Genomes and Genes
Gene Symbol: TT4
Description: Chalcone and stilbene synthase family protein
Alias: ATCHS, CHALCONE SYNTHASE, CHALCONE/STILBENE SYNTHASE, CHS, MAC12.28, MAC12_28, NARINGENIN-CHALCONE SYNTHASE, TRANSPARENT TESTA 4, Chalcone and stilbene synthase family protein
Species: thale cress
- Brown D, Rashotte A, Murphy A, Normanly J, Tague B, Peer W, et al. Flavonoids act as negative regulators of auxin transport in vivo in arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2001;126:524-35 pubmed..testa (tt4) plants with a mutation in the gene encoding the first enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, chalcone synthase. In a comparison between tt4 and WT plants, phenotypic differences were observed, including three times as ..
- Hsieh K, Huang A. Tapetosomes in Brassica tapetum accumulate endoplasmic reticulum-derived flavonoids and alkanes for delivery to the pollen surface. Plant Cell. 2007;19:582-96 pubmed..b>tt4, tt12, and tt19 pollen was more susceptible than wild-type pollen to UV-B irradiation on subsequent germination...
- Li J, Ou Lee T, Raba R, Amundson R, Last R. Arabidopsis Flavonoid Mutants Are Hypersensitive to UV-B Irradiation. Plant Cell. 1993;5:171-179 pubmed..The transparent testa-4 (tt4) mutant, which has reduced flavonoids and normal levels of sinapate esters, is more sensitive to UV-B than the wild ..
- Saslowsky D, Warek U, Winkel B. Nuclear localization of flavonoid enzymes in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23735-40 pubmed..This is the first indication that differential targeting of the biosynthetic machinery may be used to regulate the deposition of plant secondary products at diverse sites of action within the cell. ..
- Shirley B, Kubasek W, Storz G, Bruggemann E, Koornneef M, Ausubel F, et al. Analysis of Arabidopsis mutants deficient in flavonoid biosynthesis. Plant J. 1995;8:659-71 pubmed..Several of these loci (tt3, tt4, tt5 and ttg) are also required for the accumulation of purple anthocyanins in leaves and stems and one locus (ttg) ..
- Saslowsky D, Winkel Shirley B. Localization of flavonoid enzymes in Arabidopsis roots. Plant J. 2001;27:37-48 pubmed..The cellular and subcellular locations of chalcone synthase (CHS) and chalcone isomerase (CHI), the first two enzymes of this pathway, were examined in Arabidopsis ..
- Buer C, Sukumar P, Muday G. Ethylene modulates flavonoid accumulation and gravitropic responses in roots of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:1384-96 pubmed..We examined the effect of ACC on tt4(2YY6) seedlings, which have a null mutation in the gene encoding chalcone synthase, the first enzyme in flavonoid synthesis...
- Yu C, Lam C, Springob K, Schmidt J, Chu I, Lo C. Constitutive accumulation of cis-piceid in transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing a sorghum stilbene synthase gene. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:1017-21 pubmed..Our results also suggested the presence of unknown stilbene isomerase activities in Arabidopsis. ..
- Zhang X, Gou M, Guo C, Yang H, Liu C. Down-regulation of Kelch domain-containing F-box protein in Arabidopsis enhances the production of (poly)phenols and tolerance to ultraviolet radiation. Plant Physiol. 2015;167:337-50 pubmed publisher..This study offers a biotechnological approach for engineering the production of useful phenolic chemicals and for increasing a plant's resistance to environmental stress. ..
- Zhao J, Williams C, Last R. Induction of Arabidopsis tryptophan pathway enzymes and camalexin by amino acid starvation, oxidative stress, and an abiotic elicitor. Plant Cell. 1998;10:359-70 pubmed..The role of salicylic acid in herbicide-mediated Trp and camalexin induction was investigated. ..
- Li S, Strid A. Anthocyanin accumulation and changes in CHS and PR-5 gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana after removal of the inflorescence stem (decapitation). Plant Physiol Biochem. 2005;43:521-5 pubmed..Expression of stress-induced genes CHS and PR-5 was strongly up-regulated by stem removal, and was highest on day 4 after decapitation...
- Devoto A, Ellis C, Magusin A, Chang H, Chilcott C, Zhu T, et al. Expression profiling reveals COI1 to be a key regulator of genes involved in wound- and methyl jasmonate-induced secondary metabolism, defence, and hormone interactions. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;58:497-513 pubmed..These results indicate that COI1 plays a pivotal role in wound- and JA signalling. ..
- Owens D, Alerding A, Crosby K, Bandara A, Westwood J, Winkel B. Functional analysis of a predicted flavonol synthase gene family in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:1046-61 pubmed publisher..Thus, it is possible that these "pseudogenes" have alternative, noncatalytic functions that have not yet been uncovered. ..
- Dana C, Bevan D, Winkel B. Molecular modeling of the effects of mutant alleles on chalcone synthase protein structure. J Mol Model. 2006;12:905-14 pubmedb>Chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzes the first committed step in flavonoid biosynthesis, a major pathway of plant secondary metabolism...
- Feinbaum R, Ausubel F. Transcriptional regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana chalcone synthase gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:1985-92 pubmedWe have cloned an Arabidopsis thaliana chalcone synthase (CHS) gene on the basis of cross-hybridization with a Petroselinum hortense CHS cDNA clone. The protein sequence deduced from the A...
- Burbulis I, Winkel Shirley B. Interactions among enzymes of the Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:12929-34 pubmed..Two-hybrid assays indicated that chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase (CHI), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase interact in an orientation-dependent manner...
- Lewis D, Ramirez M, Miller N, Vallabhaneni P, Ray W, Helm R, et al. Auxin and ethylene induce flavonol accumulation through distinct transcriptional networks. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:144-64 pubmed publisher..The equivalent phenotypes for transparent testa4 (tt4), which makes no flavonols, and tt7, which makes kaempferol but not quercetin, showed that quercetin derivatives ..
- Ang L, Chattopadhyay S, Wei N, Oyama T, Okada K, Batschauer A, et al. Molecular interaction between COP1 and HY5 defines a regulatory switch for light control of Arabidopsis development. Mol Cell. 1998;1:213-22 pubmed..We propose that the direct interaction with and regulation of transcription factors by COP1 may represent the molecular mechanism for its control of gene expression and photomorphogenic development. ..
- Crosby K, Pietraszewska Bogiel A, Gadella T, Winkel B. Förster resonance energy transfer demonstrates a flavonoid metabolon in living plant cells that displays competitive interactions between enzymes. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2193-8 pubmed publisher..reactions, flavonol synthase 1 and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, for association with the entry-point enzyme, chalcone synthase. Because the flavonoid enzymes were likely recruited from pathways of primary metabolism, our findings ..