Gene Symbol: PORA
Description: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A
Alias: K18G13.7, K18G13_7, protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A, protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Armstrong G, Runge S, Frick G, Sperling U, Apel K. Identification of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B: a branched pathway for light-dependent chlorophyll biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 1995;108:1505-17 pubmed
    ..The genes, designated PorA and PorB, by analogy to the principal members of the phytochrome photoreceptor gene family, display dramatically ..
  2. Paddock T, MASON M, Lima D, Armstrong G. Arabidopsis protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) restores bulk chlorophyll synthesis and normal development to a porB porC double mutant. Plant Mol Biol. 2010;72:445-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes three structurally related but differentially regulated POR genes, PORA, PORB and PORC. PORA is expressed primarily early in development-during etiolation, germination and greening...
  3. Paddock T, Lima D, MASON M, Apel K, Armstrong G. Arabidopsis light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;78:447-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis there are three structurally related POR genes, denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB proteins accumulate during skotomorphogenesis...
  4. Smith M, Rounds C, Wang F, Chen K, Afitlhile M, Schnell D. atToc159 is a selective transit peptide receptor for the import of nucleus-encoded chloroplast proteins. J Cell Biol. 2004;165:323-34 pubmed
    ..These data support the function of Toc159 as a selective import receptor for the targeting of a set of preproteins required for chloroplast biogenesis. ..
  5. Reinbothe S, Pollmann S, Springer A, James R, Tichtinsky G, Reinbothe C. A role of Toc33 in the protochlorophyllide-dependent plastid import pathway of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) A. Plant J. 2005;42:1-12 pubmed
  6. Reinbothe C, Bartsch S, Eggink L, Hoober J, Brusslan J, Andrade Paz R, et al. A role for chlorophyllide a oxygenase in the regulated import and stabilization of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:4777-82 pubmed
    ..identified CAO to be distinct from Ptc52 in the substrate-dependent transport pathway of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A but instead to be part of a separate translocon complex...
  7. Gabruk M, Stecka A, StrzaÅ‚ka W, Kruk J, StrzaÅ‚ka K, Myśliwa Kurdziel B. Photoactive protochlorophyllide-enzyme complexes reconstituted with PORA, PORB and PORC proteins of A. thaliana: fluorescence and catalytic properties. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0116990 pubmed publisher
    ..Pchlide) and recombinant light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) proteins, His₆-PORA, His₆-PORB and His₆-PORC, from Arabidopsis thaliana...
  8. Kim C, Apel K. Arabidopsis light-dependent NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA) is essential for normal plant growth and development: an addendum. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;80:237-40 pubmed publisher
    Recently the porA-1 null mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has been identified, which contains an insertion of the Dissociation (Ds) element in the PORA gene (Paddock et al. in Plant Mol Biol 78:447-460, 2012)...
  9. Runge S, Sperling U, Frick G, Apel K, Armstrong G. Distinct roles for light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR) A and B during greening in higher plants. Plant J. 1996;9:513-23 pubmed
    ..require light for chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis and have recently been shown to contain two POR-encoding genes, PorA and PorB, that are differentially regulated by light and developmental state...

More Information


  1. Nagata N, Tanaka R, Satoh S, Tanaka A. Identification of a vinyl reductase gene for chlorophyll synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for the evolution of Prochlorococcus species. Plant Cell. 2005;17:233-40 pubmed
    ..marinus but found in the Synechococcus sp WH8102 genome, which is consistent with the distribution of divinyl chlorophyll in marine cyanobacteria of the genera Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus...
  2. Paik I, Yang S, Choi G. Phytochrome regulates translation of mRNA in the cytosol. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1335-40 pubmed publisher
    ..interacts with the cytosolic protein PENTA1 (PNT1) and inhibits the translation of protochlorophyllide reductase (PORA) mRNA...
  3. Reinbothe S, Gray J, Rustgi S, von Wettstein D, Reinbothe C. Cell growth defect factor 1 is crucial for the plastid import of NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:5838-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Three POR isoforms have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana--designated PORA, PORB, and PORC--that are differentially expressed in etiolated, light-exposed, and light-adapted plants...
  4. Kim C, Ham H, Apel K. Multiplicity of different cell- and organ-specific import routes for the NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases A and B in plastids of Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant J. 2005;42:329-40 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis there are three PORs denoted PORA, PORB and PORC. The PORA and PORB genes are strongly expressed early in seedling development...
  5. Gabruk M, Myśliwa Kurdziel B, Kruk J. MGDG, PG and SQDG regulate the activity of light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. Biochem J. 2017;474:1307-1320 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here reveal the contribution of thylakoid lipids in the regulation of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway; however, the molecular mechanisms of this process are to be clarified. ..
  6. Zhong S, Zhao M, Shi T, Shi H, An F, Zhao Q, et al. EIN3/EIL1 cooperate with PIF1 to prevent photo-oxidation and to promote greening of Arabidopsis seedlings. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21431-6 pubmed publisher
    ..were found to induce gene expression of two key enzymes in the chlorophyll synthesis pathway, protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A and B (PORA/B)...