Gene Symbol: TFL1
Description: PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein
Alias: MED24.6, TERMINAL FLOWER 1, TFL-1, PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Strasser B, Alvarez M, Califano A, Cerdán P. A complementary role for ELF3 and TFL1 in the regulation of flowering time by ambient temperature. Plant J. 2009;58:629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that ambient temperature regulates flowering by two genetically distinguishable pathways, one requiring TFL1 and another requiring ELF3...
  2. Zou H, Zhang Y, Wei W, Chen H, Song Q, Liu Y, et al. The transcription factor AtDOF4.2 regulates shoot branching and seed coat formation in Arabidopsis. Biochem J. 2013;449:373-88 pubmed publisher
    ..AtDOF4.4, which is a close homologue of AtDOF4.2, also promotes shoot branching and affects silique size and seed yield. Manipulation of these genes should have a practical use in the improvement of agronomic traits in important crops. ..
  3. Ohto M, Onai K, Furukawa Y, Aoki E, Araki T, Nakamura K. Effects of sugar on vegetative development and floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2001;127:252-61 pubmed
    ..This delay resulted from effects on the early vegetative phase. This inhibition was more pronounced in tfl1, an early flowering mutant, than in the wild type...
  4. Baumann K, Venail J, Berbel A, Domenech M, Money T, Conti L, et al. Changing the spatial pattern of TFL1 expression reveals its key role in the shoot meristem in controlling Arabidopsis flowering architecture. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:4769-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Key elements of how the repressor of flowering and shoot meristem gene TFL1 acts have now been tested, by changing its spatiotemporal pattern...
  5. Hanano S, Goto K. Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1 is involved in the regulation of flowering time and inflorescence development through transcriptional repression. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3172-84 pubmed publisher
    TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a key regulator of flowering time and the development of the inflorescence meristem in Arabidopsis thaliana. TFL1 and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) have highly conserved amino acid sequences but opposite functions...
  6. Repinski S, Kwak M, Gepts P. The common bean growth habit gene PvTFL1y is a functional homolog of Arabidopsis TFL1. Theor Appl Genet. 2012;124:1539-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has identified TFL1 as a gene controlling determinate growth habit in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  7. Niwa M, Daimon Y, Kurotani K, Higo A, Pruneda Paz J, Breton G, et al. BRANCHED1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T to repress the floral transition of the axillary meristems in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1228-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results taken together suggest that BRC1 protein interacts with FT and TSF proteins and modulates florigen activity in the axillary buds to prevent premature floral transition of the AMs. ..
  8. Wang D, Li Q, Cui K, Zhu Y. PPF1 may suppress plant senescence via activating TFL1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. J Integr Plant Biol. 2008;50:475-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, TFL1, a key regulator in the floral repression pathway, was screened out as one of the downstream targets for PPF1 in ..
  9. Wickland D, Hanzawa Y. The FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 Gene Family: Functional Evolution and Molecular Mechanisms. Mol Plant. 2015;8:983-97 pubmed publisher
    ..and inflorescence architecture are modulated by two homologous proteins, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)...

More Information


  1. Conti L, Bradley D. TERMINAL FLOWER1 is a mobile signal controlling Arabidopsis architecture. Plant Cell. 2007;19:767-78 pubmed
    ..networks maintain this population, but how are meristem and organ identities controlled? TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) controls shoot meristem identity throughout the plant life cycle, affecting the number and identity of all above-..
  2. Guan C, Zhu S, Li X, Zhang X. Hormone-regulated inflorescence induction and TFL1 expression in Arabidopsis callus in vitro. Plant Cell Rep. 2006;25:1133-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, TFL1, a gene involved in floral transition in Arabidopsis, was activated during the inflorescence induction...
  3. Sohn E, Rojas Pierce M, Pan S, Carter C, Serrano Mislata A, Madueño F, et al. The shoot meristem identity gene TFL1 is involved in flower development and trafficking to the protein storage vacuole. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:18801-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant that disrupts PSV trafficking identified TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), a shoot meristem identity gene...
  4. Liu Y, Zhang D, Ping J, Li S, Chen Z, Ma J. Innovation of a Regulatory Mechanism Modulating Semi-determinate Stem Growth through Artificial Selection in Soybean. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005818 pubmed publisher
    It has been demonstrated that Terminal Flowering 1 (TFL1) in Arabidopsis and its functional orthologs in other plants specify indeterminate stem growth through their specific expression that represses floral identity genes in shoot apical ..
  5. Shannon S, Meeks Wagner D. A Mutation in the Arabidopsis TFL1 Gene Affects Inflorescence Meristem Development. Plant Cell. 1991;3:877-892 pubmed
    We present the initial phenotypic characterization of an Arabidopsis mutation, terminal flower 1-1 (tfl1-1), that identifies a new genetic locus, TFL1...
  6. Fernández Nohales P, Domenech M, Martínez de Alba A, Micol J, Ponce M, Madueno F. AGO1 controls arabidopsis inflorescence architecture possibly by regulating TFL1 expression. Ann Bot. 2014;114:1471-81 pubmed publisher
    The TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) gene is pivotal in the control of inflorescence architecture in arabidopsis...
  7. Jaeger K, Pullen N, Lamzin S, Morris R, Wigge P. Interlocking feedback loops govern the dynamic behavior of the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:820-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) act through FD and FD PARALOG to regulate the transition...
  8. Ahn J, Miller D, Winter V, Banfield M, Lee J, Yoo S, et al. A divergent external loop confers antagonistic activity on floral regulators FT and TFL1. EMBO J. 2006;25:605-14 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis genes FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) encode related proteins with similarity to human Raf kinase inhibitor protein...