Gene Symbol: TOC75-III
Description: translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts 75-III
Alias: MAR1, MODIFIER OF ARG1 1, translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts 75-III, translocon at the outer envelope membrane of chloroplasts 75-III
Species: thale cress
Products:     TOC75-III

Top Publications

  1. Baldwin A, Wardle A, Patel R, Dudley P, Park S, Twell D, et al. A molecular-genetic study of the Arabidopsis Toc75 gene family. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:715-33 pubmed
    ..These results suggest some role for atToc75-IV during growth in the dark. ..
  2. Becker T, Jelic M, Vojta A, Radunz A, Soll J, Schleiff E. Preprotein recognition by the Toc complex. EMBO J. 2004;23:520-30 pubmed
    ..We developed a model of differential presequence recognition by Toc34 and Toc159. ..
  3. Hsu S, Nafati M, Inoue K. OEP80, an essential protein paralogous to the chloroplast protein translocation channel Toc75, exists as a 70-kD protein in the Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast outer envelope. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;78:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, OEP80-T7 and Toc75 showed distinct migration patterns on blue native-PAGE. This study provides molecular tools to investigate the function of OEP80, and also calls for caution in using an anti-peptide antibody. ..
  4. Ling Q, Huang W, Baldwin A, Jarvis P. Chloroplast biogenesis is regulated by direct action of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Science. 2012;338:655-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the ubiquitin-proteasome system acts on plastids to control their development. ..
  5. Gutensohn M, Schulz B, Nicolay P, Flügge U. Functional analysis of the two Arabidopsis homologues of Toc34, a component of the chloroplast protein import apparatus. Plant J. 2000;23:771-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results indicate a more specialized function for both atToc34 and atToc33, suggesting specificity for certain imported precursor proteins. ..
  6. Hust B, Gutensohn M. Deletion of core components of the plastid protein import machinery causes differential arrest of embryo development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2006;8:18-30 pubmed
    ..In addition, our analysis suggest that not all components of the translocase are equally essential for plastid protein import in vivo. ..
  7. Agne B, Infanger S, Wang F, Hofstetter V, Rahim G, Martin M, et al. A toc159 import receptor mutant, defective in hydrolysis of GTP, supports preprotein import into chloroplasts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:8670-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also indicate that preprotein import requires at least one additional GTPase other than Toc159. ..
  8. Bauer J, Chen K, Hiltbunner A, Wehrli E, Eugster M, Schnell D, et al. The major protein import receptor of plastids is essential for chloroplast biogenesis. Nature. 2000;403:203-7 pubmed
    ..Two proteins that are related to atToc159 (atToc120 and atToc132) probably help to maintain basal protein import in ppi2, and so constitute components of alternative, atToc159-independent import pathways. ..
  9. Inoue K, Baldwin A, Shipman R, Matsui K, Theg S, Ohme Takagi M. Complete maturation of the plastid protein translocation channel requires a type I signal peptidase. J Cell Biol. 2005;171:425-30 pubmed
    ..These phenotypes were rescued by the overexpression of Plsp1 complementary DNA. Plsp1 appeared to be targeted both to the envelope and to the thylakoidal membranes; thus, it may have multiple functions. ..

More Information


  1. Atmodjo M, Sakuragi Y, Zhu X, Burrell A, Mohanty S, Atwood J, et al. Galacturonosyltransferase (GAUT)1 and GAUT7 are the core of a plant cell wall pectin biosynthetic homogalacturonan:galacturonosyltransferase complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:20225-30 pubmed publisher
  2. Kim D, Park M, Gwon G, Silkov A, Xu Z, Yang E, et al. An ankyrin repeat domain of AKR2 drives chloroplast targeting through coincident binding of two chloroplast lipids. Dev Cell. 2014;30:598-609 pubmed publisher
  3. Chen L, Li H. Stable megadalton TOC-TIC supercomplexes as major mediators of protein import into chloroplasts. Plant J. 2017;92:178-188 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, unlike in mitochondria where translocon supercomplexes are only transiently assembled during preprotein import, in chloroplasts at least some of the supercomplexes are preassembled stable structures. ..
  4. Wallas T, Smith M, Sanchez Nieto S, Schnell D. The roles of toc34 and toc75 in targeting the toc159 preprotein receptor to chloroplasts. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:44289-97 pubmed
    ..Collectively these data suggest that Toc34 and Toc75 act sequentially to mediate docking and insertion of Toc159 resulting in assembly of the functional translocon. ..
  5. Huang W, Ling Q, Bédard J, Lilley K, Jarvis P. In vivo analyses of the roles of essential Omp85-related proteins in the chloroplast outer envelope membrane. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:147-59 pubmed publisher
  6. Chen Y, Chen L, Li H. Polypeptide Transport-Associated Domains of the Toc75 Channel Protein Are Located in the Intermembrane Space of Chloroplasts. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:235-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunogold labeling of endogenous Toc75 POTRA domains in pea (Pisum sativum) and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) confirmed that POTRA domains are located in the intermembrane space of the chloroplast envelope. ..
  7. Sommer M, Daum B, Gross L, Weis B, Mirus O, Abram L, et al. Chloroplast Omp85 proteins change orientation during evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:13841-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This unexpected finding explains many experimental observations and requires a reevaluation of current models of OMP biogenesis and TOC complex function. ..