Gene Symbol: PKS1
Description: phytochrome kinase substrate 1
Alias: PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE 1, T17M13.12, T17M13_12, phytochrome kinase substrate 1, phytochrome kinase substrate 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Fankhauser C, Yeh K, Lagarias J, Zhang H, Elich T, Chory J. PKS1, a substrate phosphorylated by phytochrome that modulates light signaling in Arabidopsis. Science. 1999;284:1539-41 pubmed
    ..A phytochrome binding protein, PKS1 (phytochrome kinase substrate 1), was identified that is a substrate for light-regulated phytochrome kinase activity in vitro...
  2. Lariguet P, Schepens I, Hodgson D, Pedmale U, Trevisan M, Kami C, et al. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE 1 is a phototropin 1 binding protein required for phototropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:10134-9 pubmed
    ..PKS) 1 and PKS2 are two phytochrome signaling components belonging to a small gene family in Arabidopsis (PKS1-PKS4)...
  3. Khanna R, Shen Y, Toledo Ortiz G, Kikis E, Johannesson H, Hwang Y, et al. Functional profiling reveals that only a small number of phytochrome-regulated early-response genes in Arabidopsis are necessary for optimal deetiolation. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2157-71 pubmed
  4. Boccalandro H, De Simone S, Bergmann Honsberger A, Schepens I, Fankhauser C, Casal J. PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 regulates root phototropism and gravitropism. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:108-15 pubmed
    Light promotes the expression of PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE1 (PKS1) in the root of Arabidopsis thaliana, but the function of PKS1 in this organ is unknown...
  5. Lariguet P, Boccalandro H, Alonso J, Ecker J, Chory J, Casal J, et al. A growth regulatory loop that provides homeostasis to phytochrome a signaling. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2966-78 pubmed
    Phytochrome kinase substrate1 (PKS1) is a cytoplasmic protein that interacts physically with, and is phosphorylated by, the plant photoreceptor phytochrome...
  6. Molas M, Kiss J. PKS1 plays a role in red-light-based positive phototropism in roots. Plant Cell Environ. 2008;31:842-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Upon light stimulation, phyA and phyB interact with the phytochrome kinase substrate (PKS1) in the cytoplasm...
  7. Sineshchekov V, Fankhauser C. PKS1 and PKS2 affect the phyA state in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2004;3:608-11 pubmed
    Autophosphorylation of phytochrome A (phyA) and transphosphorylation of its reaction partners, phytochrome kinase substrate 1 (PKS1) in particular, might play important functions in signal transduction from phyA...
  8. Tepperman J, Hwang Y, Quail P. phyA dominates in transduction of red-light signals to rapidly responding genes at the initiation of Arabidopsis seedling de-etiolation. Plant J. 2006;48:728-42 pubmed
  9. Kami C, Allenbach L, Zourelidou M, Ljung K, Schutz F, Isono E, et al. Reduced phototropism in pks mutants may be due to altered auxin-regulated gene expression or reduced lateral auxin transport. Plant J. 2014;77:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..Members of the phytochrome kinase substrate (PKS) family may act early in this pathway, because PKS1, PKS2 and PKS4 are needed for a normal phototropic response and they associate with phot1 in vivo...

More Information


  1. de Carbonnel M, Davis P, Roelfsema M, Inoue S, Schepens I, Lariguet P, et al. The Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE2 protein is a phototropin signaling element that regulates leaf flattening and leaf positioning. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1391-405 pubmed publisher
    ..The PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE (PKS) protein family comprises four members in Arabidopsis (PKS1-PKS4)...