Gene Symbol: SEP3
Description: K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Alias: AGAMOUS-like 9, AGL9, F3I6.19, F3I6_19, SEPALLATA3, TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AGL9, K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Brambilla V, Battaglia R, Colombo M, Masiero S, Bencivenga S, Kater M, et al. Genetic and molecular interactions between BELL1 and MADS box factors support ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2544-56 pubmed
    ..We propose a model for ovule development that explains how the balance between carpel identity activity and ovule identity activity is established by a MADS box homeodomain protein complex. ..
  2. Kaufmann K, Anfang N, Saedler H, Theissen G. Mutant analysis, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization of the Arabidopsis B sister (ABS) protein. Mol Genet Genomics. 2005;274:103-18 pubmed
    ..Heterodimerization of ABS with SEP3 was confirmed by gel retardation assays...
  3. Melzer R, Verelst W, Theissen G. The class E floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 is sufficient to loop DNA in 'floral quartet'-like complexes in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide physico-chemical evidence that in vitro homotetramers of the class E floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 from Arabidopsis thaliana bind cooperatively to two sequence elements termed 'CArG boxes' in a phase-dependent ..
  4. Sridhar V, Surendrarao A, Liu Z. APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact with SEUSS to mediate transcription repression during flower development. Development. 2006;133:3159-66 pubmed
    ..Using the yeast two-hybrid assay and a co-immunoprecipitation assay, we showed that APETALA1 (AP1) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), both MADS box DNA-binding proteins, interacted with SEU...
  5. Pelaz S, Ditta G, Baumann E, Wisman E, Yanofsky M. B and C floral organ identity functions require SEPALLATA MADS-box genes. Nature. 2000;405:200-3 pubmed
    ..Thus SEP1/2/3 are a class of organ-identity genes that is required for development of petals, stamens and carpels. ..
  6. de Folter S, Shchennikova A, Franken J, Busscher M, Baskar R, Grossniklaus U, et al. A Bsister MADS-box gene involved in ovule and seed development in petunia and Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2006;47:934-46 pubmed
    ..The results presented here demonstrate the importance of the comparative analysis of key regulatory genes in various model systems to fully understand all aspects of plant development...
  7. Pelaz S, Gustafson Brown C, Kohalmi S, Crosby W, Yanofsky M. APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3 interact to promote flower development. Plant J. 2001;26:385-94 pubmed
    ..Among the five MADS-box genes identified in this screen, the SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) gene was chosen for further study...
  8. Yang Y, Jack T. Defining subdomains of the K domain important for protein-protein interactions of plant MADS proteins. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;55:45-59 pubmed
    The MADS proteins APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), SEPALLATAI (SEPI), SEP2, SEP3, AGAMOUS, and APETALA are required for proper floral organ identity in Arabidopsis flowers...
  9. Castillejo C, Romera Branchat M, Pelaz S. A new role of the Arabidopsis SEPALLATA3 gene revealed by its constitutive expression. Plant J. 2005;43:586-96 pubmed
    ..In addition, genetic and molecular experiments using plants constitutively expressing SEPALLATA3 revealed a new role of SEPALLATA3 in activating other B and C function genes...

More Information


  1. Favaro R, Pinyopich A, Battaglia R, Kooiker M, Borghi L, Ditta G, et al. MADS-box protein complexes control carpel and ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2603-11 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that the SEP proteins, which are known to form multimeric complexes in the control of flower organ identity, also form complexes to control normal ovule development. ..
  2. Immink R, Tonaco I, de Folter S, Shchennikova A, van Dijk A, Busscher Lange J, et al. SEPALLATA3: the 'glue' for MADS box transcription factor complex formation. Genome Biol. 2009;10:R24 pubmed publisher
    ..b>SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) has been shown to mediate complex formation and, therefore, special attention is paid to this factor in ..
  3. Kaufmann K, Muiño J, Jauregui R, Airoldi C, Smaczniak C, Krajewski P, et al. Target genes of the MADS transcription factor SEPALLATA3: integration of developmental and hormonal pathways in the Arabidopsis flower. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000090 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to characterize the roles of the SEPALLATA3 transcription factor complexes at the molecular level, we analyzed genome-wide the direct targets of SEPALLATA3...
  4. Honma T, Goto K. Complexes of MADS-box proteins are sufficient to convert leaves into floral organs. Nature. 2001;409:525-9 pubmed
    ..proteins of Arabidopsis, PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA3 (AP3), interact with APETALA1 (AP1, a class A protein) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3, previously AGL9), and with AGAMOUS (AG, a class C protein) through SEP3...
  5. Wu M, Sang Y, Bezhani S, Yamaguchi N, Han S, Li Z, et al. SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPases overcome polycomb repression and control floral organ identity with the LEAFY and SEPALLATA3 transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:3576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..interact with two direct transcriptional activators of class B and class C gene expression, LEAFY (LFY) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3)...
  6. Acajjaoui S, Zubieta C. Crystallization studies of the keratin-like domain from Arabidopsis thaliana SEPALLATA 3. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2013;69:997-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..SEPALLATA 3 (SEP3) is a member of the MADS TF family and plays a role in the development of the floral organs through the formation ..
  7. Fan H, Hu Y, Tudor M, Ma H. Specific interactions between the K domains of AG and AGLs, members of the MADS domain family of DNA binding proteins. Plant J. 1997;12:999-1010 pubmed
    ..These clones each encode one of four highly related MADS domain proteins: AGL2, AGL4, AGL6 and AGL9. Additional analysis showed that the K domain of AG alone was able to bind the K domains of these AGLs...
  8. He Q, Fu A, Zhang G, Li T, Zhang J. Cloning, Prokaryotic Expression and Purification of CpfS1 Gene from Arabidopsis Thaliana. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 2015;61:123-7 pubmed
    ..5 kD recombinant protein was produced. The nickel chelating resin was used to purify the protein in size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and the results indicated that AtCpfS1 protein was present in the form of tetramer. ..
  9. MacLean A, Orlovskis Z, Kowitwanich K, Zdziarska A, Angenent G, Immink R, et al. Phytoplasma effector SAP54 hijacks plant reproduction by degrading MADS-box proteins and promotes insect colonization in a RAD23-dependent manner. PLoS Biol. 2014;12:e1001835 pubmed publisher
    ..that interacts with members of the MADS-domain transcription factor (MTF) family, including key regulators SEPALLATA3 and APETALA1, that occupy central positions in the regulation of floral development...
  10. Hwan Lee J, Joon Kim J, Ahn J. Role of SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) as a downstream gene of miR156-SPL3-FT circuitry in ambient temperature-responsive flowering. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:1151-4 pubmed publisher
    b>SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) is important in determining flowering time as well as floral organ identity...
  11. Lopez Vernaza M, Yang S, Muller R, Thorpe F, de Leau E, Goodrich J. Antagonistic roles of SEPALLATA3, FT and FLC genes as targets of the polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30715 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the suppressors correspond to mutations in FPA and FT, two genes promoting flowering, and in SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) which encodes a co-factor for AG protein...
  12. Mendes M, Guerra R, Berns M, Manzo C, Masiero S, Finzi L, et al. MADS domain transcription factors mediate short-range DNA looping that is essential for target gene expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2560-72 pubmed publisher
    ..into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by MADS domain factors, we studied how SEEDSTICK (STK) and SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) directly regulate the expression of the reproductive meristem gene family transcription factor-encoding ..
  13. Battaglia R, Brambilla V, Colombo L, Stuitje A, Kater M. Functional analysis of MADS-box genes controlling ovule development in Arabidopsis using the ethanol-inducible alc gene-expression system. Mech Dev. 2006;123:267-76 pubmed
    ..Ectopic expression of SEP3 in combination with class A and B or B and C genes is sufficient to homeotically convert vegetative leaves into ..
  14. Shi Q, Zhou J, Wang P, Lin X, Xu Y. Protein expression and characterization of SEP3 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Genet Mol Res. 2015;14:12529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In vitro assays indicated that SEP3 forms a tetramer after binding to DNA, but it is unclear whether DNA binding induces the tetramer, because SEP3 is ..
  15. Zhang W, Zhang T, Wu Y, Jiang J. Genome-wide identification of regulatory DNA elements and protein-binding footprints using signatures of open chromatin in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2719-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Approximately 90% of the binding sites of two well-characterized MADS domain transcription factors, APETALA1 and SEPALLATA3, were covered by the DH sites...
  16. Hill K, Wang H, Perry S. A transcriptional repression motif in the MADS factor AGL15 is involved in recruitment of histone deacetylase complex components. Plant J. 2008;53:172-85 pubmed
    ..This motif mediates the association of AGL15 with SAP18, thus providing a possible mechanism for the role of AGL15 in regulating gene expression via recruitment of an HDAC complex. ..
  17. Puranik S, Acajjaoui S, Conn S, Costa L, Conn V, Vial A, et al. Structural basis for the oligomerization of the MADS domain transcription factor SEPALLATA3 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3603-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, one of the most central members of this family is SEPALLATA3 (SEP3), which is involved in many aspects of plant reproduction, including floral meristem and floral organ ..
  18. Fornara F, Parenicová L, Falasca G, Pelucchi N, Masiero S, Ciannamea S, et al. Functional characterization of OsMADS18, a member of the AP1/SQUA subfamily of MADS box genes. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:2207-19 pubmed
    ..Thus, when compared to AP1, OsMADS18 during evolution seems to have conserved the mechanistic properties of protein-protein interactions, although it cannot complement the AP1 function. ..
  19. Smaczniak C, Immink R, Muiño J, Blanvillain R, Busscher M, Busscher Lange J, et al. Characterization of MADS-domain transcription factor complexes in Arabidopsis flower development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..purification and mass spectrometry that five major floral homeotic MADS-domain proteins (AP1, AP3, PI, AG, and SEP3) interact in floral tissues as proposed in the "floral quartet" model...
  20. Melzer R, Theissen G. Reconstitution of 'floral quartets' in vitro involving class B and class E floral homeotic proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2723-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, we have shown that the class E floral homeotic protein SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) is sufficient to loop DNA in floral-quartet-like complexes in vitro...