Gene Symbol: TFL2
Description: like heterochromatin protein (LHP1)
Alias: AtLHP1, LHP1, LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1, MVA3.4, MVA3_4, TERMINAL FLOWER 2, like heterochromatin protein (LHP1)
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Cui H, Benfey P. Interplay between SCARECROW, GA and LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 in ground tissue patterning in the Arabidopsis root. Plant J. 2009;58:1016-27 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of putative SCR-interacting proteins were identified, among them LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1)...
  2. Jackson J, Lindroth A, Cao X, Jacobsen S. Control of CpNpG DNA methylation by the KRYPTONITE histone H3 methyltransferase. Nature. 2002;416:556-60 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that CpNpG DNA methylation is controlled by histone H3 Lys 9 methylation, through interaction of CMT3 with methylated chromatin. ..
  3. Sung S, He Y, Eshoo T, Tamada Y, Johnson L, Nakahigashi K, et al. Epigenetic maintenance of the vernalized state in Arabidopsis thaliana requires LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1. Nat Genet. 2006;38:706-10 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that A. thaliana LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1) is necessary to maintain the epigenetically repressed state of FLC upon return to warm ..
  4. Barrero J, González Bayón R, del Pozo J, Ponce M, Micol J. INCURVATA2 encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA Polymerase alpha and interacts with genes involved in chromatin-mediated cellular memory in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2822-38 pubmed
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that a number of regulatory genes were derepressed in the icu2-1 mutant, including genes associated with flowering time, floral meristem, and floral organ identity. ..
  5. Gaudin V, Libault M, Pouteau S, Juul T, Zhao G, Lefebvre D, et al. Mutations in LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 affect flowering time and plant architecture in Arabidopsis. Development. 2001;128:4847-58 pubmed
    ..plant architecture, leaf development and flowering time in Arabidopsis has allowed us to clone and characterise LHP1, the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homologue...
  6. Larsson A, Landberg K, Meeks Wagner D. The TERMINAL FLOWER2 (TFL2) gene controls the reproductive transition and meristem identity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 1998;149:597-605 pubmed
    ..early and terminates the inflorescence with floral structures has been identified and named terminal flower2 (tfl2)...
  7. Mylne J, Barrett L, Tessadori F, Mesnage S, Johnson L, Bernatavichute Y, et al. LHP1, the Arabidopsis homologue of HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1, is required for epigenetic silencing of FLC. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:5012-7 pubmed
    ..loss-of-function mutation in the histone methyltransferases studied disrupted the vernalization response; however, lhp1 mutants revealed a role for LHP1 in maintaining epigenetic silencing of FLC...
  8. Turck F, Roudier F, Farrona S, Martin Magniette M, Guillaume E, Buisine N, et al. Arabidopsis TFL2/LHP1 specifically associates with genes marked by trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 27. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e86 pubmed
    TERMINAL FLOWER 2/LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (TFL2/LHP1) is the only Arabidopsis protein with overall sequence similarity to the HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (HP1) family of metazoans and S. pombe...
  9. Liu C, Xi W, Shen L, Tan C, Yu H. Regulation of floral patterning by flowering time genes. Dev Cell. 2009;16:711-22 pubmed publisher
    ..SVP, AGL24, and SOC1 is mediated by recruiting two interacting chromatin regulators, TERMINAL FLOWER 2/LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 and SAP18, a member of SIN3 histone deacetylase complex...

More Information


  1. Exner V, Aichinger E, Shu H, Wildhaber T, Alfarano P, Caflisch A, et al. The chromodomain of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 is essential for H3K27me3 binding and function during Arabidopsis development. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5335 pubmed publisher
    ..One candidate protein that could be involved in PRC1-like functions in plants is LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), because LHP1 associates with genes marked by H3K27me3 in vivo and has a chromodomain that ..
  2. Zemach A, Li Y, Ben Meir H, Oliva M, Mosquna A, Kiss V, et al. Different domains control the localization and mobility of LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 in Arabidopsis nuclei. Plant Cell. 2006;18:133-45 pubmed publisher
    Plants possess a single gene for the structurally related HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (HP1), termed LIKE-HP1 (LHP1). We investigated the subnuclear localization, binding properties, and dynamics of LHP1 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana cells...
  3. Zhang X, Germann S, Blus B, Khorasanizadeh S, Gaudin V, Jacobsen S. The Arabidopsis LHP1 protein colocalizes with histone H3 Lys27 trimethylation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:869-71 pubmed
    ..Using a DamID-chip method, we found that the Arabidopsis thaliana chromodomain-containing protein LHP1 colocalizes with H3K27me3 genome-wide...
  4. Germann S, Juul Jensen T, Letarnec B, Gaudin V. DamID, a new tool for studying plant chromatin profiling in vivo, and its use to identify putative LHP1 target loci. Plant J. 2006;48:153-63 pubmed
    ..We then used DamID to identify genomic targets of LHP1, a protein mostly associated with euchromatin...
  5. Xu L, Shen W. Polycomb silencing of KNOX genes confines shoot stem cell niches in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1966-71 pubmed publisher CURLY LEAF (CLF), a PRC2 core component catalyzing H3K27-methylation, and to LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1), a chromodomain protein binding trimethyl-H3K27...
  6. Libault M, Tessadori F, Germann S, Snijder B, Fransz P, Gaudin V. The Arabidopsis LHP1 protein is a component of euchromatin. Planta. 2005;222:910-25 pubmed
    ..Here we investigate the localization of LHP1, the unique Arabidopsis thaliana HP1 homolog known at present time, to approach its function...
  7. Derkacheva M, Steinbach Y, Wildhaber T, Mozgová I, Mahrez W, Nanni P, et al. Arabidopsis MSI1 connects LHP1 to PRC2 complexes. EMBO J. 2013;32:2073-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that MSI1 serves to link PRC2 to LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), a protein that binds H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo and is required for a functional plant PcG ..
  8. Valdés A, Rizzardi K, Johannesson H, Para A, Sundås Larsson A, Landberg K. Arabidopsis thaliana TERMINAL FLOWER2 is involved in light-controlled signalling during seedling photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:1013-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the terminal flower2 (tfl2) mutant, carrying a mutation in the Arabidopsis thaliana HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 homolog, functions in negative ..
  9. Li H, Luan S. The cyclophilin AtCYP71 interacts with CAF-1 and LHP1 and functions in multiple chromatin remodeling processes. Mol Plant. 2011;4:748-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that AtCYP71 physically interacts with FAS1 and LHP1, respectively, to modulate their distribution on chromatin...
  10. Latrasse D, Germann S, Houba Hérin N, Dubois E, Bui Prodhomme D, Hourcade D, et al. Control of flowering and cell fate by LIF2, an RNA binding partner of the polycomb complex component LHP1. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16592 pubmed publisher
    ..The chromo domain protein like heterochromatin protein1 (LHP1) is a subunit of a plant PRC1-like complex in Arabidopsis thaliana and recognizes histone H3 lysine 27 ..
  11. Molitor A, Latrasse D, Zytnicki M, Andrey P, Houba Hérin N, Hachet M, et al. The Arabidopsis hnRNP-Q Protein LIF2 and the PRC1 Subunit LHP1 Function in Concert to Regulate the Transcription of Stress-Responsive Genes. Plant Cell. 2016;28:2197-2211 pubmed publisher
    b>LHP1-INTERACTING FACTOR2 (LIF2), a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein involved in Arabidopsis thaliana cell fate and stress responses, interacts with LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (LHP1), a Polycomb Repressive Complex1 subunit...
  12. Bennett R, Wenke T, Freudenberg B, Mellon F, Ludwig Müller J. The tu8 mutation of Arabidopsis thaliana encoding a heterochromatin protein 1 homolog causes defects in the induction of secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2005;7:348-57 pubmed
    ..However, the transcript level of the TU8/TFL2 gene after heat shock and jasmonate treatment did not change...
  13. Li Z, Li B, Liu J, Guo Z, Liu Y, Li Y, et al. Transcription factors AS1 and AS2 interact with LHP1 to repress KNOX genes in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol. 2016;58:959-970 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), also known as TERMINAL FLOWER 2, was originally proposed as a subunit of polycomb repressive ..
  14. Pouteau S, Carré I, Gaudin V, Ferret V, Lefebvre D, Wilson M. Diversification of photoperiodic response patterns in a collection of early-flowering mutants of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the frequency of circadian defects in mutants with normal photoperiodic responses suggested that the circadian clock may regulate the number of leaves independently of its effect on daylength perception. ..
  15. Zhou Y, Romero Campero F, Gómez Zambrano A, Turck F, Calonje M. H2A monoubiquitination in Arabidopsis thaliana is generally independent of LHP1 and PRC2 activity. Genome Biol. 2017;18:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, by profiling H2AK121ub and H3K27me3 marks in atbmi1a/b/c, clf/swn, and lhp1 mutants we found that PRC2 activity is not required for H2AK121ub marking at most genes...
  16. Brasil J, Cabral L, Eloy N, Primo L, Barroso Neto I, Grangeiro L, et al. AIP1 is a novel Agenet/Tudor domain protein from Arabidopsis that interacts with regulators of DNA replication, transcription and chromatin remodeling. BMC Plant Biol. 2015;15:270 pubmed publisher
    ..a plant regulator of DNA replication licensing and gene transcription, with a plant histone modification "reader" (LHP1) and with non modified histones...
  17. Veluchamy A, Jégu T, Ariel F, Latrasse D, Mariappan K, Kim S, et al. LHP1 Regulates H3K27me3 Spreading and Shapes the Three-Dimensional Conformation of the Arabidopsis Genome. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0158936 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, LHP1 co-localizes with H3K27me3 epigenetic marks throughout the genome and interacts with PRC1 and PRC2 members as well ..
  18. Kim D, Zografos B, Sung S. Vernalization-mediated VIN3 Induction Overcomes the LIKE-HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1/POLYCOMB REPRESSION COMPLEX2-mediated epigenetic repression. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:949-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the induction of VIN3 includes dynamic changes at the level of chromatin triggered by long-term cold exposure. ..
  19. del Olmo I, López González L, Martín Trillo M, Martinez Zapater J, Piñeiro M, Jarillo J. EARLY IN SHORT DAYS 7 (ESD7) encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase epsilon and is required for flowering repression through a mechanism involving epigenetic gene silencing. Plant J. 2010;61:623-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes involved in the modulation of chromatin structural dynamics, such as LHP1/TFL2 and EBS, which negatively regulate FT expression, were found to interact genetically with ESD7...
  20. Hecker A, Brand L, Peter S, Simoncello N, Kilian J, Harter K, et al. The Arabidopsis GAGA-Binding Factor BASIC PENTACYSTEINE6 Recruits the POLYCOMB-REPRESSIVE COMPLEX1 Component LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 to GAGA DNA Motifs. Plant Physiol. 2015;168:1013-24 pubmed publisher
    ..GAGA-motif binding factor protein basic pentacysteine6 (BPC6) interacts with like heterochromatin protein1 (LHP1), a PRC1 component, and associates with vernalization2 (VRN2), a PRC2 component, in vivo...
  21. Hiltunen H, Illarionov B, Hedtke B, Fischer M, Grimm B. Arabidopsis RIBA proteins: two out of three isoforms have lost their bifunctional activity in riboflavin biosynthesis. Int J Mol Sci. 2012;13:14086-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetic analyses imply that the monofunctional, bipartite RIBA3 proteins, which have lost DHBPS activity, evolved early in tracheophyte evolution. ..
  22. Zhou Y, Tergemina E, Cui H, Förderer A, Hartwig B, Velikkakam James G, et al. Ctf4-related protein recruits LHP1-PRC2 to maintain H3K27me3 levels in dividing cells in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:4833-4838 pubmed publisher the Polycomb pathway in plants, we performed a forward genetic screen for enhancers of the like heterochromatin protein 1 (lhp1) mutant, which shows relatively mild phenotypic alterations compared with other plant ..
  23. Rizzardi K, Landberg K, Nilsson L, Ljung K, Sundås Larsson A. TFL2/LHP1 is involved in auxin biosynthesis through positive regulation of YUCCA genes. Plant J. 2011;65:897-906 pubmed publisher
    TERMINAL FLOWER2 (TFL2) is the plant homologue of metazoan HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN1 (HP1) protein family...