Description: K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Alias: F5O24.130, F5O24_130, FLORAL HOMEOTIC PROTEIN PISTILLATA, PISTILLATA, K-box region and MADS-box transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Riechmann J, Krizek B, Meyerowitz E. Dimerization specificity of Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and AGAMOUS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4793-8 pubmed
    The MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1 (AP1), APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), and AGAMOUS (AG) act in a combinatorial manner to specify the identity of Arabidopsis floral organs...
  2. Piwarzyk E, Yang Y, Jack T. Conserved C-terminal motifs of the Arabidopsis proteins APETALA3 and PISTILLATA are dispensable for floral organ identity function. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1495-505 pubmed
    The B-class genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and their orthologs in other species have been the focus of studies to elucidate the development of petals and stamens in angiosperm flowers...
  3. Yang Y, Jack T. Defining subdomains of the K domain important for protein-protein interactions of plant MADS proteins. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;55:45-59 pubmed
    The MADS proteins APETALA3 (AP3), PISTILLATA (PI), SEPALLATAI (SEPI), SEP2, SEP3, AGAMOUS, and APETALA are required for proper floral organ identity in Arabidopsis flowers...
  4. Bowman J, Smyth D, Meyerowitz E. Genes directing flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1989;1:37-52 pubmed
    ..sepals to leaves and petals to staminoid petals; in apetala3-1, petals to sepals and stamens to carpels; in pistillata-1, petals to sepals...
  5. Moon Y, Jung J, Kang H, An G. Identification of a rice APETALA3 homologue by yeast two-hybrid screening. Plant Mol Biol. 1999;40:167-77 pubmed
    ..Deletion analysis showed that the 155-200 amino acid region of the OsMADS16 protein plays an important role in the transcription activation ability. ..
  6. Sundstrom J, Nakayama N, Glimelius K, Irish V. Direct regulation of the floral homeotic APETALA1 gene by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2006;46:593-600 pubmed
    ..Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we show that the floral homeotic PISTILLATA (PI) protein, required for petal and stamen development, has the ability to bind directly to the promoter region ..
  7. Yang Y, Xiang H, Jack T. pistillata-5, an Arabidopsis B class mutant with strong defects in petal but not in stamen development. Plant J. 2003;33:177-88 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis floral organ identity genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) encode related DNA-binding proteins of the MADS family...
  8. Wuest S, Ó Maoiléidigh D, Rae L, Kwasniewska K, Raganelli A, Hanczaryk K, et al. Molecular basis for the specification of floral organs by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..organ specification in plants, we studied the function of the homeotic selector genes APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI), which control the formation of petals and stamens during Arabidopsis flower development...
  9. Mara C, Huang T, Irish V. The Arabidopsis floral homeotic proteins APETALA3 and PISTILLATA negatively regulate the BANQUO genes implicated in light signaling. Plant Cell. 2010;22:690-702 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis thaliana MADS box transcription factors APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) heterodimerize and are required to specify petal identity, yet many details of how this regulatory process is effected are unclear...

More Information


  1. ÓMaoiléidigh D, Wuest S, Rae L, Raganelli A, Ryan P, Kwasniewska K, et al. Control of reproductive floral organ identity specification in Arabidopsis by the C function regulator AGAMOUS. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2482-503 pubmed publisher
    ..A comparison of the gene expression programs controlled by AG and the B function regulators APETALA3 and PISTILLATA, respectively, showed that while they control many developmental processes in conjunction, they also have marked ..
  2. McGonigle B, Bouhidel K, Irish V. Nuclear localization of the Arabidopsis APETALA3 and PISTILLATA homeotic gene products depends on their simultaneous expression. Genes Dev. 1996;10:1812-21 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) proteins are thought to act as transcription factors and are required for specifying floral organ identities...
  3. Melzer R, Theissen G. Reconstitution of 'floral quartets' in vitro involving class B and class E floral homeotic proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2723-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the class B floral homeotic proteins APETALA3 (AP3) and PISTILLATA (PI) do only weakly, at best, form floral-quartet-like structures on their own...
  4. Goto K, Meyerowitz E. Function and regulation of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene PISTILLATA. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1548-60 pubmed
    Mutations in the PISTILLATA (PI) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana cause homeotic conversion of petals to sepals and of stamens to carpels...
  5. Smaczniak C, Immink R, Muiño J, Blanvillain R, Busscher M, Busscher Lange J, et al. Characterization of MADS-domain transcription factor complexes in Arabidopsis flower development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:1560-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, members of other transcription factor families were identified as interaction partners of floral MADS-domain proteins suggesting various specific combinatorial modes of action. ..