Gene Symbol: RGL2
Description: RGA-like 2
Alias: RGA-like 2, T21P5.13, T21P5_13, RGA-like 2
Species: thale cress
Products:     RGL2

Top Publications

  1. Piskurewicz U, Jikumaru Y, Kinoshita N, Nambara E, Kamiya Y, Lopez Molina L. The gibberellic acid signaling repressor RGL2 inhibits Arabidopsis seed germination by stimulating abscisic acid synthesis and ABI5 activity. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2729-45 pubmed publisher
    ..GA promotes seed germination by enhancing the proteasome-mediated destruction of RGL2 (for RGA-LIKE2), a key DELLA factor repressing germination...
  2. Lee S, Cheng H, King K, Wang W, He Y, Hussain A, et al. Gibberellin regulates Arabidopsis seed germination via RGL2, a GAI/RGA-like gene whose expression is up-regulated following imbibition. Genes Dev. 2002;16:646-58 pubmed
    ..The Arabidopsis genome contains two further genes, RGL1 and RGL2, that encode proteins (RGL1 and RGL2) that are closely related to GAI and RGA...
  3. Cao D, Hussain A, Cheng H, Peng J. Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2005;223:105-13 pubmed
    ..In this report, using ga1-3 mutation as the genetic background, we confirm that RGL2, one member of the DELLA family, encodes the predominant repressor of seed germination in Arabidopsis and show that ..
  4. Lee K, Piskurewicz U, Turecková V, Strnad M, Lopez Molina L. A seed coat bedding assay shows that RGL2-dependent release of abscisic acid by the endosperm controls embryo growth in Arabidopsis dormant seeds. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19108-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistent high ABA levels in imbibed dormant seeds requires the permanent expression of the DELLA gene RGL2, where it remains insensitive to gibberellins (GA) unlike in nondormant seeds...
  5. Hong G, Xue X, Mao Y, Wang L, Chen X. Arabidopsis MYC2 interacts with DELLA proteins in regulating sesquiterpene synthase gene expression. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis inflorescences, it integrates both GA and JA signals into transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes and promotes sesquiterpene production. ..
  6. Hussain A, Cao D, Cheng H, Wen Z, Peng J. Identification of the conserved serine/threonine residues important for gibberellin-sensitivity of Arabidopsis RGL2 protein. Plant J. 2005;44:88-99 pubmed
    The DELLA proteins GAI, RGA, RGL1 and RGL2 in Arabidopsis are plant growth repressors, repressing diverse developmental processes...
  7. Wang F, Zhu D, Huang X, Li S, Gong Y, Yao Q, et al. Biochemical insights on degradation of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins gained from a cell-free assay system. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro assay system could be widely adapted for dissecting cellular signaling pathways in which regulated proteolysis is a key recurrent theme. ..
  8. Hou X, Lee L, Xia K, Yan Y, Yu H. DELLAs modulate jasmonate signaling via competitive binding to JAZs. Dev Cell. 2010;19:884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Because DELLAs serve as central regulators that mediate the crosstalk of various phytohormones, our model also suggests a candidate mechanism by which JA signaling may be fine-tuned by other signaling pathways through DELLAs. ..
  9. Feng S, Martinez C, Gusmaroli G, Wang Y, Zhou J, Wang F, et al. Coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana development by light and gibberellins. Nature. 2008;451:475-9 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Gallego Bartolome J, Minguet E, Marín J, Prat S, Blázquez M, Alabadi D. Transcriptional diversification and functional conservation between DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that two evolutionarily and functionally divergent DELLA proteins, RGL2 and RGA, can perform exchangeable functions when they are expressed under control of the reciprocal promoter...
  2. Nakajima M, Shimada A, Takashi Y, Kim Y, Park S, Ueguchi Tanaka M, et al. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors. Plant J. 2006;46:880-9 pubmed
    ..The expression of each AtGID1 clone in the rice gid1-1 mutant rescued the GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype. These results demonstrate that all three AtGID1s functioned as GA receptors in Arabidopsis. ..
  3. Ibarra S, Tognacca R, Dave A, Graham I, Sánchez R, Botto J. Molecular mechanisms underlying the entrance in secondary dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell Environ. 2016;39:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..content and sensitivity to GA, but the content and sensitivity to ABA do not change, albeit ABA is required; (2) RGL2 promotes the entrance in secondary dormancy through ABI5 action; and (3) multivariate analysis with 18 geographical ..
  4. Davière J, Wild M, Regnault T, Baumberger N, Eisler H, Genschik P, et al. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1923-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height. ..
  5. Hou X, Zhou J, Liu C, Liu L, Shen L, Yu H. Nuclear factor Y-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation of the SOC1 locus orchestrates flowering responses of Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4601 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish NF-Y complexes as critical mediators of epigenetic marks that regulate the response to environmental or intrinsic signals in plants. ..
  6. Stamm P, Ravindran P, Mohanty B, Tan E, Yu H, Kumar P. Insights into the molecular mechanism of RGL2-mediated inhibition of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:179 pubmed publisher
    ..Gibberellins are the key phytohormones that promote germination, and the DELLA protein RGL2 is the main signalling intermediate involved in this response...
  7. Feurtado J, Huang D, Wicki Stordeur L, Hemstock L, Potentier M, Tsang E, et al. The Arabidopsis C2H2 zinc finger INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1/ENHYDROUS promotes the transition to germination by regulating light and hormonal signaling during seed maturation. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1772-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The physical interaction of ENY with DELLAs and an ENY-triggered accumulation of DELLA transcripts during maturation support the conclusion that ENY mediates GA effects to balance ABA-promoted maturation during late seed development. ..
  8. Liu X, Hu P, Huang M, Tang Y, Li Y, Li L, et al. The NF-YC-RGL2 module integrates GA and ABA signalling to regulate seed germination in Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:12768 pubmed publisher
    ..These NF-YCs interact with the DELLA protein RGL2, a key repressor of GA signalling...
  9. Suzuki H, Park S, Okubo K, Kitamura J, Ueguchi Tanaka M, Iuchi S, et al. Differential expression and affinities of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors can explain variation in phenotypes of multiple knock-out mutants. Plant J. 2009;60:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..AtGID1c showed a quite lower affinity to RGL2, the major DELLA protein in floral buds, than AtGID1a or AtGID1b...
  10. Ariizumi T, Steber C. Seed germination of GA-insensitive sleepy1 mutants does not require RGL2 protein disappearance in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:791-804 pubmed
    We explore the roles of gibberellin (GA) signaling genes SLEEPY1 (SLY1) and RGA-LIKE2 (RGL2) in regulation of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana, a plant in which the hormone GA is required for seed germination...
  11. Arnaud N, Girin T, Sorefan K, Fuentes S, Wood T, Lawrenson T, et al. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2127-32 pubmed publisher
  12. Achard P, Renou J, Berthomé R, Harberd N, Genschik P. Plant DELLAs restrain growth and promote survival of adversity by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species. Curr Biol. 2008;18:656-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that environmental variability regulates DELLA activity [8] and that DELLAs in turn couple the downstream regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance through modulation of ROS levels. ..
  13. Rombolá Caldentey B, Rueda Romero P, Iglesias Fernández R, Carbonero P, Oñate Sánchez L. Arabidopsis DELLA and two HD-ZIP transcription factors regulate GA signaling in the epidermis through the L1 box cis-element. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2905-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that, upon seed imbibition, increased GA levels reduce DELLA protein abundance and release ATML1/PDF2 to activate L1 box gene expression, thus enhancing germination potential. ..
  14. Navarro L, Bari R, Achard P, Lisón P, Nemri A, Harberd N, et al. DELLAs control plant immune responses by modulating the balance of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Curr Biol. 2008;18:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an explanation for why the necrotrophic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, causal agent of the foolish-seedling disease of rice, makes gibberellin. ..
  15. Li Q, Wang C, Jiang L, Li S, Sun S, He J. An interaction between BZR1 and DELLAs mediates direct signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins in Arabidopsis. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra72 pubmed publisher
  16. Fukazawa J, Teramura H, Murakoshi S, Nasuno K, Nishida N, Ito T, et al. DELLAs function as coactivators of GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 in regulation of gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2920-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that DELLAs turn on or off two sets of GA-regulated genes via dual functions, namely titration and coactivation, providing a mechanism for the integrative regulation of plant growth and GA homeostasis. ..
  17. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, et al. Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science. 2006;311:91-4 pubmed
    ..The growth restraint conferred by DELLA proteins is beneficial and promotes survival. We propose that DELLAs permit flexible and appropriate modulation of plant growth in response to changes in natural environments. ..
  18. Sarnowska E, Rolicka A, Bucior E, Cwiek P, Tohge T, Fernie A, et al. DELLA-interacting SWI3C core subunit of switch/sucrose nonfermenting chromatin remodeling complex modulates gibberellin responses and hormonal cross talk in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:305-17 pubmed publisher
  19. Luo J, Ma N, Pei H, Chen J, Li J, Gao J. A DELLA gene, RhGAI1, is a direct target of EIN3 and mediates ethylene-regulated rose petal cell expansion via repressing the expression of RhCesA2. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:5075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses. ..
  20. Hussain A, Cao D, Peng J. Identification of conserved tyrosine residues important for gibberellin sensitivity of Arabidopsis RGL2 protein. Planta. 2007;226:475-83 pubmed
    ..Plant J 44:88-99, 2005). Here we report that four DELLA proteins of Arabidopsis, namely GAI, RGL1, RGL2 and RGL3, expressed in tobacco BY2 cells, are degradable by GA...
  21. Penfield S, Gilday A, Halliday K, Graham I. DELLA-mediated cotyledon expansion breaks coat-imposed seed dormancy. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2366-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that DELLA-mediated, light-, temperature-, and hormone-responsive cotyledon expansion prior to radicle emergence overcomes dormancy imposed by the seed coat and underlies seed-dormancy control in Arabidopsis. ..
  22. Zhong C, Xu H, Ye S, Wang S, Li L, Zhang S, et al. Gibberellic Acid-Stimulated Arabidopsis6 Serves as an Integrator of Gibberellin, Abscisic Acid, and Glucose Signaling during Seed Germination in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2015;169:2288-303 pubmed publisher
    The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3-LIKE2 (RGL2) plays an important role in seed germination under different conditions through a number of transcription factors...