Gene Symbol: TSF
Description: PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein
Alias: F9F13.20, F9F13_20, TWIN SISTER OF FT, PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Michaels S, Himelblau E, Kim S, Schomburg F, Amasino R. Integration of flowering signals in winter-annual Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;137:149-56 pubmed
    ..and vernalization pathways, we have examined activation-tagged alleles of FT and the FT homolog, TSF (TWIN SISTER OF FT), in a winter-annual background...
  2. D Aloia M, Bonhomme D, Bouché F, Tamseddak K, Ormenese S, Torti S, et al. Cytokinin promotes flowering of Arabidopsis via transcriptional activation of the FT paralogue TSF. Plant J. 2011;65:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The response to cytokinin treatment does not require FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), but activates its paralogue TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), as well as FD, which encodes a partner protein of TSF, and the downstream gene SUPPRESSOR OF ..
  3. Kim W, Ahn H, Chiou T, Ahn J. The role of the miR399-PHO2 module in the regulation of flowering time in response to different ambient temperatures in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Cells. 2011;32:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analysis indicated that expression of TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) was increased in miR399b-overexpressing plants and pho2 mutants at 23°C, suggesting that their early ..
  4. Jang S, Torti S, Coupland G. Genetic and spatial interactions between FT, TSF and SVP during the early stages of floral induction in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;60:614-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the interactions in Arabidopsis between three of these integrators, flowering locus T (FT), twin sister of FT (TSF) and suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 (SOC1), as well as their repression by the MADS box ..
  5. Hiraoka K, Yamaguchi A, Abe M, Araki T. The florigen genes FT and TSF modulate lateral shoot outgrowth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:352-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth analysis of lateral shoots in mutants of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) revealed a delay in the onset of outgrowth and a reduction of the growth rate in ft plants in long-day ..
  6. Jin S, Jung H, Chung K, Lee J, Ahn J. FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN SISTER OF FT. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:6109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF)...
  7. Ando E, Ohnishi M, Wang Y, Matsushita T, Watanabe A, Hayashi Y, et al. TWIN SISTER OF FT, GIGANTEA, and CONSTANS have a positive but indirect effect on blue light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1529-38 pubmed
    ..We show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), CONSTANS (CO), and GIGANTEA (GI) provide a positive effect on stomatal opening...
  8. Riboni M, Galbiati M, Tonelli C, Conti L. GIGANTEA enables drought escape response via abscisic acid-dependent activation of the florigens and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1706-19 pubmed publisher
    ..central role of the flower-promoting gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in the DE response...
  9. Mathieu J, Warthmann N, Küttner F, Schmid M. Export of FT protein from phloem companion cells is sufficient for floral induction in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1055-60 pubmed
    ..show that FT mRNA is required in phloem companion cells where it acts partially redundant with its paralog TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) to induce flowering...

More Information


  1. Niwa M, Daimon Y, Kurotani K, Higo A, Pruneda Paz J, Breton G, et al. BRANCHED1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to repress the floral transition of the axillary meristems in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1228-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that BRC1 interacts with the florigen proteins FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) but not with TERMINAL FLOWER1, a floral repressor...