flavivirus polyprotein gene


Gene Symbol: flavivirus polyprotein gene
Description: flavivirus polyprotein
Alias: truncated flavivirus polyprotein NS1 prime, truncated flavivirus polyprotein WARF4
Species: West Nile virus
Products:     flavivirus polyprotein gene

Top Publications

  1. Bogachek M, Protopopova E, Ternovoi V, Kachko A, Ivanova A, Ivanisenko V, et al. [Immunochemical properties of short recombinant polypeptides of proteine of, the West Nile virus bearing epitopes of domains I and II]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2005;39:813-22 pubmed
    ..X-ray model of protein E let us suppose that bc-loop (73-89 aa) of domain II interacts with LBP and together with cd-loop (fusion peptide) determines an initial stages of penetration virions into cell. ..
  2. Roosendaal J, Westaway E, Khromykh A, Mackenzie J. Regulated cleavages at the West Nile virus NS4A-2K-NS4B junctions play a major role in rearranging cytoplasmic membranes and Golgi trafficking of the NS4A protein. J Virol. 2006;80:4623-32 pubmed publisher
  3. Nybakken G, Nelson C, Chen B, Diamond M, Fremont D. Crystal structure of the West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2006;80:11467-74 pubmed
    ..We speculate that E proteins could pivot around the fusion loop-pocket junction, allowing virion conformational transitions while minimizing fusion loop exposure. ..
  4. Morrey J, Siddharthan V, Olsen A, Roper G, Wang H, Baldwin T, et al. Humanized monoclonal antibody against West Nile virus envelope protein administered after neuronal infection protects against lethal encephalitis in hamsters. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:1300-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments suggest that humanized MAbs with potent neutralizing activity are a possible treatment for human patients after WNV has infected neurons in the central nervous system...
  5. Mueller N, Yon C, Ganesh V, Padmanabhan R. Characterization of the West Nile virus protease substrate specificity and inhibitors. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2007;39:606-14 pubmed publisher
  6. Westaway E, MacKenzie J, Kenney M, Jones M, Khromykh A. Ultrastructure of Kunjin virus-infected cells: colocalization of NS1 and NS3 with double-stranded RNA, and of NS2B with NS3, in virus-induced membrane structures. J Virol. 1997;71:6650-61 pubmed
    ..The collection of induced membranes may represent virus factories in which translation, RNA synthesis, and virus assembly occur. ..
  7. MacKenzie J, Westaway E. Assembly and maturation of the flavivirus Kunjin virus appear to occur in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and along the secretory pathway, respectively. J Virol. 2001;75:10787-99 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the assembly of virions occurs within the lumen of the RER and that subsequent maturation occurs via the secretory pathway...
  8. Westaway E, Khromykh A, Kenney M, MacKenzie J, Jones M. Proteins C and NS4B of the flavivirus Kunjin translocate independently into the nucleus. Virology. 1997;234:31-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Dual IF with antibodies to double-stranded RNA showed that cytoplasmic locations of C and NS4B were apparently associated in part with the sites of viral RNA synthesis which were resistant to solubilization by Triton X-100...
  9. Zhang B, Dong H, Zhou Y, Shi P. Genetic interactions among the West Nile virus methyltransferase, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and the 5' stem-loop of genomic RNA. J Virol. 2008;82:7047-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The RdRp W751R mutation improves viral replication through an enhanced polymerase activity. Our results have clearly established genetic interactions among flaviviral methyltransferase, RdRp, and the 5' stem-loop of the genomic RNA. ..

More Information


  1. Mukhopadhyay S, Kim B, Chipman P, Rossmann M, Kuhn R. Structure of West Nile virus. Science. 2003;302:248 pubmed
  2. Lanciotti R, Roehrig J, Deubel V, Smith J, Parker M, Steele K, et al. Origin of the West Nile virus responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the northeastern United States. Science. 1999;286:2333-7 pubmed
    ..This North American WN virus was most closely related to a WN virus isolated from a dead goose in Israel in 1998. ..
  3. Ray D, Shah A, Tilgner M, Guo Y, Zhao Y, Dong H, et al. West Nile virus 5'-cap structure is formed by sequential guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-O methylations by nonstructural protein 5. J Virol. 2006;80:8362-70 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate a critical role for the flavivirus MTase in viral reproduction and underscore this domain as a potential target for antiviral therapy. ..
  4. Khromykh A, Varnavski A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. Coupling between replication and packaging of flavivirus RNA: evidence derived from the use of DNA-based full-length cDNA clones of Kunjin virus. J Virol. 2001;75:4633-40 pubmed
    ..This mechanism may thus help alleviate the high-copy error rate of RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ..
  5. Hanna S, Pierson T, Sanchez M, Ahmed A, Murtadha M, Doms R. N-linked glycosylation of west nile virus envelope proteins influences particle assembly and infectivity. J Virol. 2005;79:13262-74 pubmed
    ..This suggests a multifaceted role for envelope N-linked glycosylation in WNV biology and tropism. ..
  6. Samuel M, Diamond M. Alpha/beta interferon protects against lethal West Nile virus infection by restricting cellular tropism and enhancing neuronal survival. J Virol. 2005;79:13350-61 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that IFN-alpha/beta controls WNV infection by restricting tropism and viral burden and by preventing death of infected neurons. ..
  7. Li J, Bhuvanakantham R, Howe J, Ng M. Identifying the region influencing the cis-mode of maturation of West Nile (Sarafend) virus using chimeric infectious clones. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;334:714-20 pubmed
    ..Transmission electron microscopy analyses performed in Vero cells infected with these chimeric viruses disclosed that the 5' end of the WN(S)V genome plays a major role in influencing the process of maturation at the plasma membrane. ..
  8. MacKenzie J, Khromykh A, Jones M, Westaway E. Subcellular localization and some biochemical properties of the flavivirus Kunjin nonstructural proteins NS2A and NS4A. Virology. 1998;245:203-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together the results indicate that the flavivirus replication complex includes NS2A and NS4A in the VP in addition to the previously identified NS1 and NS3...
  9. Brinton M. The molecular biology of West Nile Virus: a new invader of the western hemisphere. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2002;56:371-402 pubmed
    ..Aspects of virion structure, the viral replication cycle, viral protein function, genome structure, conserved viral elements, host factors, virus-host interactions, and vaccines are discussed in this review. ..
  10. Yang J, Kim J, Hwang D, Choo A, Dang K, Maguire H, et al. Induction of potent Th1-type immune responses from a novel DNA vaccine for West Nile virus New York isolate (WNV-NY1999). J Infect Dis. 2001;184:809-16 pubmed
    ..These results support the potential utility of this method as a tool for developing immunization strategies for WNV and other emerging pathogens. ..
  11. Setoh Y, Prow N, Hobson Peters J, Lobigs M, Young P, Khromykh A, et al. Identification of residues in West Nile virus pre-membrane protein that influence viral particle secretion and virulence. J Gen Virol. 2012;93:1965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the role of prM in viral particle secretion and virulence, and suggest the involvement of the L72S and I22V substitutions in modulating these activities. ..
  12. Lanciotti R, Ebel G, Deubel V, Kerst A, Murri S, Meyer R, et al. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of West Nile virus strains isolated from the United States, Europe, and the Middle East. Virology. 2002;298:96-105 pubmed
    ..Lineage 2 WN viruses have been isolated only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar. Lineage 1 viruses can be further subdivided into three monophyletic clades. ..
  13. Beasley D, Whiteman M, Zhang S, Huang C, Schneider B, Smith D, et al. Envelope protein glycosylation status influences mouse neuroinvasion phenotype of genetic lineage 1 West Nile virus strains. J Virol. 2005;79:8339-47 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the enhanced virulence of North American WNV strains compared with other Old World lineage 1 strains is at least partly mediated by envelope protein glycosylation. ..
  14. Beasley D, Li L, Suderman M, Barrett A. Mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of West Nile virus strains varies depending upon virus genotype. Virology. 2002;296:17-23 pubmed
    ..Virus isolated in North America was found to be highly neuroinvasive with a lack of age-related resistance to infection in mice normally associated with mosquito-borne flaviviruses. ..
  15. Khromykh A, Sedlak P, Westaway E. cis- and trans-acting elements in flavivirus RNA replication. J Virol. 2000;74:3253-63 pubmed
  16. Samuel M, Diamond M. Pathogenesis of West Nile Virus infection: a balance between virulence, innate and adaptive immunity, and viral evasion. J Virol. 2006;80:9349-60 pubmed
  17. Chung K, Nybakken G, Thompson B, Engle M, Marri A, Fremont D, et al. Antibodies against West Nile Virus nonstructural protein NS1 prevent lethal infection through Fc gamma receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Virol. 2006;80:1340-51 pubmed
    ..Overall, our data suggest that distinct regions of NS1 can elicit protective humoral immunity against WNV through different mechanisms. ..
  18. Tassaneetrithep B, Burgess T, Granelli Piperno A, Trumpfheller C, Finke J, Sun W, et al. DC-SIGN (CD209) mediates dengue virus infection of human dendritic cells. J Exp Med. 2003;197:823-9 pubmed
    ..Viruses produced by dendritic cells are infectious for DC-SIGN- and L-SIGN-bearing THP-1 cells and other permissive cell lines. Therefore, DC-SIGN may be considered as a new target for designing therapies that block dengue infection. ..
  19. Chung K, Liszewski M, Nybakken G, Davis A, Townsend R, Fremont D, et al. West Nile virus nonstructural protein NS1 inhibits complement activation by binding the regulatory protein factor H. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:19111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, extracellular NS1 may function to minimize immune system targeting of West Nile virus by decreasing complement recognition of infected cells...
  20. Oliphant T, Engle M, Nybakken G, Doane C, Johnson S, Huang L, et al. Development of a humanized monoclonal antibody with therapeutic potential against West Nile virus. Nat Med. 2005;11:522-30 pubmed
    ..In postexposure therapeutic trials in mice, a single dose of humanized E16 protected mice against WNV-induced mortality, and may therefore be a viable treatment option against WNV infection in humans. ..
  21. Chu J, Rajamanonmani R, Li J, Bhuvanakantham R, Lescar J, Ng M. Inhibition of West Nile virus entry by using a recombinant domain III from the envelope glycoprotein. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:405-12 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that similar attachment molecule(s) or receptor(s) were used by WNV and Den 2 virus for entry into C6/36 mosquito cells. ..
  22. Kanai R, Kar K, Anthony K, Gould L, Ledizet M, Fikrig E, et al. Crystal structure of west nile virus envelope glycoprotein reveals viral surface epitopes. J Virol. 2006;80:11000-8 pubmed
    ..By revealing the details of the molecular landscape of the West Nile virus surface, our structure will assist the design of antiviral vaccines and therapeutics. ..
  23. Kramer L, Li J, Shi P. West Nile virus. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6:171-81 pubmed
    ..The goal of this Review is to highlight recent advances in our understanding of West Nile virus virology, ecology, clinical disease, diagnosis, and development of potential vaccines and antiviral therapies. ..
  24. Avirutnan P, Hauhart R, Somnuke P, Blom A, Diamond M, Atkinson J. Binding of flavivirus nonstructural protein NS1 to C4b binding protein modulates complement activation. J Immunol. 2011;187:424-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies further define the immune evasion potential of NS1 in reducing the functional capacity of C4 in complement activation and control of flavivirus infection...
  25. Zhang S, Li L, Woodson S, Huang C, Kinney R, Barrett A, et al. A mutation in the envelope protein fusion loop attenuates mouse neuroinvasiveness of the NY99 strain of West Nile virus. Virology. 2006;353:35-40 pubmed
    ..MAb 3D9 was subsequently shown to be broadly cross-reactive with other flaviviruses, consistent with binding near the highly conserved fusion loop. ..
  26. Chu P, Westaway E. Replication strategy of Kunjin virus: evidence for recycling role of replicative form RNA as template in semiconservative and asymmetric replication. Virology. 1985;140:68-79 pubmed
  27. Shirato K, Miyoshi H, Goto A, Ako Y, Ueki T, Kariwa H, et al. Viral envelope protein glycosylation is a molecular determinant of the neuroinvasiveness of the New York strain of West Nile virus. J Gen Virol. 2004;85:3637-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that E protein glycosylation is a molecular determinant of neuroinvasiveness in the NY strains of WN virus...
  28. Liu W, Sedlak P, Kondratieva N, Khromykh A. Complementation analysis of the flavivirus Kunjin NS3 and NS5 proteins defines the minimal regions essential for formation of a replication complex and shows a requirement of NS3 in cis for virus assembly. J Virol. 2002;76:10766-75 pubmed
    ..The results define minimal regions in the NS3 and NS5 genes essential for the formation of complementable replication complex and show a requirement of NS3 in cis for virus assembly...
  29. Seidah N. Unexpected similarity between the cytosolic West Nile virus NS3 and the secretory furin-like serine proteinases. Biochem J. 2006;393:e1-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural modelling based on Dengue virus NS3 provided a possible rationale for the observed cleavage specificity of West Nile virus NS3...
  30. Selisko B, Dutartre H, Guillemot J, Debarnot C, Benarroch D, Khromykh A, et al. Comparative mechanistic studies of de novo RNA synthesis by flavivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Virology. 2006;351:145-58 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that they display a higher conformational flexibility upon the transition from initiation to elongation...
  31. Grun J, Brinton M. Separation of functional West Nile virus replication complexes from intracellular membrane fragments. J Gen Virol. 1988;69 ( Pt 12):3121-7 pubmed
    ..Of the five detergents (Tween 20, maltoside, octylglucoside, lubrol PX and sodium deoxycholate) tested, sodium deoxycholate was the most efficient at releasing functional viral replication complexes from intracellular membranes. ..
  32. Wengler G. The NS 3 nonstructural protein of flaviviruses contains an RNA triphosphatase activity. Virology. 1993;197:265-73 pubmed publisher
    ..An amino acid sequence element which may be involved in recognition of the 5'-terminal RNA triphosphate is tentatively identified. A homologous element may be present in the vaccinia virus-coded RNA triphosphatase...
  33. Boone J, Balasuriya U, Karaca K, Audonnet J, Yao J, He L, et al. Recombinant canarypox virus vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the VP2 and VP5 outer capsid proteins of bluetongue virus induces high level protection in sheep. Vaccine. 2007;25:672-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data confirm that the BTV-CP vaccine may be useful for the protective immunization of ruminants against bluetongue, and it may avoid the problems inherent to live-attenuated (LA) BTV vaccines...
  34. Nybakken G, Oliphant T, Johnson S, Burke S, Diamond M, Fremont D. Structural basis of West Nile virus neutralization by a therapeutic antibody. Nature. 2005;437:764-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that a vaccine strategy targeting the dominant DIII epitope may elicit safe and effective immune responses against flaviviral diseases...
  35. Shi P, Tilgner M, Lo M. Construction and characterization of subgenomic replicons of New York strain of West Nile virus. Virology. 2002;296:219-33 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that WNV replicons may serve as a noncytopathic RNA virus expression system and should provide a valuable tool to study WNV replication...
  36. Morrison C, Scholle F. Abrogation of TLR3 inhibition by discrete amino acid changes in the C-terminal half of the West Nile virus NS1 protein. Virology. 2014;456-457:96-107 pubmed publisher
    ..The residues we identified are completely conserved among several mosquito- and tick-borne flaviviruses, indicating that they are of biological importance to the virus. ..
  37. Scherbik S, Paranjape J, Stockman B, Silverman R, Brinton M. RNase L plays a role in the antiviral response to West Nile virus. J Virol. 2006;80:2987-99 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that RNase L activation is not a major component of the Oas1b-mediated flavivirus resistance phenotype...
  38. Ramanathan M, Chambers J, Pankhong P, Chattergoon M, Attatippaholkun W, Dang K, et al. Host cell killing by the West Nile Virus NS2B-NS3 proteolytic complex: NS3 alone is sufficient to recruit caspase-8-based apoptotic pathway. Virology. 2006;345:56-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of protease and helicase domains themselves was sufficient to trigger apoptosis generating insight into the apoptotic pathways triggered by NS3 from WNV...
  39. Hunsperger E, Roehrig J. Temporal analyses of the neuropathogenesis of a West Nile virus infection in mice. J Neurovirol. 2006;12:129-39 pubmed publisher
  40. Oliphant T, Nybakken G, Engle M, Xu Q, Nelson C, Sukupolvi Petty S, et al. Antibody recognition and neutralization determinants on domains I and II of West Nile Virus envelope protein. J Virol. 2006;80:12149-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, DI and DII MAbs protect against WNV infection in mice, albeit with lower efficiency than DIII-specific neutralizing MAbs...
  41. Wengler G, Nowak T, Castle E. Description of a procedure which allows isolation of viral nonstructural proteins from BHK vertebrate cells infected with the West Nile flavivirus in a state which allows their direct chemical characterization. Virology. 1990;177:795-801 pubmed
    ..Similar analysis of the proteins present in the differential wash shows that the proteins NS 5, NS 3, and NS 1 are major constituents of this material. The carboxy-terminal sequences of NS 5 and NS 1 have also been determined. ..
  42. Zou J, Xie X, Lee L, Chandrasekaran R, Reynaud A, Yap L, et al. Dimerization of flavivirus NS4B protein. J Virol. 2014;88:3379-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The requirement of NS4B in the context of the replication complex for successful trans-complementation enhances our understanding of NS4B in flavivirus replication. ..
  43. Adams S, Broom A, Sammels L, Hartnett A, Howard M, Coelen R, et al. Glycosylation and antigenic variation among Kunjin virus isolates. Virology. 1995;206:49-56 pubmed
    ..Further analysis revealed that passage history also had a significant influence on glycosylation...
  44. Benarroch D, Selisko B, Locatelli G, Maga G, Romette J, Canard B. The RNA helicase, nucleotide 5'-triphosphatase, and RNA 5'-triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus protein NS3 are Mg2+-dependent and require a functional Walker B motif in the helicase catalytic core. Virology. 2004;328:208-18 pubmed publisher
    ..DV RTPase seems to belong to a new class of Mg2+-dependent RTPases, which use the active center of the helicase/NTPase catalytic core in conjunction with elements in the C-terminal domain...
  45. Kajaste Rudnitski A, Mashimo T, Frenkiel M, Gu net J, Lucas M, Despr s P. The 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1b is a potent inhibitor of West Nile virus replication inside infected cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:4624-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Oas1b represents an antiviral pathway that exerts its inhibitory effect on WNV replication by preventing viral RNA accumulation inside infected cells...
  46. Gu B, Ouzunov S, Wang L, Mason P, Bourne N, Cuconati A, et al. Discovery of small molecule inhibitors of West Nile virus using a high-throughput sub-genomic replicon screen. Antiviral Res. 2006;70:39-50 pubmed
    ..These compounds should be valuable for developing anti-WNV therapeutic drugs as well as research tools to study the mechanism of WNV replication...
  47. Benzaghou I, Bougie I, Picard Jean F, Bisaillon M. Energetics of RNA binding by the West Nile virus RNA triphosphatase. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:867-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that the protein undergoes structural modifications upon RNA binding, although the interaction does not significantly modify the stability of the protein...
  48. Ramanathan M, Chambers J, Taylor J, Korber B, Lee M, Nalca A, et al. Expression and evolutionary analysis of West Nile virus (Merion strain). J Neurovirol. 2005;11:544-56 pubmed
    ..Evolutionary analysis of Merion strain sequences indicates that this strain is distinct phylogenetically from the previously reported WNV strains. ..
  49. LAI C, Monath T. Chimeric flaviviruses: novel vaccines against dengue fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis. Adv Virus Res. 2003;61:469-509 pubmed
    ..The chimeric flavivirus strategy has led to the rapid development of novel live-attenuated vaccines against dengue, TBE, JE, and West Nile viruses...
  50. Oh W, Yang M, Lee E, Park K, Pyo S, Yang J, et al. Jab1 mediates cytoplasmic localization and degradation of West Nile virus capsid protein. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:30166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Jab1 has a potential protective effect against pathogenic WNVCp and might provide a novel target site for the treatment of disease caused by WNV...
  51. Yamshchikov G, Borisevich V, Seregin A, Chaporgina E, Mishina M, Mishin V, et al. An attenuated West Nile prototype virus is highly immunogenic and protects against the deadly NY99 strain: a candidate for live WN vaccine development. Virology. 2004;330:304-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The attenuated nature of the isolate and its excellent growth characteristics combined with the availability of a highly stable infectious clone make the isolate an attractive candidate for live WN vaccine development...
  52. Liu W, Chen H, Khromykh A. Molecular and functional analyses of Kunjin virus infectious cDNA clones demonstrate the essential roles for NS2A in virus assembly and for a nonconservative residue in NS3 in RNA replication. J Virol. 2003;77:7804-13 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrated essential roles for the KUN nonstructural protein NS2A in virus assembly and for NS3 in RNA replication and identified specific single-amino-acid residues involved in these functions...
  53. Oh W, Song J. Hsp70 functions as a negative regulator of West Nile virus capsid protein through direct interaction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:994-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest a possible negative regulatory role of Hps70 in the pathway of WNV infection...
  54. Balasuriya U, Shi P, Wong S, Demarest V, Gardner I, Hullinger P, et al. Detection of antibodies to West Nile virus in equine sera using microsphere immunoassay. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:392-5 pubmed publisher
    ..0001) or naturally infected with WNV (P < 0.0001). The rE MIA would appear to provide a rapid, convenient, inexpensive, and accurate test for the screening of equine sera for the presence of antibodies to WNV...
  55. Wengler G. Cell-associated West Nile flavivirus is covered with E+pre-M protein heterodimers which are destroyed and reorganized by proteolytic cleavage during virus release. J Virol. 1989;63:2521-6 pubmed
    ..Preparations of cell-associated virus contained approximately 40,000 physical particles for each PFU...
  56. Vinayagamoorthy T, Mulatz K, Drebot M, Hodkinson R. Molecular typing of West Nile Virus, Dengue, and St. Louis encephalitis using multiplex sequencing. J Mol Diagn. 2005;7:152-9 pubmed
  57. Huang C, Silengo S, Whiteman M, Kinney R. Chimeric dengue 2 PDK-53/West Nile NY99 viruses retain the phenotypic attenuation markers of the candidate PDK-53 vaccine virus and protect mice against lethal challenge with West Nile virus. J Virol. 2005;79:7300-10 pubmed publisher
  58. Faggioni G, Pomponi A, De Santis R, Masuelli L, Ciammaruconi A, Monaco F, et al. West Nile alternative open reading frame (N-NS4B/WARF4) is produced in infected West Nile Virus (WNV) cells and induces humoral response in WNV infected individuals. Virol J. 2012;9:283 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the virus might actually make an extensive use of ARFs, it appears important to investigate the novel six ARF putative proteins of WNV. ..
  59. Shiryaev S, Ratnikov B, Chekanov A, Sikora S, Rozanov D, Godzik A, et al. Cleavage targets and the D-arginine-based inhibitors of the West Nile virus NS3 processing proteinase. Biochem J. 2006;393:503-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our findings represent a foundation for in-depth mechanistic and structural studies as well as for the design of novel and efficient inhibitors of WNV NS3...
  60. Yon C, Teramoto T, Mueller N, Phelan J, Ganesh V, Murthy K, et al. Modulation of the nucleoside triphosphatase/RNA helicase and 5'-RNA triphosphatase activities of Dengue virus type 2 nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) by interaction with NS5, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:27412-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the conserved motif, 184RKRK, of NS3 played a crucial role in binding to RNA substrate and modulating the NTPase/RNA helicase and RTPase activities of NS3...
  61. Shi P, Li W, Brinton M. Cell proteins bind specifically to West Nile virus minus-strand 3' stem-loop RNA. J Virol. 1996;70:6278-87 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the increased binding activity of one of the resistant cell proteins for the flavivirus minus-strand RNA could result in a reduced synthesis of plus-strand RNA as observed with the flavivirus resistance phenotype...
  62. Roby J, Hall R, Khromykh A. West Nile virus genome with glycosylated envelope protein and deletion of alpha helices 1, 2, and 4 in the capsid protein is noninfectious and efficiently secretes subviral particles. J Virol. 2013;87:13063-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Volk D, Beasley D, Kallick D, Holbrook M, Barrett A, Gorenstein D. Solution structure and antibody binding studies of the envelope protein domain III from the New York strain of West Nile virus. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38755-61 pubmed publisher
  64. Liu W, Chen H, Wang X, Huang H, Khromykh A. Analysis of adaptive mutations in Kunjin virus replicon RNA reveals a novel role for the flavivirus nonstructural protein NS2A in inhibition of beta interferon promoter-driven transcription. J Virol. 2004;78:12225-35 pubmed publisher
  65. Lobigs M, Lee E. Inefficient signalase cleavage promotes efficient nucleocapsid incorporation into budding flavivirus membranes. J Virol. 2004;78:178-86 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model for flavivirus morphogenesis involving temporal and spatial coordination of NC assembly and envelopment by regulated cleavages of an ER membrane-spanning capsid-prM intermediate...
  66. Skehel J, Wiley D. Coiled coils in both intracellular vesicle and viral membrane fusion. Cell. 1998;95:871-4 pubmed
  67. Dong H, Ren S, Zhang B, Zhou Y, Puig Basagoiti F, Li H, et al. West Nile virus methyltransferase catalyzes two methylations of the viral RNA cap through a substrate-repositioning mechanism. J Virol. 2008;82:4295-307 pubmed publisher
    ..Because N7 cap methylation is essential for viral replication, inhibitors designed to block the pocket identified for the N7 cap methylation could be developed for flavivirus therapy...
  68. Shiryaev S, Chernov A, Aleshin A, Shiryaeva T, Strongin A. NS4A regulates the ATPase activity of the NS3 helicase: a novel cofactor role of the non-structural protein NS4A from West Nile virus. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:2081-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that, similar to HCV NS4A, NS4A of WNV acts as a cofactor for NS3hel and allows helicase to sustain the unwinding rate of the viral RNA under conditions of ATP deficiency...
  69. Brinkworth R, Fairlie D, Leung D, Young P. Homology model of the dengue 2 virus NS3 protease: putative interactions with both substrate and NS2B cofactor. J Gen Virol. 1999;80 ( Pt 5):1167-77 pubmed publisher
  70. Sejvar J, Haddad M, Tierney B, Campbell G, Marfin A, Van Gerpen J, et al. Neurologic manifestations and outcome of West Nile virus infection. JAMA. 2003;290:511-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Some patients with WNV infection and meningitis or encephalitis ultimately may have good long-term outcome, although an irreversible poliomyelitis-like syndrome may result...
  71. Yang J, Ramanathan M, Muthumani K, Choo A, Jin S, Yu Q, et al. Induction of inflammation by West Nile virus capsid through the caspase-9 apoptotic pathway. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002;8:1379-84 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that the capsid protein of WNV may be responsible for aspects of viral pathogenesis through induction of the apoptotic cascade...
  72. Davis C, Nguyen H, Hanna S, S nchez M, Doms R, Pierson T. West Nile virus discriminates between DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR for cellular attachment and infection. J Virol. 2006;80:1290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe this is the first report of a pathogen interacting more efficiently with DC-SIGNR than with DC-SIGN. Our results should lead to the discovery of new mechanisms by which these well-studied lectins discriminate among ligands...
  73. Davis L, DeBiasi R, Goade D, Haaland K, Harrington J, Harnar J, et al. West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease. Ann Neurol. 2006;60:286-300 pubmed publisher
    ..Recovery from neurological sequelae of WNV infection including cognitive deficits and weakness may be prolonged and incomplete...
  74. Bhuvanakantham R, Ng M. Analysis of self-association of West Nile virus capsid protein and the crucial role played by Trp 69 in homodimerization. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;329:246-55 pubmed
    ..The results of this study pinpoint a critical residue in the C protein that potentially plays a role in stabilizing the homotypic interaction. ..