Gene Symbol: RD21A
Description: Granulin repeat cysteine protease family protein
Alias: F2G19.31, F2G19_31, RD21, RESPONSIVE TO DEHYDRATION 21A, responsive to dehydration 21, responsive to dehydration 21A, Granulin repeat cysteine protease family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Koizumi M, Yamaguchi Shinozaki K, Tsuji H, Shinozaki K. Structure and expression of two genes that encode distinct drought-inducible cysteine proteinases in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene. 1993;129:175-82 pubmed
    ..The two genes corresponding to RD19 and RD21 (rd19A and rd21A, respectively) were cloned and their structural analysis revealed the presence of two and four introns, ..
  2. Lampl N, Budai Hadrian O, Davydov O, Joss T, Harrop S, Curmi P, et al. Arabidopsis AtSerpin1, crystal structure and in vivo interaction with its target protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:13550-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Significantly, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21) was the major protease labeled with the L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane derivative DCG-04 ..
  3. Shindo T, Misas Villamil J, Hörger A, Song J, van der Hoorn R. A role in immunity for Arabidopsis cysteine protease RD21, the ortholog of the tomato immune protease C14. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29317 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the Pinf-solanaceae pathosystem, the C14 orthologous protease of Arabidopsis, RD21, does not evolve under diversifying selection in Arabidopsis, and rd21 null mutants do not show phenotypes upon ..
  4. Andeme Ondzighi C, Christopher D, Cho E, Chang S, Staehelin L. Arabidopsis protein disulfide isomerase-5 inhibits cysteine proteases during trafficking to vacuoles before programmed cell death of the endothelium in developing seeds. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2205-20 pubmed publisher
    ..During this transitional phase of endothelial cell development, the protein storage vacuoles become the de facto lytic vacuoles that mediate PCD. ..
  5. van der Hoorn R, Leeuwenburgh M, Bogyo M, Joosten M, Peck S. Activity profiling of papain-like cysteine proteases in plants. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:1170-8 pubmed
    ..by sequencing mass spectrometry, we identified proteases that include xylem-specific XCP2, desiccation-induced RD21, and cathepsin B- and aleurain-like proteases...
  6. Kim J, Kim W. The Arabidopsis RING E3 ubiquitin ligase AtAIRP3/LOG2 participates in positive regulation of high-salt and drought stress responses. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1733-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that AtAIRP3/LOG2 plays dual functions in ABA-mediated drought stress responses and in an amino acid export pathway in Arabidopsis. ..
  7. Huang H, Yoo C, Bindbeutel R, Goldsworthy J, Tielking A, Alvarez S, et al. PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis. elife. 2016;5:e13292 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PCH1 is a new factor that regulates photoperiod-responsive growth by integrating the clock with light perception pathways through modulating daily phyB-signaling. ..
  8. Bogamuwa S, Jang J. Plant Tandem CCCH Zinc Finger Proteins Interact with ABA, Drought, and Stress Response Regulators in Processing-Bodies and Stress Granules. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0151574 pubmed publisher
    ..Dormancy 1 (MARD1) is highly expressed in seeds and involved in ABA signal transduction, while Responsive to Dehydration 21A (RD21A) is a well-documented stress responsive protein...
  9. Gu C, Shabab M, Strasser R, Wolters P, Shindo T, Niemer M, et al. Post-translational regulation and trafficking of the granulin-containing protease RD21 of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32422 pubmed publisher
    b>RD21-like proteases are ubiquitous, plant-specific papain-like proteases typified by carrying a C-terminal granulin domain...

More Information


  1. Zhang B, Tremousaygue D, Denancé N, van Esse H, Hörger A, Dabos P, et al. PIRIN2 stabilizes cysteine protease XCP2 and increases susceptibility to the vascular pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2014;79:1009-19 pubmed publisher
    ..molecular mechanism by analyzing PRN2 interactions with the papain-like cysteine proteases (PLCPs) XCP2, RD21A, and RD21B, all of which bound to PRN2 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in Arabidopsis protoplast co-..
  2. Rustgi S, Boex Fontvieille E, Reinbothe C, von Wettstein D, Reinbothe S. Serpin1 and WSCP differentially regulate the activity of the cysteine protease RD21 during plant development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:2212-2217 pubmed publisher
    ..an example of how nature evolved alternative mechanisms to fine-tune the activity of a cysteine protease dubbed RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21)...
  3. Lampl N, Alkan N, Davydov O, Fluhr R. Set-point control of RD21 protease activity by AtSerpin1 controls cell death in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2013;74:498-510 pubmed publisher
    ..serpin protease inhibitor, AtSerpin1, exhibits a pro-survival function by inhibiting its target pro-death protease, RD21. AtSerpin1 accumulates in the cytoplasm and RD21 accumulates in the vacuole and in endoplasmic reticulum bodies...
  4. Boex Fontvieille E, Rustgi S, Reinbothe S, Reinbothe C. A Kunitz-type protease inhibitor regulates programmed cell death during flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:6119-35 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biology approaches revealed that WSCP physically interacts with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION) and that this interaction in turn inhibits the activity of RD21 as a pro-death protein...