Gene Symbol: VTC2
Description: GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase 1
Alias: F10M23.190, F10M23_190, vitamin c defective 2, GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase 1
Species: thale cress
Products:     VTC2

Top Publications

  1. Sasaki Sekimoto Y, Taki N, Obayashi T, Aono M, Matsumoto F, Sakurai N, et al. Coordinated activation of metabolic pathways for antioxidants and defence compounds by jasmonates and their roles in stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2005;44:653-68 pubmed
    ..Compared with the wild type, opr3 mutants were more sensitive to O3 exposure. These results suggest that the coordinated activation of the metabolic pathways mediated by jasmonates provides resistance to environmental stresses. ..
  2. Olmos E, Kiddle G, Pellny T, Kumar S, Foyer C. Modulation of plant morphology, root architecture, and cell structure by low vitamin C in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:1645-55 pubmed
    ..were studied in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, which have constitutively moderately low (vtc1) or very low (vtc2) leaf AA contents compared with the wild type...
  3. Dowdle J, Ishikawa T, Gatzek S, Rolinski S, Smirnoff N. Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability. Plant J. 2007;52:673-89 pubmed
    ..We show that a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene, catalyses this step in the ascorbate biosynthetic pathway...
  4. Laing W, Wright M, Cooney J, Bulley S. The missing step of the L-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants, an L-galactose guanyltransferase, increases leaf ascorbate content. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:9534-9 pubmed
    ..Transient expression of this A. chinensis gene in tobacco leaves resulted in a >3-fold increase in leaf ascorbate as well as a 50-fold increase in GDP-L-galactose-D-mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase activity...
  5. Ogura Y, Komatsu A, Zikihara K, Nanjo T, Tokutomi S, Wada M, et al. Blue light diminishes interaction of PAS/LOV proteins, putative blue light receptors in Arabidopsis thaliana, with their interacting partners. J Plant Res. 2008;121:97-105 pubmed
    ..Yeast two-hybrid screening led to the isolation of VITAMIN C DEFECTIVE 2 (VTC2), VTC2-LIKE (VTC2L), and BEL1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN 10 proteins (BLH10A and BLH10B) as PLP-interacting ..
  6. Linster C, Adler L, Webb K, Christensen K, Brenner C, Clarke S. A second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase in arabidopsis en route to vitamin C. Covalent intermediate and substrate requirements for the conserved reaction. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18483-92 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis thaliana VTC2 gene encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GDP-L-galactose to L-galactose 1-phosphate in the first committed step of the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to plant vitamin C synthesis...
  7. Yoshimura K, Nakane T, Kume S, Shiomi Y, Maruta T, Ishikawa T, et al. Transient expression analysis revealed the importance of VTC2 expression level in light/dark regulation of ascorbate biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2014;78:60-6 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphatase (GPP/VTC4), but AsA levels in the plants transiently expressing GDP-l-Gal phosphorylase (GGP/VTC2) were 2.5-fold higher than those in control plants 7 d after ES treatment...
  8. Gao Y, Badejo A, Shibata H, Sawa Y, Maruta T, Shigeoka S, et al. Expression analysis of the VTC2 and VTC5 genes encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, an enzyme involved in ascorbate biosynthesis, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2011;75:1783-8 pubmed
    Arabidopsis thaliana contains two GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase genes, VTC2 and VTC5, which are critical for ascorbate (AsA) biosynthesis. We investigated the expression levels of both VTC2 and VTC5 genes in wild-type A...
  9. Pavet V, Olmos E, Kiddle G, Mowla S, Kumar S, Antoniw J, et al. Ascorbic acid deficiency activates cell death and disease resistance responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1291-303 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low vitamin C mutants, vtc1 and vtc2, which have between 10% and 25% of wild-type ascorbic acid, exhibit microlesions, express pathogenesis-related (PR) ..

More Information


  1. Müller Moulé P, Conklin P, Niyogi K. Ascorbate deficiency can limit violaxanthin de-epoxidase activity in vivo. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:970-7 pubmed
    ..ascorbate levels on NPQ in vivo, we measured the induction of NPQ in a vitamin C-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis, vtc2-2...
  2. Larkindale J, Hall J, Knight M, Vierling E. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:882-97 pubmed
    ..Ethylene signaling mutants (ein2 and etr1) and reactive oxygen metabolism mutants (vtc1, vtc2, npq1, and cad2) were more defective in basal than acquired thermotolerance, especially under high light...
  3. Clay N, Adio A, Denoux C, Jander G, Ausubel F. Glucosinolate metabolites required for an Arabidopsis innate immune response. Science. 2009;323:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that well-studied plant metabolites, previously identified as important in avoiding damage by herbivores, are also required as a component of the plant defense response against microbial pathogens...
  4. Linster C, Gomez T, Christensen K, Adler L, Young B, Brenner C, et al. Arabidopsis VTC2 encodes a GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase, the last unknown enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler pathway to ascorbic acid in plants. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18879-85 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the protein encoded by VTC2, a gene mutated in vitamin C-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana strains, is a member of the GalT/Apa1 branch of the ..
  5. Müller Moulé P. An expression analysis of the ascorbate biosynthesis enzyme VTC2. Plant Mol Biol. 2008;68:31-41 pubmed publisher
    The vtc2 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is vitamin C deficient and is defective in the ascorbate biosynthesis enzyme GDP-L-Galactose phosphorylase/L -Galactose guanylyltransferase...
  6. Botanga C, Bethke G, Chen Z, Gallie D, Fiehn O, Glazebrook J. Metabolite profiling of Arabidopsis inoculated with Alternaria brassicicola reveals that ascorbate reduces disease severity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012;25:1628-38 pubmed publisher
    ..GABA promoted, and ascorbate strongly inhibited, fungal growth in culture. Arabidopsis vtc1 and vtc2 mutants, that have low levels of ascorbate, were more susceptible to A. brassicicola...