebola virus (EBOV) GP(1,2) gene and subfragments of the GP(1) gene were cloned in a bacterial expression vector as a C-terminal His(6) ..
  49. Kuhn J, Radoshitzky S, Guth A, Warfield K, Li W, Vincent M, et al. Conserved receptor-binding domains of Lake Victoria marburgvirus and Zaire ebolavirus bind a common receptor. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15951-8 pubmed publisher
    The GP(1,2) envelope glycoproteins (GP) of filoviruses (marburg- and ebolaviruses) mediate cell-surface attachment, membrane fusion, and entry into permissive cells...
  50. Yaddanapudi K, Palacios G, Towner J, Chen I, Sariol C, Nichol S, et al. Implication of a retrovirus-like glycoprotein peptide in the immunopathogenesis of Ebola and Marburg viruses. FASEB J. 2006;20:2519-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, only rhesus T cells were sensitive to REBOV peptides. These findings are consistent with the observation that REBOV is not pathogenic in humans and have implications for understanding the pathogenesis of filoviral HF...
  51. Bukreyev A, Volchkov V, Blinov V, Netesov S. The VP35 and VP40 proteins of filoviruses. Homology between Marburg and Ebola viruses. FEBS Lett. 1993;322:41-6 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that these sequences are mRNA extremities and at the same time the regulatory elements for mRNA transcription. Homology between the MBG and EBO proteins was discovered. ..
  52. Volchkov V, Feldmann H, Volchkova V, Klenk H. Processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein by the proprotein convertase furin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998;95:5762-7 pubmed
    In the present study, we have investigated processing and maturation of the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of Ebola virus...
  53. Lasala F, Arce E, Otero J, Rojo J, Delgado R. Mannosyl glycodendritic structure inhibits DC-SIGN-mediated Ebola virus infection in cis and in trans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:3970-2 pubmed
    ..BH30sucMan may counteract important steps of the infective process of EBOV and, potentially, of microorganisms shown to exploit DC-SIGN for cell entry and infection...
  54. Warfield K, Swenson D, Demmin G, Bavari S. Filovirus-like particles as vaccines and discovery tools. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005;4:429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to their use as a vaccine, VLPs are currently being used as tools to learn lessons about filovirus pathogenesis, immunology, replication and assembly requirements...
  55. Gregory S, Larsson P, Nelson E, Kasson P, White J, Tamm L. Ebolavirus entry requires a compact hydrophobic fist at the tip of the fusion loop. J Virol. 2014;88:6636-49 pubmed publisher
    ..We determined structures of the Ebolavirus fusion loop and found residues critical for forming a consolidated hydrophobic surface, membrane insertion, and viral entry. ..
  56. Freitas M, Gaspar L, Lorenzoni M, Almeida F, Tinoco L, Almeida M, et al. Structure of the Ebola fusion peptide in a membrane-mimetic environment and the interaction with lipid rafts. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:27306-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data shed light on the structural "domains" of fusion peptides and provide a clue for the development of a drug that might block the early steps of viral infection...
  57. Wong A, Sandesara R, Mulherkar N, Whelan S, Chandran K. A forward genetic strategy reveals destabilizing mutations in the Ebolavirus glycoprotein that alter its protease dependence during cell entry. J Virol. 2010;84:163-75 pubmed publisher
    Ebolavirus (EBOV) entry into cells requires proteolytic disassembly of the viral glycoprotein, GP. This proteolytic processing, unusually extensive for an enveloped virus entry protein, is mediated by cysteine cathepsins, a family of ..
  58. Takada A, Feldmann H, Ksiazek T, Kawaoka Y. Antibody-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection. J Virol. 2003;77:7539-44 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a novel mechanism of antibody-dependent enhancement of Ebola virus infection, one that would account for the dire outcome of Ebola outbreaks in human populations...
  59. Wahl Jensen V, Kurz S, Hazelton P, Schnittler H, Str her U, Burton D, et al. Role of Ebola virus secreted glycoproteins and virus-like particles in activation of human macrophages. J Virol. 2005;79:2413-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ebola virus efficiently produces four soluble glycoproteins during infection: sGP, delta peptide (Delta-peptide), GP(1), and GP(1,2Delta)...
  60. Hashiguchi T, Fusco M, Bornholdt Z, Lee J, Flyak A, Matsuoka R, et al. Structural basis for Marburg virus neutralization by a cross-reactive human antibody. Cell. 2015;160:904-912 pubmed publisher
    The filoviruses, including Marburg and Ebola, express a single glycoprotein on their surface, termed GP, which is responsible for attachment and entry of target cells...
  61. Simmons G, Reeves J, Grogan C, Vandenberghe L, Baribaud F, Whitbeck J, et al. DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR bind ebola glycoproteins and enhance infection of macrophages and endothelial cells. Virology. 2003;305:115-23 pubmed
  62. Chandran K, Sullivan N, Felbor U, Whelan S, Cunningham J. Endosomal proteolysis of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is necessary for infection. Science. 2005;308:1643-5 pubmed publisher
    ..infection of African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells by vesicular stomatitis viruses bearing the EboV glycoprotein (GP) requires the activity of endosomal cysteine proteases...
  63. Sanchez A, Yang Z, Xu L, Nabel G, Crews T, Peters C. Biochemical analysis of the secreted and virion glycoproteins of Ebola virus. J Virol. 1998;72:6442-7 pubmed
    ..The 50- to 70-kDa secreted and 150-kDa virion/structural glycoproteins (SGP and GP, respectively), which share the 295 N-terminal residues, are cleaved near the N terminus by signalase...
  64. Neumann G, Geisbert T, Ebihara H, Geisbert J, Daddario DiCaprio K, Feldmann H, et al. Proteolytic processing of the Ebola virus glycoprotein is not critical for Ebola virus replication in nonhuman primates. J Virol. 2007;81:2995-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that glycoprotein cleavage by subtilisin-like endoproteases is not critical for Ebola virus infectivity and virulence in nonhuman primates...
  65. Volchkov V, Becker S, Volchkova V, Ternovoj V, Kotov A, Netesov S, et al. GP mRNA of Ebola virus is edited by the Ebola virus polymerase and by T7 and vaccinia virus polymerases. Virology. 1995;214:421-30 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that the editing site in the Ebola virus glycoprotein gene is recognized not only by Ebola virus polymerase but also by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases of different origin...
  66. Rampini E, Occella C, Barretta M, Nemelka O, Somenzi M, Persi A, et al. [Josamycin in the treatment of impetigo in childhood: comparison with erythromycin]. G Ital Chemioter. 1982;29 Suppl 1:155-64 pubmed
  67. Xu L, Sanchez A, Yang Z, Zaki S, Nabel E, Nichol S, et al. Immunization for Ebola virus infection. Nat Med. 1998;4:37-42 pubmed
    ..immune responses to the viral nucleoprotein (NP) and the secreted or transmembrane forms of the glycoprotein (sGP or GP) and their ability to protect against infection in a guinea pig infection model analogous to the human disease...
  68. Takada A, Watanabe S, Ito H, Okazaki K, Kida H, Kawaoka Y. Downregulation of beta1 integrins by Ebola virus glycoprotein: implication for virus entry. Virology. 2000;278:20-6 pubmed
    Filoviruses, including Ebola virus, are cytotoxic. To investigate the role of the Ebola virus glycoprotein (GP) in this cytopathic effect, we transiently expressed the GP in human kidney 293T cells...
  69. Wang J, Manicassamy B, Caffrey M, Rong L. Characterization of the receptor-binding domain of Ebola glycoprotein in viral entry. Virol Sin. 2011;26:156-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral entry/infection is initiated by binding of glycoprotein GP protein on Ebola virion to host cells, followed by fusion of virus-cell membrane also mediated by GP...
  70. Manicassamy B, Wang J, Jiang H, Rong L. Comprehensive analysis of ebola virus GP1 in viral entry. J Virol. 2005;79:4793-805 pubmed publisher
    ..incorporation, suggesting that these residues are involved in the proper folding and/or overall conformation of GP. Sequence comparison of the GP1 proteins suggests that the majority of the critical residues for GP folding and ..
  71. Johnson R, Bell P, Harty R. Effect of Ebola virus proteins GP, NP and VP35 on VP40 VLP morphology. Virol J. 2006;3:31 pubmed publisher
    Recently we described a role for Ebola virus proteins, NP, GP, and VP35 in enhancement of VP40 VLP budding...
  72. Hoenen T, Volchkov V, Kolesnikova L, Mittler E, Timmins J, Ottmann M, et al. VP40 octamers are essential for Ebola virus replication. J Virol. 2005;79:1898-905 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, no recombinant virus expressing the VP40 Arg134-to-Ala mutation could be recovered. These results suggest that RNA binding of VP40 and therefore octamer formation are essential for the Ebola virus life cycle...
  73. Feldmann H, Kiley M. Classification, structure, and replication of filoviruses. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1999;235:1-21 pubmed
  74. Mehedi M, Falzarano D, Seebach J, Hu X, Carpenter M, Schnittler H, et al. A new Ebola virus nonstructural glycoprotein expressed through RNA editing. J Virol. 2011;85:5406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The EBOV glycoprotein (GP) gene encodes the nonstructural soluble glycoprotein (sGP) but also produces the transmembrane glycoprotein (GP?,?) ..
  75. Bukreyev A, Yang L, Zaki S, Shieh W, Rollin P, Murphy B, et al. A single intranasal inoculation with a paramyxovirus-vectored vaccine protects guinea pigs against a lethal-dose Ebola virus challenge. J Virol. 2006;80:2267-79 pubmed publisher
    ..recombinant human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) was modified to express either the EV structural glycoprotein (GP) by itself (HPIV3/EboGP) or together with the EV nucleoprotein (NP) (HPIV3/EboGP-NP)...
  76. Druar C, Saini S, Cossitt M, Yu F, Qiu X, Geisbert T, et al. Analysis of the expressed heavy chain variable-region genes of Macaca fascicularis and isolation of monoclonal antibodies specific for the Ebola virus' soluble glycoprotein. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:730-8 pubmed
    ..In summary, the study provides new insight into the M. fascicularis V region gene repertoire and further supports the idea that macaque-derived mAbs may be of therapeutic value to humans. ..