TTG1

Summary

Gene Symbol: TTG1
Description: Transducin/WD40 repeat-like superfamily protein
Alias: ATTTG1, K18P6.4, K18P6_4, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1, TTG, UNARMED 23, URM23, Transducin/WD40 repeat-like superfamily protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Galway M, Masucci J, Lloyd A, Walbot V, Davis R, Schiefelbein J. The TTG gene is required to specify epidermal cell fate and cell patterning in the Arabidopsis root. Dev Biol. 1994;166:740-54 pubmed
    ..This normal positional relationship was absent in ttg (transparent testa glabrous) mutants (lacking trichomes, anthocyanins, and seed coat mucilage); epidermal cells in ..
  2. Zhao M, Morohashi K, Hatlestad G, Grotewold E, Lloyd A. The TTG1-bHLH-MYB complex controls trichome cell fate and patterning through direct targeting of regulatory loci. Development. 2008;135:1991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of proteins consisting of bHLH and MYB transcription factors, and a WD40 repeat protein, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), act in concert to activate trichome initiation and patterning...
  3. Larkin J, Walker J, Bolognesi Winfield A, Gray J, Walker A. Allele-specific interactions between ttg and gl1 during trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 1999;151:1591-604 pubmed
    ..Two genes that play an essential role in the initiation of trichome development are GL1 and TTG. Mutations in either gene prevent the initiation of most trichomes...
  4. Gonzalez A, Zhao M, Leavitt J, Lloyd A. Regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway by the TTG1/bHLH/Myb transcriptional complex in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant J. 2008;53:814-27 pubmed
    ..Myb regulators remain to be conclusively identified, and little is known about anthocyanin pathway regulation by TTG1-dependent transcriptional complexes...
  5. Walker A, Davison P, Bolognesi Winfield A, James C, Srinivasan N, Blundell T, et al. The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 locus, which regulates trichome differentiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, encodes a WD40 repeat protein. Plant Cell. 1999;11:1337-50 pubmed
    The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) locus regulates several developmental and biochemical pathways in Arabidopsis, including the formation of hairs on leaves, stems, and roots, and the production of seed mucilage and anthocyanin pigments...
  6. Zhang F, Gonzalez A, Zhao M, Payne C, Lloyd A. A network of redundant bHLH proteins functions in all TTG1-dependent pathways of Arabidopsis. Development. 2003;130:4859-69 pubmed
    GLABRA3 (GL3) encodes a bHLH protein that interacts with the WD repeat protein, TTG1. GL3 overexpression suppresses the trichome defect of the pleiotropic ttg1 mutations...
  7. Baudry A, Caboche M, Lepiniec L. TT8 controls its own expression in a feedback regulation involving TTG1 and homologous MYB and bHLH factors, allowing a strong and cell-specific accumulation of flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2006;46:768-79 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the activity of this reporter construct was strongly affected in ttg1, TT2 overexpressers (OE), and PAP1-OE, suggesting interplay between TT2, PAP1, TTG1 and the activation of the TT8 ..
  8. Esch J, Chen M, Sanders M, Hillestad M, Ndkium S, Idelkope B, et al. A contradictory GLABRA3 allele helps define gene interactions controlling trichome development in Arabidopsis. Development. 2003;130:5885-94 pubmed
    ..Yeast interaction assays comparing GL3 with gl3-sst proteins show that the mutant protein interaction with GL1 and TTG1 is decreased by 75% and 50%, respectively, but there is no difference in its interaction with TRY...
  9. Kirik V, Lee M, Wester K, Herrmann U, Zheng Z, Oppenheimer D, et al. Functional diversification of MYB23 and GL1 genes in trichome morphogenesis and initiation. Development. 2005;132:1477-85 pubmed
  10. Maes L, Inze D, Goossens A. Functional specialization of the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 network allows differential hormonal control of laminal and marginal trichome initiation in Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    Trichome initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is controlled by the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) network that consists of R2R3- and R1-type MYB-related transcription factors, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, and the ..

Detail Information

Publications30

  1. Galway M, Masucci J, Lloyd A, Walbot V, Davis R, Schiefelbein J. The TTG gene is required to specify epidermal cell fate and cell patterning in the Arabidopsis root. Dev Biol. 1994;166:740-54 pubmed
    ..This normal positional relationship was absent in ttg (transparent testa glabrous) mutants (lacking trichomes, anthocyanins, and seed coat mucilage); epidermal cells in ..
  2. Zhao M, Morohashi K, Hatlestad G, Grotewold E, Lloyd A. The TTG1-bHLH-MYB complex controls trichome cell fate and patterning through direct targeting of regulatory loci. Development. 2008;135:1991-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of proteins consisting of bHLH and MYB transcription factors, and a WD40 repeat protein, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), act in concert to activate trichome initiation and patterning...
  3. Larkin J, Walker J, Bolognesi Winfield A, Gray J, Walker A. Allele-specific interactions between ttg and gl1 during trichome development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 1999;151:1591-604 pubmed
    ..Two genes that play an essential role in the initiation of trichome development are GL1 and TTG. Mutations in either gene prevent the initiation of most trichomes...
  4. Gonzalez A, Zhao M, Leavitt J, Lloyd A. Regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway by the TTG1/bHLH/Myb transcriptional complex in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant J. 2008;53:814-27 pubmed
    ..Myb regulators remain to be conclusively identified, and little is known about anthocyanin pathway regulation by TTG1-dependent transcriptional complexes...
  5. Walker A, Davison P, Bolognesi Winfield A, James C, Srinivasan N, Blundell T, et al. The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 locus, which regulates trichome differentiation and anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis, encodes a WD40 repeat protein. Plant Cell. 1999;11:1337-50 pubmed
    The TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) locus regulates several developmental and biochemical pathways in Arabidopsis, including the formation of hairs on leaves, stems, and roots, and the production of seed mucilage and anthocyanin pigments...
  6. Zhang F, Gonzalez A, Zhao M, Payne C, Lloyd A. A network of redundant bHLH proteins functions in all TTG1-dependent pathways of Arabidopsis. Development. 2003;130:4859-69 pubmed
    GLABRA3 (GL3) encodes a bHLH protein that interacts with the WD repeat protein, TTG1. GL3 overexpression suppresses the trichome defect of the pleiotropic ttg1 mutations...
  7. Baudry A, Caboche M, Lepiniec L. TT8 controls its own expression in a feedback regulation involving TTG1 and homologous MYB and bHLH factors, allowing a strong and cell-specific accumulation of flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2006;46:768-79 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the activity of this reporter construct was strongly affected in ttg1, TT2 overexpressers (OE), and PAP1-OE, suggesting interplay between TT2, PAP1, TTG1 and the activation of the TT8 ..
  8. Esch J, Chen M, Sanders M, Hillestad M, Ndkium S, Idelkope B, et al. A contradictory GLABRA3 allele helps define gene interactions controlling trichome development in Arabidopsis. Development. 2003;130:5885-94 pubmed
    ..Yeast interaction assays comparing GL3 with gl3-sst proteins show that the mutant protein interaction with GL1 and TTG1 is decreased by 75% and 50%, respectively, but there is no difference in its interaction with TRY...
  9. Kirik V, Lee M, Wester K, Herrmann U, Zheng Z, Oppenheimer D, et al. Functional diversification of MYB23 and GL1 genes in trichome morphogenesis and initiation. Development. 2005;132:1477-85 pubmed
  10. Maes L, Inze D, Goossens A. Functional specialization of the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 network allows differential hormonal control of laminal and marginal trichome initiation in Arabidopsis rosette leaves. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1453-64 pubmed publisher
    Trichome initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is controlled by the TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) network that consists of R2R3- and R1-type MYB-related transcription factors, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, and the ..
  11. Payne C, Zhang F, Lloyd A. GL3 encodes a bHLH protein that regulates trichome development in arabidopsis through interaction with GL1 and TTG1. Genetics. 2000;156:1349-62 pubmed
    ..Mutations in TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) result in several pleiotropic defects including an almost complete lack of trichomes...
  12. Baudry A, Heim M, Dubreucq B, Caboche M, Weisshaar B, Lepiniec L. TT2, TT8, and TTG1 synergistically specify the expression of BANYULS and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2004;39:366-80 pubmed
    Genetic analyses have demonstrated that together with TTG1, a WD-repeat (WDR) protein, TT2 (MYB), and TT8 (bHLH) are necessary for the correct expression of BANYULS (BAN)...
  13. Pesch M, Schultheiß I, Klopffleisch K, Uhrig J, Koegl M, Clemen C, et al. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 and GLABRA1 Compete for Binding to GLABRA3 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2015;168:584-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana) is governed by GLABRA1 (GL1; R2R3MYB), GL3 (bHLH), and transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1; WD40). They are thought to form a trimeric complex that acts as a transcriptional activation complex...
  14. Symonds V, Hatlestad G, Lloyd A. Natural allelic variation defines a role for ATMYC1: trichome cell fate determination. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002069 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana and indicate that the transcription factors that make up the TTG1 genetic pathway generally may be important sources of epidermal variation in plants.
  15. Xu X, Wang J, Xuan Z, Goldshmidt A, Borrill P, Hariharan N, et al. Chaperonins facilitate KNOTTED1 cell-to-cell trafficking and stem cell function. Science. 2011;333:1141-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that chaperonins are essential for the cell-to-cell trafficking of a subset of mobile transcription factors and demonstrates the importance of chaperonin-dependent protein trafficking for plant stem cell function...
  16. Nguyen H, Kim J, Hyun W, Nguyen N, Hong S, Lee H. TTG1-mediated flavonols biosynthesis alleviates root growth inhibition in response to ABA. Plant Cell Rep. 2013;32:503-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The recessive TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (ttg1) mutant was characterized on ABA and sucrose treatments...
  17. Zhao H, Wang X, Zhu D, Cui S, Li X, Cao Y, et al. A single amino acid substitution in IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AtMYC1 leads to trichome and root hair patterning defects by abolishing its interaction with partner proteins in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:14109-21 pubmed publisher
    ..requires a combination of three groups of proteins, including the WD40 repeat protein transparent TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), R2R3 repeat MYB protein GLABRA1 (GL1), or werewolf (WER) and the IIIf subfamily of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ..
  18. Patra B, Pattanaik S, Yuan L. Proteolytic degradation of the flavonoid regulators, TRANSPARENT TESTA8 and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, in Arabidopsis is mediated by the ubiquitin/26Sproteasome system. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:doi: 10.4161/psb.25901 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that TT 8 and TT G1 are short-lived and targeted by the UPS for degradation. Our findings further extend our understanding of the role of the UPS in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in plants. ..
  19. Chen Z, Nimmo G, Jenkins G, Nimmo H. BHLH32 modulates several biochemical and morphological processes that respond to Pi starvation in Arabidopsis. Biochem J. 2007;405:191-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, several Arabidopsis proteins that regulate epidermal cell differentiation [TTG1 (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1), GL3 (GLABRA3) and EGL3 (ENHANCER OF GL3)] positively regulate PPCK gene expression in ..
  20. Chen M, Zhang B, Li C, Kulaveerasingam H, Chew F, Yu H. TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 Regulates the Accumulation of Seed Storage Reserves in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:391-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), which encodes a WD40 repeat transcription factor involved in many aspects of plant development, plays an ..
  21. Gao Y, Gong X, Cao W, Zhao J, Fu L, Wang X, et al. SAD2 in Arabidopsis functions in trichome initiation through mediating GL3 function and regulating GL1, TTG1 and GL2 expression. J Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:906-17 pubmed publisher
    ..transcriptional networks and include GLABROUS1 (GL1), GLABRA2 (GL2), GLABRA3 (GL3) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1)...
  22. Li C, Zhang B, Chen B, Ji L, Yu H. Site-specific phosphorylation of TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 mediates carbon partitioning in Arabidopsis seeds. Nat Commun. 2018;9:571 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that phosphorylation of TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) is regulated by SHAGGY-like kinases 11/12 (SK11/12) and that this mediates carbon flow to fatty acid synthesis and ..
  23. Cheng Y, Zhu W, Chen Y, Ito S, Asami T, Wang X. Brassinosteroids control root epidermal cell fate via direct regulation of a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex by GSK3-like kinases. elife. 2014;: pubmed publisher
    ..demonstrated that brassinosteroid-regulated root epidermal cell patterning is dependent on the WER-GL3/EGL3-TTG1 transcription factor complex...
  24. H ll J, Vannozzi A, Czemmel S, D Onofrio C, Walker A, Rausch T, et al. The R2R3-MYB transcription factors MYB14 and MYB15 regulate stilbene biosynthesis in Vitis vinifera. Plant Cell. 2013;25:4135-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate the involvement of MYB14 and MYB15 in the transcriptional regulation of stilbene biosynthesis in grapevine...
  25. Gonzalez A, Mendenhall J, Huo Y, Lloyd A. TTG1 complex MYBs, MYB5 and TT2, control outer seed coat differentiation. Dev Biol. 2009;325:412-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the TTG1-dependent R2R3 MYBs are considered to be highly pathway specific, identification of MYBs responsible for outer seed ..
  26. Lewis D, Ramirez M, Miller N, Vallabhaneni P, Ray W, Helm R, et al. Auxin and ethylene induce flavonol accumulation through distinct transcriptional networks. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:144-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also provides new evidence that quercetin is the flavonol that modulates basipetal auxin transport. ..
  27. Pesch M, Dartan B, Birkenbihl R, Somssich I, Hulskamp M. Arabidopsis TTG2 regulates TRY expression through enhancement of activator complex-triggered activation. Plant Cell. 2014;26:4067-83 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana is regulated by a regulatory feedback loop of the trichome promoting factors TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1), GLABRA3 (GL3)/ENHANCER OF GL3 (EGL3), and GL1 and a group of homologous R3MYB proteins that act as their ..
  28. Balkunde R, Bouyer D, Hulskamp M. Nuclear trapping by GL3 controls intercellular transport and redistribution of TTG1 protein in Arabidopsis. Development. 2011;138:5039-48 pubmed publisher
    ..operate during this process such that GLABRA3 (GL3) traps the trichome-promoting factor TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) in trichomes that, in turn, results in a depletion of TTG1 in trichome neighbouring cells...
  29. Bouyer D, Geier F, Kragler F, Schnittger A, Pesch M, Wester K, et al. Two-dimensional patterning by a trapping/depletion mechanism: the role of TTG1 and GL3 in Arabidopsis trichome formation. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e141 pubmed publisher
    ..involved by which patterning is governed by the removal of the trichome-promoting factor TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) from non-trichome cells...
  30. Caro E, Castellano M, Gutierrez C. A chromatin link that couples cell division to root epidermis patterning in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2007;447:213-7 pubmed
    ..GEM also interacts with TTG1 (TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1), a WD40-repeat protein involved in GL2-dependent cell fate decision, and modulates both ..