Gene Symbol: RGA1
Description: GRAS family transcription factor family protein
Alias: F2I9.19, F2I9_19, REPRESSOR OF GA, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 1, RGA, GRAS family transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     RGA1

Top Publications

  1. Silverstone A, Mak P, Martínez E, Sun T. The new RGA locus encodes a negative regulator of gibberellin response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 1997;146:1087-99 pubmed
    ..The locus is named RGA for repressor of gal-3...
  2. de Lucas M, Davière J, Rodríguez Falcón M, Pontin M, Iglesias Pedraz J, Lorrain S, et al. A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation. Nature. 2008;451:480-4 pubmed publisher
  3. Fu X, Richards D, Fleck B, Xie D, Burton N, Harberd N. The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1406-18 pubmed
    ..Growth-promoting DELLA destruction is dependent on SLY1 availability, on the strength of the interaction between SLY1 and the DELLA target, and on promotion of the SCFSLY1-DELLA interaction by DELLA phosphorylation. ..
  4. Nakajima M, Shimada A, Takashi Y, Kim Y, Park S, Ueguchi Tanaka M, et al. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors. Plant J. 2006;46:880-9 pubmed
    ..The expression of each AtGID1 clone in the rice gid1-1 mutant rescued the GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype. These results demonstrate that all three AtGID1s functioned as GA receptors in Arabidopsis. ..
  5. Griffiths J, Murase K, Rieu I, Zentella R, Zhang Z, Powers S, et al. Genetic characterization and functional analysis of the GID1 gibberellin receptors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:3399-414 pubmed
    ..The DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) accumulated in the triple mutant, whose phenotype could be partially rescued by loss of RGA function...
  6. Ariizumi T, Murase K, Sun T, Steber C. Proteolysis-independent downregulation of DELLA repression in Arabidopsis by the gibberellin receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a SLY1-independent mechanism for GA signaling may function without DELLA degradation. ..
  7. Hou X, Lee L, Xia K, Yan Y, Yu H. DELLAs modulate jasmonate signaling via competitive binding to JAZs. Dev Cell. 2010;19:884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Because DELLAs serve as central regulators that mediate the crosstalk of various phytohormones, our model also suggests a candidate mechanism by which JA signaling may be fine-tuned by other signaling pathways through DELLAs. ..
  8. Oh E, Yamaguchi S, Hu J, Yusuke J, Jung B, Paik I, et al. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, regulates gibberellin responsiveness by binding directly to the GAI and RGA promoters in Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1192-208 pubmed
    ..PIL5 increases the expression of two GA repressor (DELLA) genes, GA-INSENSITIVE (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA/RGA1), in darkness...
  9. Yu S, Galvão V, Zhang Y, Horrer D, Zhang T, Hao Y, et al. Gibberellin regulates the Arabidopsis floral transition through miR156-targeted SQUAMOSA promoter binding-like transcription factors. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3320-32 pubmed
    ..Our results elucidate the molecular mechanism by which GA controls flowering and provide the missing link between DELLA and MADS box genes. ..

More Information


  1. Li Q, Wang C, Jiang L, Li S, Sun S, He J. An interaction between BZR1 and DELLAs mediates direct signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins in Arabidopsis. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra72 pubmed publisher
    ..BZR1, a key transcription factor activated by BR signaling, interacts in vitro and in vivo with REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), a member of the DELLA family of transcriptional regulators that inhibits the GA signaling pathway in Arabidopsis ..
  2. Silverstone A, Jung H, Dill A, Kawaide H, Kamiya Y, Sun T. Repressing a repressor: gibberellin-induced rapid reduction of the RGA protein in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1555-66 pubmed
    b>RGA (for repressor of ga1-3) and SPINDLY (SPY) are likely repressors of gibberellin (GA) signaling in Arabidopsis because the recessive rga and spy mutations partially suppressed the phenotype of the GA-deficient mutant ga1-3...
  3. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, et al. Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science. 2006;311:91-4 pubmed
    ..The growth restraint conferred by DELLA proteins is beneficial and promotes survival. We propose that DELLAs permit flexible and appropriate modulation of plant growth in response to changes in natural environments. ..
  4. Hong G, Xue X, Mao Y, Wang L, Chen X. Arabidopsis MYC2 interacts with DELLA proteins in regulating sesquiterpene synthase gene expression. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..biosynthesis, as the sesquiterpene synthase genes were repressed in plants overaccumulating REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA), one of the Arabidopsis DELLAs, and upregulated in a penta DELLA-deficient mutant...
  5. Wang F, Zhu D, Huang X, Li S, Gong Y, Yao Q, et al. Biochemical insights on degradation of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins gained from a cell-free assay system. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro assay system could be widely adapted for dissecting cellular signaling pathways in which regulated proteolysis is a key recurrent theme. ..
  6. Bai M, Shang J, Oh E, Fan M, Bai Y, Zentella R, et al. Brassinosteroid, gibberellin and phytochrome impinge on a common transcription module in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that GA releases DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1, and that the DELLA-BZR1-PIF4 interaction defines a core transcription module that mediates coordinated growth regulation by GA, BR and light signals. ..
  7. Sun X, Xue B, Jones W, Rikkerink E, Dunker A, Uversky V. A functionally required unfoldome from the plant kingdom: intrinsically disordered N-terminal domains of GRAS proteins are involved in molecular recognition during plant development. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;77:205-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study enables us to propose a conceptual framework that guides future experimental approaches to understand structure-function relationships of the entire GRAS family. ..
  8. Zentella R, Zhang Z, Park M, Thomas S, Endo A, Murase K, et al. Global analysis of della direct targets in early gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3037-57 pubmed
    ..In addition, one of the putative DELLA targets, XERICO, promotes accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) that antagonizes GA effects. Therefore, DELLA may restrict GA-promoted processes by modulating both GA and ABA pathways. ..
  9. Silverstone A, Ciampaglio C, Sun T. The Arabidopsis RGA gene encodes a transcriptional regulator repressing the gibberellin signal transduction pathway. Plant Cell. 1998;10:155-69 pubmed
    The recessive rga mutation is able to partially suppress phenotypic defects of the Arabidopsis gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic mutant ga1-3...
  10. Zhang Z, Ogawa M, Fleet C, Zentella R, Hu J, Heo J, et al. Scarecrow-like 3 promotes gibberellin signaling by antagonizing master growth repressor DELLA in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This work is beginning to shed light on how this complex regulatory network achieves GA homeostasis and controls GA-mediated growth and development in the plant. ..
  11. Achard P, Gong F, Cheminant S, Alioua M, Hedden P, Genschik P. The cold-inducible CBF1 factor-dependent signaling pathway modulates the accumulation of the growth-repressing DELLA proteins via its effect on gibberellin metabolism. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that cold/CBF1 enhances the accumulation of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged DELLA protein (GFP-RGA) by reducing GA content through stimulating expression of GA-inactivating GA 2-oxidase genes...
  12. Dill A, Thomas S, Hu J, Steber C, Sun T. The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1392-405 pubmed
    ..thaliana, GA derepresses its signaling pathway by inducing proteolysis of the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA)...
  13. Cao D, Hussain A, Cheng H, Peng J. Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2005;223:105-13 pubmed
    ..encodes the predominant repressor of seed germination in Arabidopsis and show that the other DELLA genes GAI,RGA and RGL1 enhance the function of RGL2...
  14. Willige B, Ghosh S, Nill C, Zourelidou M, Dohmann E, Maier A, et al. The DELLA domain of GA INSENSITIVE mediates the interaction with the GA INSENSITIVE DWARF1A gibberellin receptor of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1209-20 pubmed
    ..Since we found that the GAI DELLA domain alone can mediate GA-dependent GID1A interactions, we propose that the DELLA domain functions as a receiver domain for activated GA receptors. ..
  15. Achard P, Renou J, Berthomé R, Harberd N, Genschik P. Plant DELLAs restrain growth and promote survival of adversity by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species. Curr Biol. 2008;18:656-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that environmental variability regulates DELLA activity [8] and that DELLAs in turn couple the downstream regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance through modulation of ROS levels. ..
  16. Arnaud N, Girin T, Sorefan K, Fuentes S, Wood T, Lawrenson T, et al. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2127-32 pubmed publisher
  17. Feng S, Martinez C, Gusmaroli G, Wang Y, Zhou J, Wang F, et al. Coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana development by light and gibberellins. Nature. 2008;451:475-9 pubmed publisher
  18. Josse E, Gan Y, Bou Torrent J, Stewart K, Gilday A, Jeffree C, et al. A DELLA in disguise: SPATULA restrains the growth of the developing Arabidopsis seedling. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1337-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We present evidence that SPT and DELLAs regulate common gene targets and illustrate that the balance of SPT and DELLA action depends on light quality signals in the natural environment. ..
  19. Luo J, Ma N, Pei H, Chen J, Li J, Gao J. A DELLA gene, RhGAI1, is a direct target of EIN3 and mediates ethylene-regulated rose petal cell expansion via repressing the expression of RhCesA2. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:5075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses. ..
  20. Penfield S, Gilday A, Halliday K, Graham I. DELLA-mediated cotyledon expansion breaks coat-imposed seed dormancy. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2366-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that DELLA-mediated, light-, temperature-, and hormone-responsive cotyledon expansion prior to radicle emergence overcomes dormancy imposed by the seed coat and underlies seed-dormancy control in Arabidopsis. ..
  21. Navarro L, Bari R, Achard P, Lisón P, Nemri A, Harberd N, et al. DELLAs control plant immune responses by modulating the balance of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Curr Biol. 2008;18:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest an explanation for why the necrotrophic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi, causal agent of the foolish-seedling disease of rice, makes gibberellin. ..
  22. Wang W, Zhang J, Qin Q, Yue J, Huang B, Xu X, et al. The six conserved serine/threonine sites of REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 protein are important for its functionality and stability in gibberellin signaling in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2014;240:763-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We clarified that phosphorylation modification of the six conserved sites is important for RGA functions and stability...
  23. Rombolá Caldentey B, Rueda Romero P, Iglesias Fernández R, Carbonero P, Oñate Sánchez L. Arabidopsis DELLA and two HD-ZIP transcription factors regulate GA signaling in the epidermis through the L1 box cis-element. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2905-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that, upon seed imbibition, increased GA levels reduce DELLA protein abundance and release ATML1/PDF2 to activate L1 box gene expression, thus enhancing germination potential. ..
  24. Oh E, Zhu J, Bai M, Arenhart R, Sun Y, Wang Z. Cell elongation is regulated through a central circuit of interacting transcription factors in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..of common target genes, but their DNA-binding activities are blocked by the gibberellin-inactivated repressor RGA. In addition, a tripartite HLH/bHLH module feedback regulates PIFs and additional bHLH factors that interact with ..
  25. Gallego Bartolome J, Minguet E, Marín J, Prat S, Blázquez M, Alabadi D. Transcriptional diversification and functional conservation between DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1247-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that two evolutionarily and functionally divergent DELLA proteins, RGL2 and RGA, can perform exchangeable functions when they are expressed under control of the reciprocal promoter...
  26. Feurtado J, Huang D, Wicki Stordeur L, Hemstock L, Potentier M, Tsang E, et al. The Arabidopsis C2H2 zinc finger INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1/ENHYDROUS promotes the transition to germination by regulating light and hormonal signaling during seed maturation. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1772-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The physical interaction of ENY with DELLAs and an ENY-triggered accumulation of DELLA transcripts during maturation support the conclusion that ENY mediates GA effects to balance ABA-promoted maturation during late seed development. ..
  27. Ma Z, Hu X, Cai W, Huang W, Zhou X, Luo Q, et al. Arabidopsis miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins bind to GT cis-elements and mediate gibberellin-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis under light conditions. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004519 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. ..
  28. Fukazawa J, Teramura H, Murakoshi S, Nasuno K, Nishida N, Ito T, et al. DELLAs function as coactivators of GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 in regulation of gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2920-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that DELLAs turn on or off two sets of GA-regulated genes via dual functions, namely titration and coactivation, providing a mechanism for the integrative regulation of plant growth and GA homeostasis. ..
  29. Sarnowska E, Rolicka A, Bucior E, Cwiek P, Tohge T, Fernie A, et al. DELLA-interacting SWI3C core subunit of switch/sucrose nonfermenting chromatin remodeling complex modulates gibberellin responses and hormonal cross talk in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2013;163:305-17 pubmed publisher
    ..to, and shows in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation interaction in cell nuclei with, the DELLA proteins RGA-LIKE2 and RGA-LIKE3, which affect transcriptional activation of GID1 and GA3ox (GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE) genes ..
  30. Kim S, Park B, Kim D, Yeu S, Song S, Song J, et al. E3 SUMO ligase AtSIZ1 positively regulates SLY1-mediated GA signalling and plant development. Biochem J. 2015;469:299-314 pubmed publisher
    ..SLY1 was less abundant in siz1-2 mutants than in wild-type plants, but the DELLA protein repressor of ga1-3 (RGA) was more abundant in siz1-2 mutants than in wild-type plants...
  31. Yoshida H, Hirano K, Sato T, Mitsuda N, Nomoto M, Maeo K, et al. DELLA protein functions as a transcriptional activator through the DNA binding of the indeterminate domain family proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7861-6 pubmed publisher
    ..that a luciferase reporter controlled by the SCL3 promoter was additively transactivated by REPRESSOR of ga1-3 (RGA) and IDDs...
  32. Geraldo N, Bäurle I, Kidou S, Hu X, Dean C. FRIGIDA delays flowering in Arabidopsis via a cotranscriptional mechanism involving direct interaction with the nuclear cap-binding complex. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that FRI up-regulates FLC expression through a cotranscriptional mechanism involving direct physical interaction with the nuclear CBC with concomitant effects on FLC transcription and splicing. ..
  33. Suzuki H, Park S, Okubo K, Kitamura J, Ueguchi Tanaka M, Iuchi S, et al. Differential expression and affinities of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors can explain variation in phenotypes of multiple knock-out mutants. Plant J. 2009;60:48-55 pubmed publisher
  34. Plackett A, Ferguson A, Powers S, Wanchoo Kohli A, Phillips A, Wilson Z, et al. DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2014;201:825-36 pubmed publisher
    ..and genetic GA overdose, including mutants in both ecotypes lacking the DELLA paralogues REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI). Ler displays a less severe fertility phenotype than Col-0 under GA treatment...
  35. Lim S, Park J, Lee N, Jeong J, Toh S, Watanabe A, et al. ABA-insensitive3, ABA-insensitive5, and DELLAs Interact to activate the expression of SOMNUS and other high-temperature-inducible genes in imbibed seeds in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:4863-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that ABI3, ABI5, and DELLAs mediate high-temperature signaling to activate the expression of SOM and other high-temperature-inducible genes, thereby inhibiting seed germination. ..
  36. Piskurewicz U, Turecková V, Lacombe E, Lopez Molina L. Far-red light inhibits germination through DELLA-dependent stimulation of ABA synthesis and ABI3 activity. EMBO J. 2009;28:2259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that repression of germination by FR light involves stabilized DELLA factors GAI, RGA and RGL2 that stimulate endogenous ABA synthesis...
  37. Qi T, Huang H, Wu D, Yan J, Qi Y, Song S, et al. Arabidopsis DELLA and JAZ proteins bind the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex to modulate gibberellin and jasmonate signaling synergy. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1118-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides deep insights into the molecular mechanisms for integration of different hormonal signals to synergistically regulate plant development...
  38. Djakovic Petrovic T, de Wit M, Voesenek L, Pierik R. DELLA protein function in growth responses to canopy signals. Plant J. 2007;51:117-26 pubmed
    ..These data provide novel information on the regulation of shade-avoidance under ecologically important conditions, defining the importance of DELLA proteins and GA and unravelling the existence of GA- and DELLA-independent mechanisms. ..
  39. Ariizumi T, Lawrence P, Steber C. The role of two f-box proteins, SLEEPY1 and SNEEZY, in Arabidopsis gibberellin signaling. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:765-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Like HA-SLY1, HA-SNE coimmunoprecipitated with the DELLA REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA), and this interaction required the SLY1 or SNE carboxyl-terminal domain...
  40. Hou X, Zhou J, Liu C, Liu L, Shen L, Yu H. Nuclear factor Y-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation of the SOC1 locus orchestrates flowering responses of Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4601 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish NF-Y complexes as critical mediators of epigenetic marks that regulate the response to environmental or intrinsic signals in plants. ..
  41. Liu B, De Storme N, Geelen D. Gibberellin Induces Diploid Pollen Formation by Interfering with Meiotic Cytokinesis. Plant Physiol. 2017;173:338-353 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar defects in meiotic cell division and reproductive ploidy stability occur in Arabidopsis plants depleted of RGA and GAI, two members of the DELLA family that function as suppressor of GA signaling...
  42. Xu F, Li T, Xu P, Li L, DU S, Lian H, et al. DELLA proteins physically interact with CONSTANS to regulate flowering under long days in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:541-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the interaction of CO with NF-YB2 is inhibited by the DELLA protein, RGA. Our findings suggest that regulation of flowering by GA signaling in leaves under long days is mediated, at least ..
  43. Nelis S, Conti L, Zhang C, Sadanandom A. A functional Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) interacting motif (SIM) in the gibberellin hormone receptor GID1 is conserved in cereal crops and disrupting this motif does not abolish hormone dependency of the DELLA-GID1 interaction. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e987528 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence suggests that manipulating the SIM motif in the GA receptor may provide a possible route to developing stress tolerant crops plants. ..
  44. Crocco C, Locascio A, Escudero C, Alabadí D, Blázquez M, Botto J. The transcriptional regulator BBX24 impairs DELLA activity to promote shade avoidance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6202 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed molecular mechanism provides reversible regulation of the activity of a key transcription factor that may prove especially relevant under fluctuating light conditions. ..
  45. Davière J, Wild M, Regnault T, Baumberger N, Eisler H, Genschik P, et al. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1923-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height. ..
  46. Boccaccini A, Santopolo S, Capauto D, Lorrai R, Minutello E, Belcram K, et al. Independent and interactive effects of DOF affecting germination 1 (DAG1) and the Della proteins GA insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA) in embryo development and seed germination. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:200 pubmed publisher
    ..induces the expression of the genes encoding the two DELLA proteins GA INSENSITIVE 1 (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA)...
  47. Qin Q, Wang W, Guo X, Yue J, Huang Y, Xu X, et al. Arabidopsis DELLA protein degradation is controlled by a type-one protein phosphatase, TOPP4. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004464 pubmed publisher
    ..The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4...
  48. Conti L, Nelis S, Zhang C, Woodcock A, Swarup R, Galbiati M, et al. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier protein SUMO enables plants to control growth independently of the phytohormone gibberellin. Dev Cell. 2014;28:102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that plants have developed a GA-independent mechanism to control growth. ..