Gene Symbol: N1L
Description: temporal expression: early/late
Species: Vaccinia virus
Aoyagi M, Zhai D, Jin C, Aleshin A, Stec B, Reed J, et al
. Vaccinia virus N1L protein resembles a B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family protein. Protein Sci. 2007;16:118-24 pubmed
..The poxvirus vaccinia expresses a small 14-kDa protein, N1L, that is critical for virulence...
Cooray S, Bahar M, Abrescia N, McVey C, Bartlett N, Chen R, et al
. Functional and structural studies of the vaccinia virus virulence factor N1 reveal a Bcl-2-like anti-apoptotic protein. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1656-66 pubmed
..However, analysis of NF-kappaB signalling in cells infected with recombinant viruses with or without the N1L gene showed no difference in NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression...
Postigo A, Way M. The vaccinia virus-encoded Bcl-2 homologues do not act as direct Bax inhibitors. J Virol. 2012;86:203-13 pubmed publisher
..We found that Western Reserve (WR) and ?N1L viruses inhibited drug- and infection-induced apoptosis equally...
Maluquer de Motes C, Cooray S, Ren H, Almeida G, McGourty K, Bahar M, et al
. Inhibition of apoptosis and NF-ÎºB activation by vaccinia protein N1 occur via distinct binding surfaces and make different contributions to virulence. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002430 pubmed publisher
..This indicates that anti-apoptotic activity of N1 does not drive virulence in these in vivo models, and highlights the importance of pro-inflammatory signalling in the immune response against viral infections. ..
Abrahams M, Zhang Z, Chien S, Skerns T, Kotwal G. The vaccinia virus N1L ORF may encode a multifunctional protein possibly targeting different kinases, one of which influences ATP levels in vivo. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1056:87-99 pubmed publisher
..8-kDa protein and sequence and structural homologs thereof provided evidence of putative dimerization and adenine binding sites and a possible kinase-related function for this protein...
Maluquer de Motes C, Schiffner T, Sumner R, Smith G. Vaccinia virus virulence factor N1 can be ubiquitylated on multiple lysine residues. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:2038-49 pubmed publisher
Qin L, Favis N, Famulski J, Evans D. Evolution of and evolutionary relationships between extant vaccinia virus strains. J Virol. 2015;89:1809-24 pubmed publisher
..Based on these findings, it is possible that all existing strains of VACV are derived from a single complex stock of viruses that has been passaged, distributed, and sampled over time. ..
Ren H, Ferguson B, Maluquer de Motes C, Sumner R, Harman L, Smith G. Enhancement of CD8(+) T-cell memory by removal of a vaccinia virus nuclear factor-ÎºB inhibitor. Immunology. 2015;145:34-49 pubmed publisher
..Infection with VACVs that either have the N1L gene deleted (vÎ”N1) or contain a I6E mutation (vN1...