Gene Symbol: SAL1
Description: SAL1 phosphatase-like protein
Alias: ALTERED EXPRESSION OF APX2 8, ALX8, ATSAL1, AtFRY1, FIERY1, FRY1, HIGH EXPRESSION OF OSMOTICALLY RESPONSIVE GENES 2, HOS2, MBM17.8, MBM17_8, RON1, ROTUNDA 1, SUPO1, suppressors of PIN1 overexpression 1, SAL1 phosphatase-like protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     SAL1

Top Publications

  1. Robles P, Fleury D, Candela H, Cnops G, Alonso Peral M, Anami S, et al. The RON1/FRY1/SAL1 gene is required for leaf morphogenesis and venation patterning in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1357-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We positionally cloned the RON1 gene and found it to be identical to FRY1/SAL1, which encodes an enzyme with inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase and 3' (2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase ..
  2. Chen H, Xiong L. The bifunctional abiotic stress signalling regulator and endogenous RNA silencing suppressor FIERY1 is required for lateral root formation. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:2180-90 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis FIERY1 (FRY1) locus was originally identified as a negative regulator of stress-responsive gene expression and later shown to be required for suppression of RNA silencing...
  3. Gy I, Gasciolli V, Lauressergues D, Morel J, Gombert J, Proux F, et al. Arabidopsis FIERY1, XRN2, and XRN3 are endogenous RNA silencing suppressors. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3451-61 pubmed
    ..Independently, we identified the nucleotidase/phosphatase FIERY1 (FRY1) as an endogenous PTGS suppressor through a suppressor screen in a hypomorphic ago1 genetic background...
  4. Kim B, von Arnim A. FIERY1 regulates light-mediated repression of cell elongation and flowering time via its 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase activity. Plant J. 2009;58:208-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that a mutation in the Arabidopsis FIERY1 gene (FRY1) caused a shortened hypocotyl and shorter petioles, most dramatically under low-intensity red light and ..
  5. Quintero F, Garciadeblas B, Rodriguez Navarro A. The SAL1 gene of Arabidopsis, encoding an enzyme with 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase and inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase activities, increases salt tolerance in yeast. Plant Cell. 1996;8:529-37 pubmed
    ..The cDNA SAL1 isolated from one of these transformants encodes a polypeptide of 353 amino acid residues...
  6. Xiong L, Lee H, Huang R, Zhu J. A single amino acid substitution in the Arabidopsis FIERY1/HOS2 protein confers cold signaling specificity and lithium tolerance. Plant J. 2004;40:536-45 pubmed
    ..The HOS2 gene was cloned using a map-based strategy. Surprisingly, HOS2 is identical to the FIERY1 gene that we had described previously...
  7. Estavillo G, Crisp P, Pornsiriwong W, Wirtz M, Collinge D, Carrie C, et al. Evidence for a SAL1-PAP chloroplast retrograde pathway that functions in drought and high light signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3992-4012 pubmed publisher
    ..which accumulates in Arabidopsis thaliana in response to drought and high light (HL) stress and that the enzyme SAL1 regulates its levels by dephosphorylating PAP to AMP...
  8. Wilson P, Estavillo G, Field K, Pornsiriwong W, Carroll A, Howell K, et al. The nucleotidase/phosphatase SAL1 is a negative regulator of drought tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;58:299-317 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously identified mutations in SAL1, including fiery (fry1-1), were reported as being more sensitive to drought imposed by detachment of rosettes...
  9. Xiong L, Lee Bh -, Ishitani M, Lee H, Zhang C, Zhu J. FIERY1 encoding an inositol polyphosphate 1-phosphatase is a negative regulator of abscisic acid and stress signaling in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1971-84 pubmed
    ..Here we report the identification of an Arabidopsis mutation, fiery1 (fry1), which results in super-induction of ABA- and stress-responsive genes...

More Information


  1. Rodriguez V, Ch├ętelat A, Majcherczyk P, Farmer E. Chloroplastic phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate metabolism regulates basal levels of the prohormone jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..fou8 produces a null allele in the gene SAL1 (also known as FIERY1 or FRY1)...
  2. Chen H, Xiong L. Genetic interaction of two abscisic acid signaling regulators, HY5 and FIERY1, in mediating lateral root formation. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:123-5 pubmed
    ..In a recent study, we found that FIERY1, a bifunctional abiotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling regulator and an endogenous RNA silencing ..
  3. Lee B, Huseby S, Koprivova A, Ch├ętelat A, Wirtz M, Mugford S, et al. Effects of fou8/fry1 mutation on sulfur metabolism: is decreased internal sulfate the trigger of sulfate starvation response?. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39425 pubmed publisher
    The fou8 loss of function allele of adenosine bisphosphate phosphatase FIERY1 results in numerous phenotypes including the increased enzymatic oxygenation of fatty acids and increased jasmonate synthesis...
  4. Xi H, Xu H, Xu W, He Z, Xu W, Ma M. A SAL1 Loss-of-Function Arabidopsis Mutant Exhibits Enhanced Cadmium Tolerance in Association with Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress. Plant Cell Physiol. 2016;57:1210-9 pubmed publisher
    b>SAL1, as a negative regulator of stress response signaling, has been studied extensively for its role in plant response to environmental stresses...
  5. Chan K, Mabbitt P, Phua S, Mueller J, Nisar N, Gigolashvili T, et al. Sensing and signaling of oxidative stress in chloroplasts by inactivation of the SAL1 phosphoadenosine phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E4567-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana SAL1 (AtSAL1) senses changes in photosynthetic redox poise, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide concentrations in chloroplasts ..
  6. Lee H, Xiong L, Ishitani M, Stevenson B, Zhu J. Cold-regulated gene expression and freezing tolerance in an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant. Plant J. 1999;17:301-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we report the characterization of a genetic locus, HOS2, which is defined by three Arabidopsis thaliana mutants...
  7. Dai M, Zhang C, Kania U, Chen F, Xue Q, McCray T, et al. A PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme directly regulates PIN phosphorylation and auxin efflux in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2497-514 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, an Arabidopsis PP6-type phosphatase holoenzyme acts antagonistically with PID to direct auxin transport polarity and plant development by directly regulating PIN phosphorylation...