Gene Symbol: STK
Description: K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Alias: AGAMOUS-like 11, AGL11, SEEDSTICK, T5L19.90, T5L19_90, K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Brambilla V, Battaglia R, Colombo M, Masiero S, Bencivenga S, Kater M, et al. Genetic and molecular interactions between BELL1 and MADS box factors support ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2544-56 pubmed particular ovule identity factors, such as the homeodomain factor BELL1 (BEL1) and MADS box family members SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2, and AGAMOUS...
  2. Matias Hernandez L, Battaglia R, Galbiati F, Rubes M, Eichenberger C, Grossniklaus U, et al. VERDANDI is a direct target of the MADS domain ovule identity complex and affects embryo sac differentiation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1702-15 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the three MADS box genes SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), and SHP2 redundantly regulate ovule development...
  3. Mizzotti C, Mendes M, Caporali E, Schnittger A, Kater M, Battaglia R, et al. The MADS box genes SEEDSTICK and ARABIDOPSIS Bsister play a maternal role in fertilization and seed development. Plant J. 2012;70:409-20 pubmed publisher
    ..However, fertility is not affected in abs single mutants. SEEDSTICK regulates ovule identity redundantly with SHATTERPROOF 1 (SHP1) and SHP2 while a role in the control of ..
  4. Favaro R, Pinyopich A, Battaglia R, Kooiker M, Borghi L, Ditta G, et al. MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2603-11 pubmed
    ..and is part of a monophyletic clade of MADS-box genes that also includes SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2, and SEEDSTICK (STK)...
  5. Rounsley S, Ditta G, Yanofsky M. Diverse roles for MADS box genes in Arabidopsis development. Plant Cell. 1995;7:1259-69 pubmed
    ..RNA expression analyses of the six genes reported here indicate that two genes, AGL11 and AGL13 (AGL for AGAMOUS-like), are preferentially expressed in ovules, but each has a distinct expression ..
  6. Kaufmann K, Anfang N, Saedler H, Theissen G. Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;274:103-18 pubmed
    ..SEPALLATA (SEP) floral homeotic proteins and multimeric complexes that also include the AGAMOUS-like proteins SEEDSTICK (STK) or SHATTERPROOF1/2 (SHP1, SHP2)...
  7. Coen O, Fiume E, Xu W, De Vos D, Lu J, Pechoux C, et al. Developmental patterning of the sub-epidermal integument cell layer in Arabidopsis seeds. Development. 2017;144:1490-1497 pubmed publisher
    ..layer, which initiates a previously uncharacterized extra cell layer, and identified TRANSPARENT TESTA 16 and SEEDSTICK MADS box transcription factors as master regulators of its polar development and cell architecture...
  8. Battaglia R, Brambilla V, Colombo L, Stuitje A, Kater M. Functional analysis of MADS-box genes controlling ovule development in Arabidopsis using the ethanol-inducible alc gene-expression system. Mech Dev. 2006;123:267-76 pubmed
    ..Recently, it has been shown that the three MADS-box genes SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHP2 act redundantly to control ovule identity...
  9. Losa A, Colombo M, Brambilla V, Colombo L. Genetic interaction between AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) and the ovule identity genes SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2). Sex Plant Reprod. 2010;23:115-21 pubmed publisher
    ..initiation and growth of ovule integuments which cell fate is specified by ovule identity factors, such as SEEDSTICK (STK), SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1) and SHATTERPROOF2 (SHP2)...

More Information


  1. Ezquer I, Mizzotti C, Nguema Ona E, Gotté M, Beauzamy L, Viana V, et al. The Developmental Regulator SEEDSTICK Controls Structural and Mechanical Properties of the Arabidopsis Seed Coat. Plant Cell. 2016;28:2478-2492 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate by molecular genetic studies that SEEDSTICK (STK), a transcription factor controlling ovule and seed integument identity, directly regulates PMEI6 and other ..
  2. Mendes M, Guerra R, Berns M, Manzo C, Masiero S, Finzi L, et al. MADS domain transcription factors mediate short-range DNA looping that is essential for target gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2560-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To gain deeper insight into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by MADS domain factors, we studied how SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) directly regulate the expression of the reproductive meristem gene family ..
  3. Mizzotti C, Ezquer I, Paolo D, Rueda Romero P, Guerra R, Battaglia R, et al. SEEDSTICK is a master regulator of development and metabolism in the Arabidopsis seed coat. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004856 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genome-wide transcriptomic analysis suggests that the ovule identity factor SEEDSTICK (STK) is involved in the regulation of several metabolic processes, providing a strong basis for a connection ..