Gene Symbol: SYP121
Description: syntaxin of plants 121
Alias: AT-SYR1, ATSYP121, ATSYR1, PEN1, PENETRATION1, SYNTAXIN RELATED PROTEIN 1, SYR1, syntaxin of plants 121, syntaxin of plants 121
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Heese M, Gansel X, Sticher L, Wick P, Grebe M, Granier F, et al. Functional characterization of the KNOLLE-interacting t-SNARE AtSNAP33 and its role in plant cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2001;155:239-49 pubmed
  2. Collins N, Thordal Christensen H, Lipka V, Bau S, Kombrink E, Qiu J, et al. SNARE-protein-mediated disease resistance at the plant cell wall. Nature. 2003;425:973-7 pubmed
    ..sp. hordei, and we isolated the PEN1 gene. We also isolated barley ROR2 (ref. 2), which is required for basal penetration resistance against B. g...
  3. Consonni C, Humphry M, Hartmann H, Livaja M, Durner J, Westphal L, et al. Conserved requirement for a plant host cell protein in powdery mildew pathogenesis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:716-20 pubmed
  4. Kwon C, Neu C, Pajonk S, Yun H, Lipka U, Humphry M, et al. Co-option of a default secretory pathway for plant immune responses. Nature. 2008;451:835-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutational analysis in Arabidopsis identified PEN1 syntaxin as one component of two pre-invasive resistance pathways against ascomycete powdery mildew fungi...
  5. Assaad F, Qiu J, Youngs H, Ehrhardt D, Zimmerli L, Kalde M, et al. The PEN1 syntaxin defines a novel cellular compartment upon fungal attack and is required for the timely assembly of papillae. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:5118-29 pubmed
    ..screens for mutations that result in increased penetration of Bgh on Arabidopsis have recently identified the PEN1 syntaxin...
  6. Zhang Z, Feechan A, Pedersen C, Newman M, Qiu J, Olesen K, et al. A SNARE-protein has opposing functions in penetration resistance and defence signalling pathways. Plant J. 2007;49:302-12 pubmed
    ..sp. hordei) requires the syntaxin SYP121 (PEN1)...
  7. Honsbein A, Blatt M, Grefen C. A molecular framework for coupling cellular volume and osmotic solute transport control. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:2363-70 pubmed publisher
    ..among Arabidopsis Kv-like K(+) channels in selective interaction with the vesicle-trafficking protein SYP121. These advances suggest some common paradigms that will help guide further exploration of the underlying ..
  8. Karnik R, Zhang B, Waghmare S, Aderhold C, Grefen C, Blatt M. Binding of SEC11 indicates its role in SNARE recycling after vesicle fusion and identifies two pathways for vesicular traffic to the plasma membrane. Plant Cell. 2015;27:675-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Two homologous SNAREs, SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) and SYP122, dominate secretory traffic to the Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane...
  9. Zhao T, Rui L, Li J, Nishimura M, Vogel J, Liu N, et al. A truncated NLR protein, TIR-NBS2, is required for activated defense responses in the exo70B1 mutant. PLoS Genet. 2015;11:e1004945 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are consistent with a speculative model wherein pathogen effectors could evolve to target EXO70B1 to manipulate plant secretion machinery. TN2 could monitor EXO70B1 integrity as part of an immune receptor complex. ..

More Information


  1. Karnik R, Grefen C, Bayne R, Honsbein A, Köhler T, Kioumourtzoglou D, et al. Arabidopsis Sec1/Munc18 protein SEC11 is a competitive and dynamic modulator of SNARE binding and SYP121-dependent vesicle traffic. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1368-82 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis thaliana Qa-SNARE SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) drives vesicle traffic at the plasma membrane of cells throughout the vegetative plant...
  2. Eisenach C, Chen Z, Grefen C, Blatt M. The trafficking protein SYP121 of Arabidopsis connects programmed stomatal closure and K? channel activity with vegetative growth. Plant J. 2012;69:241-51 pubmed publisher
    The vesicle-trafficking protein SYP121 (SYR1/PEN1) was originally identified in association with ion channel control at the plasma membrane of stomatal guard cells, although stomata of the Arabidopsis syp121 loss-of-function mutant close ..
  3. Grefen C, Chen Z, Honsbein A, Donald N, Hills A, Blatt M. A novel motif essential for SNARE interaction with the K(+) channel KC1 and channel gating in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3076-92 pubmed publisher
    The SNARE (for soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor protein attachment protein receptor) protein SYP121 (=SYR1/PEN1) of Arabidopsis thaliana facilitates vesicle traffic, delivering ion channels and other cargo to the plasma membrane, ..
  4. Sutter J, Campanoni P, Tyrrell M, Blatt M. Selective mobility and sensitivity to SNAREs is exhibited by the Arabidopsis KAT1 K+ channel at the plasma membrane. Plant Cell. 2006;18:935-54 pubmed
    ..We previously identified SNAREs SYP121/Syr1 from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog SYP121 associated with abscisic acid ..
  5. Honsbein A, Sokolovski S, Grefen C, Campanoni P, Pratelli R, Paneque M, et al. A tripartite SNARE-K+ channel complex mediates in channel-dependent K+ nutrition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2859-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana SNARE SYP121 binds to KC1, a regulatory K(+) channel subunit that assembles with different inward-rectifying K(+) channels to ..
  6. Foresti O, daSilva L, Denecke J. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis syntaxin PEP12/SYP21 inhibits transport from the prevacuolar compartment to the lytic vacuole in vivo. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2275-93 pubmed
    ..The results provide a functional in vivo assay that confirms PEP12/SYP21 involvement in vacuolar sorting and indicates that excess of this syntaxin in the PVC can be detrimental for further transport from this organelle. ..
  7. Hachez C, Laloux T, Reinhardt H, Cavez D, Degand H, Grefen C, et al. Arabidopsis SNAREs SYP61 and SYP121 coordinate the trafficking of plasma membrane aquaporin PIP2;7 to modulate the cell membrane water permeability. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3132-47 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana involves specific interactions with two syntaxin proteins, namely, the Qc-SNARE SYP61 and the Qa-SNARE SYP121, that the proper delivery of PIP2;7 to the plasma membrane depends on the activity of the two SNAREs, and that the ..
  8. Leyman B, Geelen D, Quintero F, Blatt M. A tobacco syntaxin with a role in hormonal control of guard cell ion channels. Science. 1999;283:537-40 pubmed
    ..The tobacco Nt-SYR1 gene encodes a syntaxin that is associated with the plasma membrane...
  9. Pajonk S, Kwon C, Clemens N, Panstruga R, Schulze Lefert P. Activity determinants and functional specialization of Arabidopsis PEN1 syntaxin in innate immunity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26974-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana PEN1 syntaxin resides in the plasma membrane and was previously shown to act together with its partner SNAREs, the ..
  10. Tyrrell M, Campanoni P, Sutter J, Pratelli R, Paneque M, Sokolovski S, et al. Selective targeting of plasma membrane and tonoplast traffic by inhibitory (dominant-negative) SNARE fragments. Plant J. 2007;51:1099-115 pubmed that traffic to the plasma membrane is suppressed selectively by Sp2 fragments of plasma membrane SNAREs AtSYP121 and AtSYP122, but not of the closely related SNARE AtSYP111 nor of the SNARE AtSYP21 that resides at the pre-..
  11. Reichardt I, Slane D, El Kasmi F, Knoll C, Fuchs R, Mayer U, et al. Mechanisms of functional specificity among plasma-membrane syntaxins in Arabidopsis. Traffic. 2011;12:1269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..identify mechanisms conferring specificity of action, we examined one member of each subfamily-KNOLLE/SYP111, PEN1/SYP121 and SYP132-in regard to subcellular localization, dynamic behavior and complementation of knolle and pen1 mutants ..
  12. Maekawa S, Inada N, Yasuda S, Fukao Y, Fujiwara M, Sato T, et al. The carbon/nitrogen regulator ARABIDOPSIS TOXICOS EN LEVADURA31 controls papilla formation in response to powdery mildew fungi penetration by interacting with SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS121 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2014;164:879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor SYNTAXIN OF PLANTS121 (SYP121) as a novel ATL31 interactor...
  13. Pajerowska K, Parker J, Gebhardt C. Potato homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes functional in defense signaling--identification, genetic mapping, and molecular cloning. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2005;18:1107-19 pubmed
    ..Our results form the basis for further studies on the contributions of these candidate genes to natural variation of potato disease resistance. ..