Gene Symbol: B15R
Description: hypothetical protein
Species: Vaccinia virus
Products:     B15R

Top Publications

  1. Lin S, Chen W, Broyles S. The vaccinia virus B1R gene product is a serine/threonine protein kinase. J Virol. 1992;66:2717-23 pubmed
  2. Engelstad M, Howard S, Smith G. A constitutively expressed vaccinia gene encodes a 42-kDa glycoprotein related to complement control factors that forms part of the extracellular virus envelope. Virology. 1992;188:801-10 pubmed
    ..B5R is the third vaccinia gene shown to encode an EEV glycoprotein, the others being the virus hemagglutinin gene, and gene SalL4R which encodes a group of lectin-like glycoproteins of M(r) 22-24 K...
  3. Morikawa S, Ueda Y. Characterization of vaccinia surface antigen expressed by recombinant baculovirus. Virology. 1993;193:753-61 pubmed
    ..Interleukin (IL)-1 alpha failed to bind to the S antigen expressed on insect and mammalian cells, although the homology between IL-1 receptor and the S antigen has been reported by computer analysis of amino acid sequence. ..
  4. Isaacs S, Wolffe E, Payne L, Moss B. Characterization of a vaccinia virus-encoded 42-kilodalton class I membrane glycoprotein component of the extracellular virus envelope. J Virol. 1992;66:7217-24 pubmed
    ..Immunogold labeling of EEV and INV with MAb 20 demonstrated that the protein was found exclusively on the EEV membrane...
  5. Ueda Y, Morikawa S, Matsuura Y. Identification and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding a surface antigen induced by vaccinia virus. Virology. 1990;177:588-94 pubmed
    ..An early polypeptide with a MW of 40 kDa, in agreement with the size predicted from the ORF, was synthesized by cell-free translation of the mRNA selected by hybridization to a plasmid containing the region of the ORF...
  6. Takahashi Nishimaki F, Funahashi S, Miki K, Hashizume S, Sugimoto M. Regulation of plaque size and host range by a vaccinia virus gene related to complement system proteins. Virology. 1991;181:158-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, the present genetic analysis provided direct evidence for a previously unrecognized function of RCA-related proteins encoded by the virus...
  7. Wolffe E, Isaacs S, Moss B. Deletion of the vaccinia virus B5R gene encoding a 42-kilodalton membrane glycoprotein inhibits extracellular virus envelope formation and dissemination. J Virol. 1993;67:4732-41 pubmed
  8. Zhou J, Crawford L, McLean L, Sun X, Stanley M, Almond N, et al. Increased antibody responses to human papillomavirus type 16 L1 protein expressed by recombinant vaccinia virus lacking serine protease inhibitor genes. J Gen Virol. 1990;71 ( Pt 9):2185-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of functional B13R and B24R gene products is therefore somehow immunosuppressive at least for antibody responses to the L1 protein of HPV-16...
  9. Hughes S, Johnston L, De Carlos A, Smith G. Vaccinia virus encodes an active thymidylate kinase that complements a cdc8 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:20103-9 pubmed
    ..Plasmid vectors that allow the construction of recombinant viruses expressing foreign gene(s) from the nonessential TmpK locus are described. ..

More Information


  1. Smith G, Chan Y. Two vaccinia virus proteins structurally related to the interleukin-1 receptor and the immunoglobulin superfamily. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 3):511-8 pubmed publisher
    The structures of two vaccinia virus genes (B15R and B18R) from near the right inverted terminal repeat are described. These genes encode proteins of 36.5K and 40...
  2. Shida H. Nucleotide sequence of the vaccinia virus hemagglutinin gene. Virology. 1986;150:451-62 pubmed
    ..These results in conjunction with the ease of isolating HA- mutants provide a basis for a new site suitable for inserting foreign genes...
  3. Alcam A, Smith G. Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity. J Virol. 1995;69:4633-9 pubmed
    ..Last, the conservation of an IFN-gamma R in orthopoxviruses emphasizes the importance of IFN-gamma in defense against poxvirus infections...
  4. Rempel R, Traktman P. Vaccinia virus B1 kinase: phenotypic analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants and enzymatic characterization of recombinant proteins. J Virol. 1992;66:4413-26 pubmed
    ..No null mutants were isolated. These results indicate that the B1 protein kinase provides a vital function which cannot be supplied by the host or circumvented by incubation at 32 degrees C...
  5. Payne L. Identification of the vaccinia hemagglutinin polypeptide from a cell system yielding large amounts of extracellular enveloped virus. J Virol. 1979;31:147-55 pubmed
    ..The only glycoprotein that specifically attached to rooster erythrocytes was the 89K glycoprotein. This evidence indicates that the 89K glycoprotein is the vaccinia hemagglutinin. ..
  6. Duncan S, Smith G. Identification and characterization of an extracellular envelope glycoprotein affecting vaccinia virus egress. J Virol. 1992;66:1610-21 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy showed that without SalL4R expression, the inability of the virus to spread is due to a lack of envelopment of INV virions by Golgi-derived membrane, a morphogenic event required for virus egress...
  7. Smith G, De Carlos A, Chan Y. Vaccinia virus encodes a thymidylate kinase gene: sequence and transcriptional mapping. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:7581-90 pubmed
    ..Vaccinia virus possesses genes for TK and TmpK, separated by 57 kilobases of DNA, which are co-ordinately expressed and the encoded enzymes perform sequential steps in the same biochemical pathway...
  8. Kerr S, Smith G. Vaccinia virus DNA ligase is nonessential for virus replication: recovery of plasmids from virus-infected cells. Virology. 1991;180:625-32 pubmed
    ..Such plasmids were not isolated when TK minus viruses were selected in 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR). ..
  9. Ueda Y, Ito M, Tagaya I. A specific surface antigen induced by poxvirus. Virology. 1969;38:180-2 pubmed
  10. Kerr S, Smith G. Vaccinia virus encodes a polypeptide with DNA ligase activity. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:9039-50 pubmed
    ..This antiserum also immune-precipitates the novel DNA ligase-AMP adduct, thus proving that the observed DNA ligase is encoded by SalF 15R...
  11. Parkinson J, Smith G. Vaccinia virus gene A36R encodes a M(r) 43-50 K protein on the surface of extracellular enveloped virus. Virology. 1994;204:376-90 pubmed
  12. Traktman P, Anderson M, Rempel R. Vaccinia virus encodes an essential gene with strong homology to protein kinases. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:21458-61 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the deduced protein sequence reveals strong homology with catalytic domains of numerous protein kinases. The lesion in one of the mutants alters an invariant glycine residue within one such domain...
  13. Howard S, Chan Y, Smith G. Vaccinia virus homologues of the Shope fibroma virus inverted terminal repeat proteins and a discontinuous ORF related to the tumor necrosis factor receptor family. Virology. 1991;180:633-47 pubmed
    ..In addition, several of the VV ORFs have homology to ORFs from near the opposite end of the VV genome, thus increasing the number of known VV gene families...
  14. Kettle S, Blake N, Law K, Smith G. Vaccinia virus serpins B13R (SPI-2) and B22R (SPI-1) encode M(r) 38.5 and 40K, intracellular polypeptides that do not affect virus virulence in a murine intranasal model. Virology. 1995;206:136-47 pubmed
    ..Additionally the virulence of each deletion mutant was indistinguishable from wild-type and revertant viruses in a murine intranasal model. ..
  15. Banham A, Smith G. Characterization of vaccinia virus gene B12R. J Gen Virol. 1993;74 ( Pt 12):2807-12 pubmed
  16. Colinas R, Goebel S, Davis S, Johnson G, Norton E, Paoletti E. A DNA ligase gene in the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus is nonessential for viral replication and recombination. Virology. 1990;179:267-75 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the vaccinia orf A50R encodes a functional DNA ligase expressed early in infection, but this DNA ligase is nonessential for either recombination or viral replication. ..
  17. Howard S, Smith G. Two early vaccinia virus genes encode polypeptides related to protein kinases. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 12):3187-201 pubmed
    ..It is possible that the product of either or both of these genes associates to form a homo- or heterodimer that represents the 62K virion-associated protein kinase. ..
  18. Alcami A, Smith G. A soluble receptor for interleukin-1 beta encoded by vaccinia virus: a novel mechanism of virus modulation of the host response to infection. Cell. 1992;71:153-67 pubmed
    Vaccinia virus gene B15R is shown to encode an abundant, secretory glycoprotein that functions as a soluble interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor...
  19. Smith G, Chan Y, Kerr S. Transcriptional mapping and nucleotide sequence of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a polypeptide with extensive homology to DNA ligases. Nucleic Acids Res. 1989;17:9051-62 pubmed
    ..The possible roles of a DNA ligase in vaccinia virus DNA replication and recombination are discussed...
  20. Moore J, Smith G. Steroid hormone synthesis by a vaccinia enzyme: a new type of virus virulence factor. EMBO J. 1992;11:1973-80 pubmed
    ..This steroid hormone synthesizing enzyme is a novel type of virus virulence factor...
  21. Blasco R, Sisler J, Moss B. Dissociation of progeny vaccinia virus from the cell membrane is regulated by a viral envelope glycoprotein: effect of a point mutation in the lectin homology domain of the A34R gene. J Virol. 1993;67:3319-25 pubmed
  22. Smith G, Howard S, Chan Y. Vaccinia virus encodes a family of genes with homology to serine proteinase inhibitors. J Gen Virol. 1989;70 ( Pt 9):2333-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The amino acid sequences at the active sites of these serpins suggest that they may inhibit serine proteinases of differing biochemical specificities. The possible functions of these genes are discussed...
  23. Blasco R, Cole N, Moss B. Sequence analysis, expression, and deletion of a vaccinia virus gene encoding a homolog of profilin, a eukaryotic actin-binding protein. J Virol. 1991;65:4598-608 pubmed
  24. Duncan S, Smith G. Vaccinia virus gene SalF5R is non-essential for virus replication in vitro and in vivo. J Gen Virol. 1992;73 ( Pt 5):1235-42 pubmed
    ..In intranasally infected mice the virus lacking SalF5R was not attenuated in comparison to wild-type virus. The SalF5R site may be useful for insertion of foreign DNA into recombinant vaccinia viruses. ..
  25. Kotwal G, Moss B. Vaccinia virus encodes two proteins that are structurally related to members of the plasma serine protease inhibitor superfamily. J Virol. 1989;63:600-6 pubmed
    ..Evidence for a cowpox virus homolog of SPI-1 was obtained by DNA hybridization. Thus, the presence of two genes that belong to the plasma serine protease inhibitor superfamily may be characteristic of orthopoxviruses. ..
  26. Engelstad M, Smith G. The vaccinia virus 42-kDa envelope protein is required for the envelopment and egress of extracellular virus and for virus virulence. Virology. 1993;194:627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, an ORF with 93.4% amino acid identity to vaccinia WR B5R is present in variola major virus strain Harvey and the B5R protein was shown by Western blotting to be expressed by all orthopoxviruses tested...
  27. Symons J, Alcami A, Smith G. Vaccinia virus encodes a soluble type I interferon receptor of novel structure and broad species specificity. Cell. 1995;81:551-60 pubmed
    ..A VV B18R deletion mutant is attenuated in a murine intranasal model. This type I IFN receptor represents the fourth VV protein that interferes with IFN and the fourth soluble cytokine receptor expressed by poxviruses. ..
  28. Spriggs M, Hruby D, Maliszewski C, Pickup D, Sims J, Buller R, et al. Vaccinia and cowpox viruses encode a novel secreted interleukin-1-binding protein. Cell. 1992;71:145-52 pubmed
    ..The possible role of a virus-encoded IL-1-binding protein in the pathology of a poxvirus infection and its relationship to other poxvirus-encoded immune modulators is discussed...
  29. Smith G, Chan Y, Howard S. Nucleotide sequence of 42 kbp of vaccinia virus strain WR from near the right inverted terminal repeat. J Gen Virol. 1991;72 ( Pt 6):1349-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Near the right terminus the sequences diverge completely, and internal of this there are multiple examples of deletion of short sequences (eight to 10 nucleotides) that lie within penta- or hexanucleotide direct repeats...
  30. Banham A, Smith G. Vaccinia virus gene B1R encodes a 34-kDa serine/threonine protein kinase that localizes in cytoplasmic factories and is packaged into virions. Virology. 1992;191:803-12 pubmed
    ..Immunofluorescence demonstrated that this protein localizes in cytoplasmic virus factories, the sites of virus DNA replication. Immunoblotting of vaccinia virions showed that the enzyme is packaged into virus particles...
  31. Di Pilato M, Mejías Pérez E, Sorzano C, Esteban M. Distinct Roles of Vaccinia Virus NF-κB Inhibitor Proteins A52, B15, and K7 in the Immune Response. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..After infection of mice, ablation of the A52R, B15R, and K7R genes increased dendritic cell, natural killer cell, and neutrophil migration as well as ..
  32. Goebel S, Johnson G, Perkus M, Davis S, Winslow J, Paoletti E. The complete DNA sequence of vaccinia virus. Virology. 1990;179:247-66, 517-63 pubmed
    ..Whereas several similarities to proteins of known function were discerned, the function of the majority of proteins encoded by these open reading frames is as yet undetermined...
  33. Kerr S, Johnston L, Odell M, Duncan S, Law K, Smith G. Vaccinia DNA ligase complements Saccharomyces cerevisiae cdc9, localizes in cytoplasmic factories and affects virulence and virus sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. EMBO J. 1991;10:4343-50 pubmed