Gene Symbol: TIR1
Description: F-box/RNI-like superfamily protein
Alias: AtTIR1, TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1, F-box/RNI-like superfamily protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     TIR1

Top Publications

  1. Devoto A, Nieto Rostro M, Xie D, Ellis C, Harmston R, Patrick E, et al. COI1 links jasmonate signalling and fertility to the SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;32:457-66 pubmed
    ..We recovered two SKP1 homologues and a histone deacetylase. The Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 interacted with SKP1 proteins, but not with the histone deacetylase...
  2. Chen Z, Bao M, Sun Y, Yang Y, Xu X, Wang J, et al. Regulation of auxin response by miR393-targeted transport inhibitor response protein 1 is involved in normal development in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;77:619-29 pubmed publisher
    ..encoded by MIR393a and MIR393b in Arabidopsis, post-transcriptionally regulates mRNAs for the F-box auxin receptors TIR1 (Transport Inhibitor Response Protein 1), AFB1 (Auxin Signaling F-box Protein 1), AFB2 and AFB3...
  3. Díaz Camino C, Risseeuw E, Liu E, Crosby W. A high-throughput system for two-hybrid screening based on growth curve analysis in microtiter plates. Anal Biochem. 2003;316:171-4 pubmed
  4. Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Estelle M. The F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature. 2005;435:441-5 pubmed
    ..Using an in vitro pull-down assay, we demonstrate that the interaction between transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) and Aux/IAA proteins does not require stable modification of either protein...
  5. Hu Y, Yang L, Na X, You J, Hu W, Liang X, et al. Narciclasine inhibits the responses of Arabidopsis roots to auxin. Planta. 2012;236:597-612 pubmed publisher
    ..NCS did not alter the auxin-stimulated interaction between IAA7/AXR2 (Aux/IAA proteins) and the F-box protein TIR1 activity of the proteasome...
  6. Parry G, Calderon Villalobos L, Prigge M, Peret B, Dharmasiri S, Itoh H, et al. Complex regulation of the TIR1/AFB family of auxin receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:22540-5 pubmed publisher
    Auxin regulates most aspects of plant growth and development. The hormone is perceived by the TIR1/AFB family of F-box proteins acting in concert with the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors...
  7. Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Jones A, Estelle M. Auxin action in a cell-free system. Curr Biol. 2003;13:1418-22 pubmed
    ..stimulates Aux/IAA degradation by promoting the interaction between a ubiquitin protein ligase (E3) called SCF(TIR1) and the Aux/IAA protein...
  8. Terrile M, París R, Calderon Villalobos L, Iglesias M, Lamattina L, Estelle M, et al. Nitric oxide influences auxin signaling through S-nitrosylation of the Arabidopsis TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 auxin receptor. Plant J. 2012;70:492-500 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis thaliana F-box proteins TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) are auxin receptors that mediate degradation of AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ..
  9. Gray W, del Pozo J, Walker L, Hobbie L, Risseeuw E, Banks T, et al. Identification of an SCF ubiquitin-ligase complex required for auxin response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 1999;13:1678-91 pubmed
    ..of proteins related to yeast Skp1p and Cdc53p called ASK and AtCUL1, respectively, as well as the F-box protein TIR1. Mutations in either ASK1 or TIR1 result in decreased auxin response...

More Information


  1. Tan X, Calderon Villalobos L, Sharon M, Zheng C, Robinson C, Estelle M, et al. Mechanism of auxin perception by the TIR1 ubiquitin ligase. Nature. 2007;446:640-5 pubmed
    ..Perceived by a small family of F-box proteins including transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1), auxin regulates gene expression by promoting SCF ubiquitin-ligase-catalysed degradation of the ..
  2. Calderon Villalobos L, Lee S, de Oliveira C, Ivetac A, Brandt W, Armitage L, et al. A combinatorial TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptor system for differential sensing of auxin. Nat Chem Biol. 2012;8:477-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Auxin acts by binding the F-box protein transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1) and promotes the degradation of the AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) transcriptional ..
  3. Ruegger M, Dewey E, Gray W, Hobbie L, Turner J, Estelle M. The TIR1 protein of Arabidopsis functions in auxin response and is related to human SKP2 and yeast grr1p. Genes Dev. 1998;12:198-207 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of a new gene called TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1 (TIR1)...
  4. Dharmasiri N, Dharmasiri S, Weijers D, Lechner E, Yamada M, Hobbie L, et al. Plant development is regulated by a family of auxin receptor F box proteins. Dev Cell. 2005;9:109-19 pubmed
    ..Aux/IAA degradation requires TIR1, an F box protein that has been shown to function as an auxin receptor...
  5. Navarro L, Dunoyer P, Jay F, Arnold B, Dharmasiri N, Estelle M, et al. A plant miRNA contributes to antibacterial resistance by repressing auxin signaling. Science. 2006;312:436-9 pubmed
    ..peptide induces a plant microRNA (miRNA) that negatively regulates messenger RNAs for the F-box auxin receptors TIR1, AFB2, and AFB3. Repression of auxin signaling restricts P...
  6. Kepinski S, Leyser O. The Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 is an auxin receptor. Nature. 2005;435:446-51 pubmed
    ..interaction between the Aux/IAA transcriptional repressor proteins and the ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1), thus targeting for them proteolysis...
  7. Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M. The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2003;22:1762-70 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis, RUB modification of CUL1 is required for normal function of SCF(TIR1), an E3 required for response to the plant hormone auxin...
  8. Gray W, Kepinski S, Rouse D, Leyser O, Estelle M. Auxin regulates SCF(TIR1)-dependent degradation of AUX/IAA proteins. Nature. 2001;414:271-6 pubmed
    ..Previous studies have implicated the ubiquitin-ligase SCF(TIR1) and the AUX/IAA proteins in auxin response...
  9. Hayashi K, Tan X, Zheng N, Hatate T, Kimura Y, Kepinski S, et al. Small-molecule agonists and antagonists of F-box protein-substrate interactions in auxin perception and signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that the Arabidopsis F-box protein TIR1 is a receptor for auxin, and our recent structural work has revealed the molecular mechanism of auxin perception...
  10. Maraschin F, Memelink J, Offringa R. Auxin-induced, SCF(TIR1)-mediated poly-ubiquitination marks AUX/IAA proteins for degradation. Plant J. 2009;59:100-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Auxin enhances the binding of Aux/IAA proteins to the receptor TIR1, which is an F-box protein that is part of the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex SCF(TIR1)...
  11. Si Ammour A, Windels D, Arn Bouldoires E, Kutter C, Ailhas J, Meins F, et al. miR393 and secondary siRNAs regulate expression of the TIR1/AFB2 auxin receptor clade and auxin-related development of Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:683-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, miR393 and possibly siTAARs regulate auxin perception and certain auxin-related aspects of leaf development. ..
  12. Yu H, Moss B, Jang S, Prigge M, Klavins E, Nemhauser J, et al. Mutations in the TIR1 auxin receptor that increase affinity for auxin/indole-3-acetic acid proteins result in auxin hypersensitivity. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:295-303 pubmed publisher
    ..mediates the interaction between the two members of the auxin coreceptor complex, a TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE (TIR1)/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein and an AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressor...
  13. Yu H, Zhang Y, Moss B, Bargmann B, Wang R, Prigge M, et al. Untethering the TIR1 auxin receptor from the SCF complex increases its stability and inhibits auxin response. Nat Plants. 2015;1: pubmed
    ..There are ~700 FBPs in Arabidopsis, most of which are uncharacterized. TIR1 is among the best-studied plant FBPs and functions as a receptor for the plant hormone auxin...
  14. Wójcik A, Gaj M. miR393 contributes to the embryogenic transition induced in vitro in Arabidopsis via the modification of the tissue sensitivity to auxin treatment. Planta. 2016;244:231-43 pubmed publisher
    miR393 was found to control embryogenic transition in somatic cells in Arabidopsis via control of the TIR1 and AFB2 auxin receptors genes of the F-box family...
  15. Sungur C, Miller S, Bergholz J, Hoye R, Brisbois R, Overvoorde P. The small molecule 2-furylacrylic acid inhibits auxin-mediated responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1693-701 pubmed
    ..2-FAA attenuates the auxin-inducible expression of IAA5, fails to alter the interaction of IAA7/AXR2 with the SCF(TIR1) complex and inhibits both root and hypocotyl elongation of wild-type seedlings...
  16. Takato S, Kakei Y, Mitsui M, Ishida Y, Suzuki M, Yamazaki C, et al. Auxin signaling through SCFTIR1/AFBs mediates feedback regulation of IAA biosynthesis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2017;81:1320-1326 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the involvement of the SCFTIR1/AFB-mediated signaling pathway in feedback regulation of the indole-3-pyruvic acid-mediated auxin ..
  17. Kepinski S, Leyser O. Auxin-induced SCFTIR1-Aux/IAA interaction involves stable modification of the SCFTIR1 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:12381-6 pubmed
    ..Auxin-induced Aux/IAA degradation requires the protein-ubiquitin ligase SCF(TIR1), with auxin acting to enhance the interaction between the Aux/IAAs and SCF(TIR1)...
  18. Fendrych M, Leung J, Friml J. TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA auxin perception mediates rapid cell wall acidification and growth of Arabidopsis hypocotyls. elife. 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..This auxin-stimulated acidification and growth require TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA nuclear auxin perception...
  19. Nan W, Wang X, Yang L, Hu Y, Wei Y, Liang X, et al. Cyclic GMP is involved in auxin signalling during Arabidopsis root growth and development. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:1571-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Data also showed that 8-bromo-cGMP enhances auxin-induced degradation of Aux/IAA protein modulated by the SCF(TIR1) ubiquitin-proteasome pathway...
  20. Watanabe E, Mano S, Nomoto M, Tada Y, Hara Nishimura I, Nishimura M, et al. HSP90 Stabilizes Auxin-Responsive Phenotypes by Masking a Mutation in the Auxin Receptor TIR1. Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:2245-2254 pubmed
    ..we identify the first client protein example by which HSP90 buffers a mutation: the auxin receptor transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1). TIR1 interacts with HSP90 in the nucleus...
  21. Tian Q, Nagpal P, Reed J. Regulation of Arabidopsis SHY2/IAA3 protein turnover. Plant J. 2003;36:643-51 pubmed
    ..In pull-down assays, SHY2/IAA3 protein interacted with TIR1, the F-box component of SCFTIR1 and with the photoreceptor phytochrome B...
  22. Lee S, Sundaram S, Armitage L, Evans J, Hawkes T, Kepinski S, et al. Defining binding efficiency and specificity of auxins for SCF(TIR1/AFB)-Aux/IAA co-receptor complex formation. ACS Chem Biol. 2014;9:673-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of Transport Inhibitor-Response 1 (TIR1) and the Auxin F-Box (AFB) proteins as sites of auxin perception and the role of auxin as molecular glue in the ..
  23. Dezfulian M, Jalili E, Roberto D, Moss B, Khoo K, Nemhauser J, et al. Oligomerization of SCFTIR1 Is Essential for Aux/IAA Degradation and Auxin Signaling in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1006301 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular studies in Arabidopsis have shown that auxin perception and signaling is mediated via TIR1/AFB-Aux/IAA co-receptors that assemble as part of the SCFTIR1/AFB E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex and direct the auxin-..
  24. Gilkerson J, Kelley D, Tam R, Estelle M, Callis J. Lysine Residues Are Not Required for Proteasome-Mediated Proteolysis of the Auxin/Indole Acidic Acid Protein IAA1. Plant Physiol. 2015;168:708-20 pubmed publisher
    ..regulators of auxin responses and are targeted for degradation after ubiquitination by the ubiquitin ligase SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for S-Phase Kinase-Associated Protein1, Cullin, F-box [SCF] with Transport Inhibitor Response1 [TIR1]/Auxin ..
  25. Watanabe E, Mano S, Hara Nishimura I, Nishimura M, Yamada K. HSP90 stabilizes auxin receptor TIR1 and ensures plasticity of auxin responses. Plant Signal Behav. 2017;12:e1311439 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the auxin receptor TIR1 is a target of cytosolic HSP90 and that HSP90 and TIR1 form a complex...
  26. Quint M, Ito H, Zhang W, Gray W. Characterization of a novel temperature-sensitive allele of the CUL1/AXR6 subunit of SCF ubiquitin-ligases. Plant J. 2005;43:371-83 pubmed
    ..In a genetic screen for enhancers of the tir1-1 auxin response defect, we identified eta1/axr6-3, a recessive and temperature-sensitive mutation in the CUL1 core ..
  27. Cecchetti V, Altamura M, Falasca G, Costantino P, Cardarelli M. Auxin regulates Arabidopsis anther dehiscence, pollen maturation, and filament elongation. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1760-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In agreement with the timing of auxin effects, the TIR1, AFB1, AFB2, and AFB3 auxin receptor-encoding genes are transcribed in anthers only during late stages of ..
  28. Pérez Torres C, López Bucio J, Cruz Ramírez A, Ibarra Laclette E, Dharmasiri S, Estelle M, et al. Phosphate availability alters lateral root development in Arabidopsis by modulating auxin sensitivity via a mechanism involving the TIR1 auxin receptor. Plant Cell. 2008;20:3258-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Modulation of auxin sensitivity by Pi was found to depend on the auxin receptor TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1 (TIR1) and the transcription factor AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR19 (ARF19)...
  29. Sun J, Chen Q, Qi L, Jiang H, Li S, Xu Y, et al. Jasmonate modulates endocytosis and plasma membrane accumulation of the Arabidopsis PIN2 protein. New Phytol. 2011;191:360-75 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that mutations of ASA1 (ANTHRANILATE SYNTHASE a1) and the TIR1/AFBs (TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 1/AUXIN-SIGNALING F-BOX PROTEINs) auxin receptor genes impair the inhibitory effect of 5 ?M MeJA on PIN2 ..
  30. Stuttmann J, Lechner E, Guerois R, Parker J, Nussaume L, Genschik P, et al. COP9 signalosome- and 26S proteasome-dependent regulation of SCFTIR1 accumulation in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7920-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis by measuring the impact of a newly identified viable csn2 mutant on the activity and stability of SCF(TIR1), a receptor to the phytohormone auxin and probably the best characterized plant CRL...
  31. Iglesias M, Terrile M, Casalongué C. Auxin and salicylic acid signalings counteract the regulation of adaptive responses to stress. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:452-4 pubmed
    ..In particular, the double mutant for TIR1 and AFB2 receptors, tir1 afb2 displayed increased tolerance against salinity measured as germination rate, root ..
  32. Katz E, Nisani S, Yadav B, Woldemariam M, Shai B, Obolski U, et al. The glucosinolate breakdown product indole-3-carbinol acts as an auxin antagonist in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2015;82:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..studies showed that indole-3-carbinol perturbs the auxin-dependent interaction of Transport Inhibitor Response (TIR1) with auxin/3-indoleacetic acid (Aux/IAAs) proteins, further supporting the possibility that indole-3-carbinol acts ..
  33. Dezfulian M, Soulliere D, Dhaliwal R, Sareen M, Crosby W. The SKP1-like gene family of Arabidopsis exhibits a high degree of differential gene expression and gene product interaction during development. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50984 pubmed publisher
  34. Yang X, Lee S, So J, Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Ge L, et al. The IAA1 protein is encoded by AXR5 and is a substrate of SCF(TIR1). Plant J. 2004;40:772-82 pubmed
    ..functions of three sets of proteins: the auxin (Aux) response factors (ARFs), the Aux/IAAs, and the F-box protein TIR1. The ARF proteins bind DNA and directly activate or repress transcription of target genes while the Aux/IAA ..
  35. Chen Z, Hu L, Han N, Hu J, Yang Y, Xiang T, et al. Overexpression of a miR393-resistant form of transport inhibitor response protein 1 (mTIR1) enhances salt tolerance by increased osmoregulation and Na+ exclusion in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2015;56:73-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The miR393-TIR1/AFB2/AFB3 regulatory module was discovered to have multiple functions that manipulate the auxin response...
  36. Wang R, Zhang Y, Kieffer M, Yu H, Kepinski S, Estelle M. HSP90 regulates temperature-dependent seedling growth in Arabidopsis by stabilizing the auxin co-receptor F-box protein TIR1. Nat Commun. 2016;7:10269 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we show that increased temperature promotes rapid accumulation of the TIR1 auxin co-receptor, an effect that is dependent on the molecular chaperone HSP90...
  37. Takahashi K, Hayashi K, Kinoshita T. Auxin activates the plasma membrane H+-ATPase by phosphorylation during hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:632-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The ubiquitin-ligase complex SCF(TIR1/AFB) (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/..
  38. Tromas A, Paque S, Stierl V, Quettier A, Muller P, Lechner E, et al. Auxin-binding protein 1 is a negative regulator of the SCF(TIR1/AFB) pathway. Nat Commun. 2013;4:2496 pubmed publisher
    ..Auxin is perceived by two distinct classes of receptors: transport inhibitor response 1 (TIR1, or auxin-related F-box (AFB)) and auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (AUX/IAA) coreceptors, that ..
  39. Arase F, Nishitani H, Egusa M, Nishimoto N, Sakurai S, Sakamoto N, et al. IAA8 involved in lateral root formation interacts with the TIR1 auxin receptor and ARF transcription factors in Arabidopsis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e43414 pubmed publisher
    The expression of auxin-responsive genes is regulated by the TIR1/AFB auxin receptor-dependent degradation of Aux/IAA transcriptional repressors, which interact with auxin-responsive factors (ARFs)...
  40. Baster P, Robert S, Kleine Vehn J, Vanneste S, Kania U, Grunewald W, et al. SCF(TIR1/AFB)-auxin signalling regulates PIN vacuolar trafficking and auxin fluxes during root gravitropism. EMBO J. 2013;32:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect of elevated auxin levels requires the activity of SKP-Cullin-F-box(TIR1/AFB) (SCF(TIR1/AFB))-dependent pathway...
  41. Iglesias M, Terrile M, Windels D, Lombardo M, Bartoli C, Vazquez F, et al. MiR393 regulation of auxin signaling and redox-related components during acclimation to salinity in Arabidopsis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9:e107678 pubmed publisher
    ..on the phytohormone auxin that exerts its function through a partially redundant family of F-box receptors, the TIR1-AFBs...
  42. Zhang W, Ito H, Quint M, Huang H, Noël L, Gray W. Genetic analysis of CAND1-CUL1 interactions in Arabidopsis supports a role for CAND1-mediated cycling of the SCFTIR1 complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:8470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, using the SCF(TIR1) complex of the Arabidopsis auxin response pathway, we test the SCF cycling model with Arabidopsis mutant ..
  43. Gray W, Muskett P, Chuang H, Parker J. Arabidopsis SGT1b is required for SCF(TIR1)-mediated auxin response. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1310-9 pubmed
    The SCF(TIR1) complex is a central regulator of the auxin response pathway in Arabidopsis...