Gene Symbol: PIL5
Description: phytochrome interacting factor 3-like 5
Alias: PHY-INTERACTING FACTOR 1, PIF1, T2G17.2, T2G17_2, phytochrome interacting factor 3-like 5, phytochrome interacting factor 3-like 5
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Huq E, Al Sady B, Hudson M, Kim C, Apel K, Quail P. Phytochrome-interacting factor 1 is a critical bHLH regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Science. 2004;305:1937-41 pubmed
    ..We identified a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, designated PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (PIF1), that negatively regulates chlorophyll biosynthesis...
  2. Yamashino T, Matsushika A, Fujimori T, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, et al. A Link between circadian-controlled bHLH factors and the APRR1/TOC1 quintet in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:619-29 pubmed
    ..The results of extensive analyses of such bHLH factors (namely, HFR1, PIL2, PIF4, PIL5 and PIL6) in wild-type and APRR1-overexressing (APRR1-ox) transgenic lines provided us with several new insights ..
  3. Shen H, Moon J, Huq E. PIF1 is regulated by light-mediated degradation through the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway to optimize photomorphogenesis of seedlings in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2005;44:1023-35 pubmed
    ..Recently, PIF1, a phy-interacting basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, has been shown to negatively regulate facets ..
  4. Oh E, Yamaguchi S, Kamiya Y, Bae G, Chung W, Choi G. Light activates the degradation of PIL5 protein to promote seed germination through gibberellin in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2006;47:124-39 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated whether phytochromes regulate GA biosynthesis through PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, in Arabidopsis...
  5. Oh E, Kang H, Yamaguchi S, Park J, Lee D, Kamiya Y, et al. Genome-wide analysis of genes targeted by PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE5 during seed germination in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:403-19 pubmed publisher
    PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE5 (PIL5) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that inhibits seed germination by regulating the expression of gibberellin (GA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes either directly or ..
  6. Shen H, Zhu L, Castillon A, Majee M, Downie B, Huq E. Light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of the negative regulator PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 from Arabidopsis depend upon its direct physical interactions with photoactivated phytochromes. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1586-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that PIF1, the member with the highest affinity for phys, is strongly sensitive to the quality and quantity of light...
  7. Bu Q, Castillon A, Chen F, Zhu L, Huq E. Dimerization and blue light regulation of PIF1 interacting bHLH proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;77:501-11 pubmed publisher
    Phytochrome Interacting Factor 1 (PIF1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, functions as a negative regulator of various facets of photomorphogenesis...
  8. Li Y, Jing Y, Li J, Xu G, Lin R. Arabidopsis VQ MOTIF-CONTAINING PROTEIN29 represses seedling deetiolation by interacting with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1. Plant Physiol. 2014;164:2068-80 pubmed publisher
    ..and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that VQ29 physically interacts with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1)...
  9. Gallego Bartolome J, Minguet E, Marín J, Prat S, Blázquez M, Alabadi D. Transcriptional diversification and functional conservation between DELLA proteins in Arabidopsis. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:1247-56 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Kim D, Yamaguchi S, Lim S, Oh E, Park J, Hanada A, et al. SOMNUS, a CCCH-type zinc finger protein in Arabidopsis, negatively regulates light-dependent seed germination downstream of PIL5. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1260-77 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) signaling pathways at least partly via PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5 (PIL5), a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor...
  2. Lee N, Park J, Kim K, Choi G. The Transcriptional Coregulator LEUNIG_HOMOLOG Inhibits Light-Dependent Seed Germination in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2015;27:2301-13 pubmed publisher
    PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that inhibits light-dependent seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  3. Oh E, Zhu J, Wang Z. Interaction between BZR1 and PIF4 integrates brassinosteroid and environmental responses. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:802-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the BZR1-PIF4 interaction controls a core transcription network, enabling plant growth co-regulation by the steroid and environmental signals...
  4. Rausenberger J, Tscheuschler A, Nordmeier W, Wüst F, Timmer J, Schafer E, et al. Photoconversion and nuclear trafficking cycles determine phytochrome A's response profile to far-red light. Cell. 2011;146:813-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest how higher plants acquired the ability to sense far-red light from an ancestral photoreceptor tuned to respond to red light. ..
  5. Kim K, Jeong J, Kim J, Lee N, Kim M, Lee S, et al. PIF1 Regulates Plastid Development by Repressing Photosynthetic Genes in the Endodermis. Mol Plant. 2016;9:1415-1427 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that both endodermal expression of PIF1 and global expression of the PIF quartet induce transcriptional changes in genes enriched for nuclear-encoded ..
  6. Castillon A, Shen H, Huq E. Blue light induces degradation of the negative regulator phytochrome interacting factor 1 to promote photomorphogenic development of Arabidopsis seedlings. Genetics. 2009;182:161-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that PIF1 negatively regulates photomorphogenesis at the seedling stage under blue light conditions...
  7. Shi H, Wang X, Mo X, Tang C, Zhong S, Deng X. Arabidopsis DET1 degrades HFR1 but stabilizes PIF1 to precisely regulate seed germination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:3817-22 pubmed publisher
    ..that DET1 functions upstream of long hypocotyl in far-red 1 (HFR1) and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (PIF1), the key positive and negative transcription regulators in seed germination...
  8. Dong J, Tang D, Gao Z, Yu R, Li K, He H, et al. Arabidopsis DE-ETIOLATED1 represses photomorphogenesis by positively regulating phytochrome-interacting factors in the dark. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3630-45 pubmed publisher
  9. Oh E, Kim J, Park E, Kim J, Kang C, Choi G. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix protein, is a key negative regulator of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2004;16:3045-58 pubmed
    ..We report here that the PIF3-like 5 (PIL5) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated seed ..
  10. Chen D, Xu G, Tang W, Jing Y, Ji Q, Fei Z, et al. Antagonistic basic helix-loop-helix/bZIP transcription factors form transcriptional modules that integrate light and reactive oxygen species signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1657-73 pubmed publisher
    ..modules composed of the basic helix-loop-helix and bZIP transcription factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1), PIF3, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), and HY5 HOMOLOGY (HYH) that bridge light and ROS signaling to regulate cell ..
  11. Moon J, Zhu L, Shen H, Huq E. PIF1 directly and indirectly regulates chlorophyll biosynthesis to optimize the greening process in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9433-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>PIF1 negatively regulates chlorophyll biosynthesis and seed germination in the dark, and light-induced degradation of ..
  12. Tang W, Wang W, Chen D, Ji Q, Jing Y, Wang H, et al. Transposase-derived proteins FHY3/FAR1 interact with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 to regulate chlorophyll biosynthesis by modulating HEMB1 during deetiolation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:1984-2000 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings reveal a crucial role of FHY3/FAR1 in regulating chlorophyll biosynthesis, thus uncovering a new layer of regulation by which light promotes plant dark-light transition in early seedling development. ..
  13. Penfield S, Josse E, Kannangara R, Gilday A, Halliday K, Graham I. Cold and light control seed germination through the bHLH transcription factor SPATULA. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1998-2006 pubmed
    ..We also show that the related protein PIL5 represses seed germination and GA3ox expression in the dark...
  14. Bu Q, Zhu L, Dennis M, Yu L, Lu S, Person M, et al. Phosphorylation by CK2 enhances the rapid light-induced degradation of phytochrome interacting factor 1 in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the kinase that phosphorylates PIFs is still unknown. Here we show that CK2 directly phosphorylates PIF1 at multiple sites. ?1 and ?2 subunits individually phosphorylated PIF1 weakly in vitro...
  15. Alabadi D, Gallego Bartolome J, Orlando L, García Cárcel L, Rubio V, Martinez C, et al. Gibberellins modulate light signaling pathways to prevent Arabidopsis seedling de-etiolation in darkness. Plant J. 2008;53:324-35 pubmed
    ..This interaction occurs through distinct molecular mechanisms, based on the observation that GA signaling regulates protein stability of HY5, and the activity of PIF3. ..
  16. Kim J, Kang H, Park J, Kim W, Yoo J, Lee N, et al. PIF1-Interacting Transcription Factors and Their Binding Sequence Elements Determine the in Vivo Targeting Sites of PIF1. Plant Cell. 2016;28:1388-405 pubmed publisher
    The bHLH transcription factor PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) binds G-box elements in vitro and inhibits light-dependent germination in Arabidopsis thaliana A previous genome-wide analysis of PIF1 targeting indicated that PIF1 ..
  17. Kim K, Shin J, Lee S, Kweon H, Maloof J, Choi G. Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by regulating the development of endodermal amyloplasts through phytochrome-interacting factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by inhibiting four phytochrome-interacting factors (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, PIF5), as shown by hypocotyl agravitropism of dark-grown pif1 pif3 pif4 pif5 quadruple mutants...
  18. Pacín M, Semmoloni M, Legris M, Finlayson S, Casal J. Convergence of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR signalling during shade avoidance. New Phytol. 2016;211:967-79 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions, we analysed: the transcriptome and the auxin levels of cop1 and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (pif1) pif3 pif4 pif5 (pifq) mutants; the dynamics of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED (HFR1) ..
  19. Oh E, Yamaguchi S, Hu J, Yusuke J, Jung B, Paik I, et al. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, regulates gibberellin responsiveness by binding directly to the GAI and RGA promoters in Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1192-208 pubmed
    Previous work showed that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5 (PIL5), a light-labile basic helix-loop-helix protein, inhibits seed germination by repressing GIBBERELLIN 3beta-HYDROXYLASE1 (GA3ox1) and GA3ox2 and activating a gibberellic ..
  20. Toledo Ortiz G, Huq E, Rodríguez Concepción M. Direct regulation of phytoene synthase gene expression and carotenoid biosynthesis by phytochrome-interacting factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11626-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that phytochrome-interacting factor 1 (PIF1) and other transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family down-regulate the accumulation ..
  21. Zhang X, Huai J, Shang F, Xu G, Tang W, Jing Y, et al. A PIF1/PIF3-HY5-BBX23 Transcription Factor Cascade Affects Photomorphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2017;174:2487-2500 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and PIF1 transcription factors directly bind to the regulatory regions of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and a B-box gene BBX23 ..
  22. Gu D, Chen C, Zhao M, Zhao L, Duan X, Duan J, et al. Identification of HDA15-PIF1 as a key repression module directing the transcriptional network of seed germination in the dark. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7137-7150 pubmed publisher
    ..seed germination in the initial phase after imbibition, partially by repressing phytochrome-interacting factor1 (PIF1). However, the mechanism underlying the PHYB-PIF1-mediated transcription regulation remains largely unclear...
  23. Xu X, Paik I, Zhu L, Bu Q, Huang X, Deng X, et al. PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 Enhances the E3 Ligase Activity of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 to Synergistically Repress Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1992-2006 pubmed
    ..LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) is stabilized in the cop1 pif1, spa123 pif1, and pif double, triple, and quadruple mutants in the dark...
  24. Lee N, Kang H, Lee D, Choi G. A histone methyltransferase inhibits seed germination by increasing PIF1 mRNA expression in imbibed seeds. Plant J. 2014;78:282-93 pubmed publisher
    Phytochrome-interacting factor 1 (PIF1) inhibits light-dependent seed germination...
  25. Soy J, Leivar P, Monte E. PIF1 promotes phytochrome-regulated growth under photoperiodic conditions in Arabidopsis together with PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:2925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a pif1 mutant, evidence is provided that PIF1 also contributes to inducing hypocotyl elongation during the dark period ..
  26. Qiu Y, Li M, Pasoreck E, Long L, Shi Y, Galvão R, et al. HEMERA Couples the Proteolysis and Transcriptional Activity of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs in Arabidopsis Photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell. 2015;27:1409-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that the degradation of PIF1 and PIF3 requires HEMERA (HMR)...
  27. Gabriele S, Rizza A, Martone J, Circelli P, Costantino P, Vittorioso P. The Dof protein DAG1 mediates PIL5 activity on seed germination by negatively regulating GA biosynthetic gene AtGA3ox1. Plant J. 2010;61:312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that inactivation of the gene PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3-LIKE 5 (PIL5) results in down-regulation of DAG1...
  28. Shi H, Zhong S, Mo X, Liu N, Nezames C, Deng X. HFR1 sequesters PIF1 to govern the transcriptional network underlying light-initiated seed germination in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:3770-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous studies showed that phytochrome-interacting factor1 (PIF1) represses seed germination downstream of phyB...
  29. Capella M, Ribone P, Arce A, Chan R. Arabidopsis thaliana HomeoBox 1 (AtHB1), a Homedomain-Leucine Zipper I (HD-Zip I) transcription factor, is regulated by PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 1 to promote hypocotyl elongation. New Phytol. 2015;207:669-82 pubmed publisher
    ..AtHB1 transcript levels were lower in PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (PIF1) mutants than in controls, suggesting that AtHB1 is regulated by PIF1 in hypocotyls...
  30. Sairanen I, Novak O, Pencík A, Ikeda Y, Jones B, Sandberg G, et al. Soluble carbohydrates regulate auxin biosynthesis via PIF proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Linking these three known regulators of growth provides a model for the dynamic coordination of responses to a changing environment. ..
  31. Park J, Lee N, Kim W, Lim S, Choi G. ABI3 and PIL5 collaboratively activate the expression of SOMNUS by directly binding to its promoter in imbibed Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1404-15 pubmed publisher
    ..is a key negative regulator of seed germination that acts downstream of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3-LIKE5 (PIL5). However, it was not determined if PIL5 is the sole regulator of SOM expression...