Gene Symbol: RDR6
Description: RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6
Alias: AtRDR6, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6, SDE1, SGS2, SILENCING DEFECTIVE 1, SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 2, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Luo Z, Chen Z. Improperly terminated, unpolyadenylated mRNA of sense transgenes is targeted by RDR6-mediated RNA silencing in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:943-58 pubmed
    ..can be induced by highly transcribed transgenes through a pathway dependent on RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6) and may function as a genome protection mechanism against excessively expressed genes...
  2. Xie Z, Johansen L, Gustafson A, Kasschau K, Lellis A, Zilberman D, et al. Genetic and functional diversification of small RNA pathways in plants. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E104 pubmed
    ..We conclude that proliferation and diversification of DCL and RDR genes during evolution of plants contributed to specialization of small RNA-directed pathways for development, chromatin structure, and defense. ..
  3. Yoshikawa M, Peragine A, Park M, Poethig R. A pathway for the biogenesis of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2164-75 pubmed
    ..The 3' fragment is then transformed into short siRNAs by the sequential activity of SGS3, RDR6, and DCL4: SGS3 stabilizes the fragment, RDR6 produces a complementary strand, and DCL4 cleaves the resulting ..
  4. Cuperus J, Carbonell A, Fahlgren N, Garcia Ruiz H, Burke R, Takeda A, et al. Unique functionality of 22-nt miRNAs in triggering RDR6-dependent siRNA biogenesis from target transcripts in Arabidopsis. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:997-1003 pubmed publisher
    RNA interference pathways can involve amplification of secondary siRNAs by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. In plants, RDR6-dependent secondary siRNAs arise from transcripts targeted by some microRNAs (miRNAs)...
  5. Dalmay T, Hamilton A, Rudd S, Angell S, Baulcombe D. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in Arabidopsis is required for posttranscriptional gene silencing mediated by a transgene but not by a virus. Cell. 2000;101:543-53 pubmed
    ..One of these, SDE1, is a plant homolog of QDE-1 in Neurospora crassa that encodes an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase...
  6. Ronemus M, Vaughn M, Martienssen R. MicroRNA-targeted and small interfering RNA-mediated mRNA degradation is regulated by argonaute, dicer, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1559-74 pubmed
    ..target genes accumulated in wild-type plants but not in ago1, the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase mutants rdr2 and rdr6, or the Dicer-like mutants dcl1 and dcl3...
  7. Allen E, Xie Z, Gustafson A, Carrington J. microRNA-directed phasing during trans-acting siRNA biogenesis in plants. Cell. 2005;121:207-21 pubmed
    ..support a model in which miRNA-guided formation of a 5' or 3' terminus within pre-ta-siRNA transcripts, followed by RDR6-dependent formation of dsRNA and Dicer-like processing, yields phased ta-siRNAs that negatively regulate other ..
  8. Howell M, Fahlgren N, Chapman E, Cumbie J, Sullivan C, Givan S, et al. Genome-wide analysis of the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6/DICER-LIKE4 pathway in Arabidopsis reveals dependency on miRNA- and tasiRNA-directed targeting. Plant Cell. 2007;19:926-42 pubmed
    ..of many endogenous transcripts, viruses, and transgenes involves the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6/DICER-LIKE4 (RDR6/DCL4)-dependent short interfering RNA (siRNA) biogenesis pathway...
  9. Kumakura N, Takeda A, Fujioka Y, Motose H, Takano R, Watanabe Y. SGS3 and RDR6 interact and colocalize in cytoplasmic SGS3/RDR6-bodies. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1261-6 pubmed publisher
    Suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3) is involved in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6)-dependent small-interfering RNA (siRNA) pathways in Arabidopsis. However, the roles of SGS3 in those pathways are unclear...

More Information


  1. Blevins T, Rajeswaran R, Shivaprasad P, Beknazariants D, Si Ammour A, Park H, et al. Four plant Dicers mediate viral small RNA biogenesis and DNA virus induced silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:6233-46 pubmed
    ..While the four DCLs are partially redundant for CaLCuV-induced mRNA degradation, DCL4 in conjunction with RDR6 and HEN1 specifically facilitates extensive virus-induced silencing in new growth...
  2. Curaba J, Chen X. Biochemical activities of Arabidopsis RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:3059-66 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis, genetic evidence demonstrates that RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) plays a fundamental role in at least four RNA silencing pathways whose functions range from defense against transgenes or viruses to endogene ..
  3. Boccara M, Sarazin A, Thi beauld O, Jay F, Voinnet O, Navarro L, et al. The Arabidopsis miR472-RDR6 silencing pathway modulates PAMP- and effector-triggered immunity through the post-transcriptional control of disease resistance genes. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1003883 pubmed publisher
    RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) is a key RNA silencing factor initially characterized in transgene silencing and virus resistance...
  4. Cui X, Fan B, Scholz J, Chen Z. Roles of Arabidopsis cyclin-dependent kinase C complexes in cauliflower mosaic virus infection, plant growth, and development. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1388-402 pubmed
    ..These results establish Arabidopsis CDKC kinase complexes as important host targets of CaMV for transcriptional activation of viral genes and critical regulators of plant growth and development. ..
  5. Mecchia M, Debernardi J, Rodriguez R, Schommer C, Palatnik J. MicroRNA miR396 and RDR6 synergistically regulate leaf development. Mech Dev. 2013;130:2-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of these plants revealed mutations in as2 and rdr6. While 35S:miR396b in an as2 context generated organs with lotus-like shape, the overexpression of the miRNA in an ..
  6. Panda K, Ji L, Neumann D, Daron J, Schmitz R, Slotkin R. Full-length autonomous transposable elements are preferentially targeted by expression-dependent forms of RNA-directed DNA methylation. Genome Biol. 2016;17:170 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAi degradation of transposable element mRNAs into small RNAs guided by the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) protein and is therefore referred to as RDR6-RdDM...
  7. Moissiard G, Parizotto E, Himber C, Voinnet O. Transitivity in Arabidopsis can be primed, requires the redundant action of the antiviral Dicer-like 4 and Dicer-like 2, and is compromised by viral-encoded suppressor proteins. RNA. 2007;13:1268-78 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis, RDR6 is thought to copy endogenous and exogenous RNA templates into double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), which are ..
  8. Okano Y, Senshu H, Hashimoto M, Neriya Y, Netsu O, Minato N, et al. In Planta Recognition of a Double-Stranded RNA Synthesis Protein Complex by a Potexviral RNA Silencing Suppressor. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2168-2183 pubmed
    ..similar to those observed in mutants of SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3 (SGS3) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6) required for the trans-acting small interfering RNA synthesis pathway...
  9. Nuthikattu S, McCue A, Panda K, Fultz D, DeFraia C, Thomas E, et al. The initiation of epigenetic silencing of active transposable elements is triggered by RDR6 and 21-22 nucleotide small interfering RNAs. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:116-31 pubmed publisher
    ..reestablishment, and epigenetic maintenance of TE and/or transgene silencing; and RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase6 (RDR6)-RdDM, which was recently identified as necessary for maintaining repression for a few TEs...
  10. Christie M, Croft L, Carroll B. Intron splicing suppresses RNA silencing in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2011;68:159-67 pubmed publisher
    ..This intron suppression of transgene silencing requires efficient intron splicing and is dependent on ABH1, the Arabidopsis orthologue of human cap-binding protein 80. ..
  11. Wu Y, Hou B, Lee W, Lu S, Yang C, Vaucheret H, et al. DCL2- and RDR6-dependent transitive silencing of SMXL4 and SMXL5 in Arabidopsis dcl4 mutants causes defective phloem transport and carbohydrate over-accumulation. Plant J. 2017;90:1064-1078 pubmed publisher
    ..phloem transport, and depends on the activity of SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3, RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6) and DCL2...
  12. Li H, Xu L, Wang H, Yuan Z, Cao X, Yang Z, et al. The Putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RDR6 acts synergistically with ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 to repress BREVIPEDICELLUS and MicroRNA165/166 in Arabidopsis leaf development. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2157-71 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the Arabidopsis RDR6 gene (also called SDE1 and SGS2) that encodes a putative RdRP, together with AS1 and AS2, regulates leaf ..
  13. Tantikanjana T, Rizvi N, Nasrallah M, Nasrallah J. A dual role for the S-locus receptor kinase in self-incompatibility and pistil development revealed by an Arabidopsis rdr6 mutation. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2642-54 pubmed publisher
    ..A mutation in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase RDR6, which functions in trans-acting short interfering RNA (ta-siRNA) production, was found that simultaneously ..
  14. Kumar V, Mishra S, Rahman J, Taneja J, Sundaresan G, Mishra N, et al. Mungbean yellow mosaic Indian virus encoded AC2 protein suppresses RNA silencing by inhibiting Arabidopsis RDR6 and AGO1 activities. Virology. 2015;486:158-72 pubmed publisher
    ..b>RDR6 and AGO1...
  15. Xu L, Yang L, Pi L, Liu Q, Ling Q, Wang H, et al. Genetic interaction between the AS1-AS2 and RDR6-SGS3-AGO7 pathways for leaf morphogenesis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:853-63 pubmed
    ..In addition, the RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6) gene acts synergistically with AS1 and AS2 to specify the adaxial polarity and repress the KNOX genes in leaves...
  16. Cheng X, Wang A. The Potyvirus Silencing Suppressor Protein VPg Mediates Degradation of SGS3 via Ubiquitination and Autophagy Pathways. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed
    ..infection, is sufficient to induce the degradation of SGS3 and its intimate partner RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6)...
  17. Harmoko R, Fanata W, Yoo J, Ko K, Rim Y, Uddin M, et al. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 is required for efficient hpRNA-induced gene silencing in plants. Mol Cells. 2013;35:202-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA silencing induced by sense transgenes is dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6), which converts single-stranded (ss) RNA into double-stranded (ds) RNA...
  18. Fahlgren N, Montgomery T, Howell M, Allen E, Dvorak S, Alexander A, et al. Regulation of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 by TAS3 ta-siRNA affects developmental timing and patterning in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2006;16:939-44 pubmed
    ..processing of primary transcripts, conversion of a precursor to dsRNA through RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE6 (RDR6) activity, and sequential DICER-LIKE4 (DCL4)-mediated cleavage events...
  19. Martínez de Alba A, Moreno A, Gabriel M, Mallory A, Christ A, Bounon R, et al. In plants, decapping prevents RDR6-dependent production of small interfering RNAs from endogenous mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2015;43:2902-13 pubmed publisher
    ..the conversion of single-stranded RNAs to double-stranded RNAs by the cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6) in cytoplasmic siRNA-bodies...
  20. Qu F, Ye X, Morris T. Arabidopsis DRB4, AGO1, AGO7, and RDR6 participate in a DCL4-initiated antiviral RNA silencing pathway negatively regulated by DCL1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:14732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..RNAs and establish that AGO1 is capable of targeting viral RNAs with more compact structures, whereas AGO7 and RDR6 favor less structured RNA targets...
  21. Adenot X, Elmayan T, Lauressergues D, Boutet S, Bouche N, Gasciolli V, et al. DRB4-dependent TAS3 trans-acting siRNAs control leaf morphology through AGO7. Curr Biol. 2006;16:927-32 pubmed
    ..are cleaved by miRNAs; the cleavage products are protected against degradation by SGS3, copied into dsRNA by RDR6, and diced into ta-siRNAs by DCL4 ...