Gene Symbol: PIF3
Description: phytochrome interacting factor 3
Alias: F14J9.19, F14J9_19, PAP3, PHOTOCURRENT 1, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3, PHYTOCHROME-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 3, POC1, phytochrome interacting factor 3, purple acid phosphatase 3, phytochrome interacting factor 3
Species: thale cress
Products:     PIF3

Top Publications

  1. Ni M, Tepperman J, Quail P. PIF3, a phytochrome-interacting factor necessary for normal photoinduced signal transduction, is a novel basic helix-loop-helix protein. Cell. 1998;95:657-67 pubmed
    ..Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we have identified a phytochrome-interacting factor, PIF3, a basic helix-loop-helix protein containing a PAS domain...
  2. Ni W, Xu S, Tepperman J, Stanley D, Maltby D, Gross J, et al. A mutually assured destruction mechanism attenuates light signaling in Arabidopsis. Science. 2014;344:1160-1164 pubmed publisher
    ..and degradation of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, such as PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3), to regulate gene expression...
  3. Monte E, Tepperman J, Al Sady B, Kaczorowski K, Alonso J, Ecker J, et al. The phytochrome-interacting transcription factor, PIF3, acts early, selectively, and positively in light-induced chloroplast development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16091-8 pubmed
    ..pathway by which this occurs involves direct, intranuclear interaction of the photoactivated phy molecule with PIF3, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor...
  4. Zhong S, Shi H, Xue C, Wang L, Xi Y, Li J, et al. A molecular framework of light-controlled phytohormone action in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1530-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3) is directly activated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) and is indispensible for ethylene-induced hypocotyl ..
  5. Al Sady B, Ni W, Kircher S, Schafer E, Quail P. Photoactivated phytochrome induces rapid PIF3 phosphorylation prior to proteasome-mediated degradation. Mol Cell. 2006;23:439-46 pubmed
    ..of the phytochrome (phy) photoreceptor family (phyA to phyE) interact with bHLH transcription factors, such as PIF3, and induce changes in target-gene expression...
  6. Park E, Park J, Kim J, Nagatani A, Lagarias J, Choi G. Phytochrome B inhibits binding of phytochrome-interacting factors to their target promoters. Plant J. 2012;72:537-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we use chromatin immunoprecipitation to show that phyB inhibits the regulatory activity of PIF1 and PIF3 by releasing them from their DNA targets...
  7. Ni W, Xu S, Chalkley R, Pham T, Guan S, Maltby D, et al. Multisite light-induced phosphorylation of the transcription factor PIF3 is necessary for both its rapid degradation and concomitant negative feedback modulation of photoreceptor phyB levels in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2679-98 pubmed publisher
    ..and degradation of phy-interacting basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH) transcription factors (PIFs), such as PIF3, thereby regulating the expression of target genes...
  8. Pfeiffer A, Nagel M, Popp C, Wüst F, Bindics J, Viczian A, et al. Interaction with plant transcription factors can mediate nuclear import of phytochrome B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5892-7 pubmed publisher
    ..in vitro and showed that the nuclear import of phyB can be facilitated by phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3)...
  9. Zhu Y, Tepperman J, Fairchild C, Quail P. Phytochrome B binds with greater apparent affinity than phytochrome A to the basic helix-loop-helix factor PIF3 in a reaction requiring the PAS domain of PIF3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13419-24 pubmed
    ..by the binding of one member of the family, phyB, to a promoter-element-bound, basic helix-loop-helix protein, PIF3, specifically upon light-induced conversion of the photoreceptor molecule to its biologically active conformer (Pfr)..

More Information


  1. de Lucas M, Davière J, Rodríguez Falcón M, Pontin M, Iglesias Pedraz J, Lorrain S, et al. A molecular framework for light and gibberellin control of cell elongation. Nature. 2008;451:480-4 pubmed publisher
  2. Yamashino T, Matsushika A, Fujimori T, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, et al. A Link between circadian-controlled bHLH factors and the APRR1/TOC1 quintet in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:619-29 pubmed
    ..e. PIF3 and PIL1, which are PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3 and its homolog (PIF3-LIKE 1), respectively)...
  3. Khanna R, Huq E, Kikis E, Al Sady B, Lanzatella C, Quail P. A novel molecular recognition motif necessary for targeting photoactivated phytochrome signaling to specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Plant Cell. 2004;16:3033-44 pubmed
    ..These two factors cluster tightly with PIF3 and two other phy-interacting bHLH proteins in a phylogenetic subfamily within the large Arabidopsis bHLH (AtbHLH) ..
  4. Liu X, Chen C, Wang K, Luo M, Tai R, Yuan L, et al. PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 associates with the histone deacetylase HDA15 in repression of chlorophyll biosynthesis and photosynthesis in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1258-73 pubmed publisher
    PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) is a key basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of Arabidopsis thaliana that negatively regulates light responses, repressing chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, and photomorphogenesis in ..
  5. Leivar P, Monte E, Al Sady B, Carle C, Storer A, Alonso J, et al. The Arabidopsis phytochrome-interacting factor PIF7, together with PIF3 and PIF4, regulates responses to prolonged red light by modulating phyB levels. Plant Cell. 2008;20:337-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to PIF3, upon light exposure, PIF7 rapidly migrates to intranuclear speckles, where it colocalizes with phyB...
  6. Soy J, Leivar P, González Schain N, Sentandreu M, Prat S, Quail P, et al. Phytochrome-imposed oscillations in PIF3 protein abundance regulate hypocotyl growth under diurnal light/dark conditions in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;71:390-401 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the possible role of PIF3 in this process, we have analyzed hypocotyl responses and marker gene expression in pif single- and higher-order ..
  7. Huq E, Al Sady B, Hudson M, Kim C, Apel K, Quail P. Phytochrome-interacting factor 1 is a critical bHLH regulator of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Science. 2004;305:1937-41 pubmed
  8. Fairchild C, Schumaker M, Quail P. HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2377-91 pubmed
    ..In contrast to PIF3, a related bHLH protein previously shown to bind phyB, HFR1 did not bind either phyA or B...
  9. Bauer D, Viczian A, Kircher S, Nobis T, Nitschke R, Kunkel T, et al. Constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 and multiple photoreceptors control degradation of phytochrome interacting factor 3, a transcription factor required for light signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1433-45 pubmed
    ..promotes interaction of phytochrome A (phyA) and phyB with transcription factors including phytochrome interacting factor 3 (PIF3), and is thought to trigger a transcriptional cascade to regulate the expression of ..
  10. Sentandreu M, Martín G, González Schain N, Leivar P, Soy J, Tepperman J, et al. Functional profiling identifies genes involved in organ-specific branches of the PIF3 regulatory network in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3974-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we combined a microarray-based approach with a functional profiling strategy and identified four PIF3-regulated genes misexpressed in the dark (MIDAs) that are novel regulators of seedling deetiolation...
  11. Ni M, Tepperman J, Quail P. Binding of phytochrome B to its nuclear signalling partner PIF3 is reversibly induced by light. Nature. 1999;400:781-4 pubmed
    ..We have cloned a nuclear basic helix-loop-helix protein, PIF3, which can bind to non-photoactive carboxy-terminal fragments of phytochromes A and B and functions in phytochrome ..
  12. Bu Q, Castillon A, Chen F, Zhu L, Huq E. Dimerization and blue light regulation of PIF1 interacting bHLH proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;77:501-11 pubmed publisher
    ..performed yeast two-hybrid screening using PIF1 as a bait and identified a group of proteins including PIF1 itself, PIF3 and long hypocotyl in far-red 1 (HFR1), an atypical HLH protein...
  13. Feng S, Martinez C, Gusmaroli G, Wang Y, Zhou J, Wang F, et al. Coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana development by light and gibberellins. Nature. 2008;451:475-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GA, nuclear-localized DELLA proteins accumulate to higher levels, interact with phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3, a bHLH-type transcription factor) and prevent PIF3 from binding to its target gene promoters and regulating gene ..
  14. Oh E, Kim J, Park E, Kim J, Kang C, Choi G. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix protein, is a key negative regulator of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2004;16:3045-58 pubmed
    ..We report here that the PIF3-like 5 (PIL5) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-..
  15. Martínez García J, Huq E, Quail P. Direct targeting of light signals to a promoter element-bound transcription factor. Science. 2000;288:859-63 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor PIF3 binds specifically to a G-box DNA-sequence motif present in various light-regulated gene promoters, and that ..
  16. Stephenson P, Fankhauser C, Terry M. PIF3 is a repressor of chloroplast development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7654-9 pubmed publisher
    The phytochrome-interacting factor PIF3 has been proposed to act as a positive regulator of chloroplast development...
  17. Shen Y, Khanna R, Carle C, Quail P. Phytochrome induces rapid PIF5 phosphorylation and degradation in response to red-light activation. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1043-51 pubmed
    ..constitutively nuclear basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family, such as PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3)...
  18. Shin J, Park E, Choi G. PIF3 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in an HY5-dependent manner with both factors directly binding anthocyanin biosynthetic gene promoters in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;49:981-94 pubmed
    ..Here we investigated the functional relationship between two such transcription factors, PIF3 and HY5, and their effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis...
  19. Huq E, Quail P. PIF4, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH factor, functions as a negative regulator of phytochrome B signaling in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2002;21:2441-50 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this proposal, PIF4 localizes to the nucleus and can bind to a G-box DNA sequence motif found in various light-regulated promoters. ..
  20. Halliday K, Hudson M, Ni M, Qin M, Quail P. poc1: an Arabidopsis mutant perturbed in phytochrome signaling because of a T DNA insertion in the promoter of PIF3, a gene encoding a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:5832-7 pubmed
    ..screen for T DNA-tagged Arabidopsis mutants affected in early signaling intermediates, we identified poc1 (photocurrent 1), which exhibits enhanced responsiveness to red light...
  21. Huang H, Yoo C, Bindbeutel R, Goldsworthy J, Tielking A, Alvarez S, et al. PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis. elife. 2016;5:e13292 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PCH1 is a new factor that regulates photoperiod-responsive growth by integrating the clock with light perception pathways through modulating daily phyB-signaling. ..
  22. Soy J, Leivar P, González Schain N, Martín G, Diaz C, Sentandreu M, et al. Molecular convergence of clock and photosensory pathways through PIF3-TOC1 interaction and co-occupancy of target promoters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:4870-5 pubmed publisher
    ..is maximal at dawn, being promoted by the collective activity of a quartet of transcription factors, called PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 (phytochrome-interacting factors)...
  23. Kim K, Shin J, Lee S, Kweon H, Maloof J, Choi G. Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by regulating the development of endodermal amyloplasts through phytochrome-interacting factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:1729-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Phytochromes inhibit hypocotyl negative gravitropism by inhibiting four phytochrome-interacting factors (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, PIF5), as shown by hypocotyl agravitropism of dark-grown pif1 pif3 pif4 pif5 quadruple mutants...
  24. Ito S, Nakamichi N, Nakamura Y, Niwa Y, Kato T, Murakami M, et al. Genetic linkages between circadian clock-associated components and phytochrome-dependent red light signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:971-83 pubmed
    ..these signaling pathways are coordinately integrated into the phytochrome-mediated red light signal transduction pathway, in which PIF3 (PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3) functions as a negative regulator immediately downstream of phyB.
  25. Pacín M, Semmoloni M, Legris M, Finlayson S, Casal J. Convergence of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS 1 and PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR signalling during shade avoidance. New Phytol. 2016;211:967-79 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions, we analysed: the transcriptome and the auxin levels of cop1 and phytochrome interacting factor 1 (pif1) pif3 pif4 pif5 (pifq) mutants; the dynamics of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-RED (HFR1) proteins;..
  26. Clack T, Shokry A, Moffet M, Liu P, Faul M, Sharrock R. Obligate heterodimerization of Arabidopsis phytochromes C and E and interaction with the PIF3 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Plant Cell. 2009;21:786-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings link an unanticipated diversity of plant R/FR photoreceptor structures to established phytochrome signaling mechanisms. ..
  27. Toledo Ortiz G, Huq E, Quail P. The Arabidopsis basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1749-70 pubmed
    ..Based on evidence that the bHLH protein PIF3 is a direct phytochrome reaction partner in the photoreceptor's signaling network, we have undertaken a ..
  28. Leung D, Otomo C, Chory J, Rosen M. Genetically encoded photoswitching of actin assembly through the Cdc42-WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..effector, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), to the light-dependent PhyB-binding domain of phytochrome interacting factor 3 (Pif3)...
  29. Sentandreu M, Leivar P, Martín G, Monte E. Branching of the PIF3 regulatory network in Arabidopsis: roles of PIF3-regulated MIDAs in seedling development in the dark and in response to light. Plant Signal Behav. 2012;7:510-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In a recent work, published in The Plant Cell, we report a subset of PIF3-regulated genes in dark-grown seedlings that we have named MIDAs (MISREGULATED IN DARK)...
  30. Qiu Y, Li M, Pasoreck E, Long L, Shi Y, Galvão R, et al. HEMERA Couples the Proteolysis and Transcriptional Activity of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs in Arabidopsis Photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell. 2015;27:1409-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that the degradation of PIF1 and PIF3 requires HEMERA (HMR)...
  31. Phee B, Shin D, Cho J, Kim S, Kim J, Lee Y, et al. Identification of phytochrome-interacting protein candidates in Arabidopsis thaliana by co-immunoprecipitation coupled with MALDI-TOF MS. Proteomics. 2006;6:3671-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that co-immunoprecipitation, followed by proteomic analysis, is a useful method for identifying novel interacting proteins and determining real protein-protein interactions in the cell. ..
  32. Kikis E, Oka Y, Hudson M, Nagatani A, Quail P. Residues clustered in the light-sensing knot of phytochrome B are necessary for conformer-specific binding to signaling partner PIF3. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000352 pubmed publisher
    The bHLH transcription factor, Phytochrome Interacting Factor 3 (PIF3), interacts specifically with the photoactivated, Pfr, form of Arabidopsis phytochrome B (phyB)...
  33. Hughes R, Vrana J, Song J, Tucker C. Light-dependent, dark-promoted interaction between Arabidopsis cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome B proteins. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesize that in plants, the phyB/CRY1 interaction may mediate cross-talk between the red/far-red- and blue/UV-sensing pathways, enabling fine-tuning of light responses to different spectral inputs. ..
  34. Sairanen I, Novak O, Pencík A, Ikeda Y, Jones B, Sandberg G, et al. Soluble carbohydrates regulate auxin biosynthesis via PIF proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Linking these three known regulators of growth provides a model for the dynamic coordination of responses to a changing environment. ..
  35. Yu Y, Huang R. Integration of Ethylene and Light Signaling Affects Hypocotyl Growth in Arabidopsis. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:57 pubmed publisher
    ..In the light, ethylene promotes the expression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3) and the degradation of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) protein, thus stimulating hypocotyl ..
  36. Song Y, Yang C, Gao S, Zhang W, Li L, Kuai B. Age-triggered and dark-induced leaf senescence require the bHLH transcription factors PIF3, 4, and 5. Mol Plant. 2014;7:1776-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides evidence that PIF3, 4, and 5 are novel positive senescence mediators and gains an insight into the mechanism of light signaling ..
  37. Bours R, Kohlen W, Bouwmeester H, van der Krol A. Thermoperiodic control of hypocotyl elongation depends on auxin-induced ethylene signaling that controls downstream PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 activity. Plant Physiol. 2015;167:517-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs) PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5 were previously shown to be important regulators of hypocotyl elongation...
  38. Yasui Y, Mukougawa K, Uemoto M, Yokofuji A, Suzuri R, Nishitani A, et al. The phytochrome-interacting vascular plant one-zinc finger1 and VOZ2 redundantly regulate flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3248-63 pubmed
    ..We propose that partial translocation of VOZ proteins from the cytoplasm to the nucleus mediates the initial step of the phyB signal transduction pathway that regulates flowering. ..
  39. Shen Y, Zhou Z, Feng S, Li J, Tan Wilson A, Qu L, et al. Phytochrome A mediates rapid red light-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 in a low fluence response. Plant Cell. 2009;21:494-506 pubmed publisher
  40. Giraud E, Ng S, Carrie C, Duncan O, Low J, Lee C, et al. TCP transcription factors link the regulation of genes encoding mitochondrial proteins with the circadian clock in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3921-34 pubmed publisher
  41. Yoo J, Cho M, Lee S, Bhoo S. Phytochrome-interacting ankyrin repeat protein 2 modulates phytochrome A-mediated PIF3 phosphorylation in light signal transduction. J Biochem. 2016;160:243-249 pubmed
    ..Phytochrome-interacting ankyrin repeat protein 2 (PIA2) was found to interact with phytochrome interacting factor 3 (PIF3), a well-known repressor of plant photomorphogenesis in response to phytochrome-mediated light ..
  42. Geilen K, Böhmer M. Dynamic subnuclear relocalisation of WRKY40 in response to Abscisic acid in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sci Rep. 2015;5:13369 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that WRKY18 and WRKY40, but not WRKY60, co-localise with PIF3, PIF4 and PHYB to Phytochrome B-containing nuclear bodies (PNBs)...
  43. Chen D, Xu G, Tang W, Jing Y, Ji Q, Fei Z, et al. Antagonistic basic helix-loop-helix/bZIP transcription factors form transcriptional modules that integrate light and reactive oxygen species signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1657-73 pubmed publisher
    ..composed of the basic helix-loop-helix and bZIP transcription factors PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1), PIF3, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5), and HY5 HOMOLOGY (HYH) that bridge light and ROS signaling to regulate cell death and ..
  44. Chen F, Shi X, Chen L, Dai M, Zhou Z, Shen Y, et al. Phosphorylation of FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 is a key mechanism defining signaling dynamics of phytochrome A under red and far-red light in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:1907-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results reveal FHY1 phosphorylation as a key mechanism for FR/R spectrum-specific responses in plants and an essential event for plant adaption to changing light conditions in nature. ..
  45. Ma Q, Wang X, Sun J, Mao T. Coordinated Regulation of Hypocotyl Cell Elongation by Light and Ethylene through a Microtubule Destabilizing Protein. Plant Physiol. 2018;176:678-690 pubmed publisher
    ..Light suppresses hypocotyl elongation by degrading transcription factor phytochrome-interacting factor 3 (PIF3), whereas the phytohormone ethylene promotes hypocotyl elongation by activating PIF3...
  46. Dong J, Tang D, Gao Z, Yu R, Li K, He H, et al. Arabidopsis DE-ETIOLATED1 represses photomorphogenesis by positively regulating phytochrome-interacting factors in the dark. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3630-45 pubmed publisher
  47. Fujimori T, Yamashino T, Kato T, Mizuno T. Circadian-controlled basic/helix-loop-helix factor, PIL6, implicated in light-signal transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:1078-86 pubmed
    ..g., elongation of hypocotyls in de-etiolation). Taken together, PIL6 might function at an interface between the circadian clock and red light-signal transduction pathways. ..
  48. Makino S, Matsushika A, Kojima M, Yamashino T, Mizuno T. The APRR1/TOC1 quintet implicated in circadian rhythms of Arabidopsis thaliana: I. Characterization with APRR1-overexpressing plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:58-69 pubmed
    ..This protein (named PIL1) is similar in its amino acid sequence to PIF3, which has been identified as a phytochrome-interacting transcription factor...
  49. Kevei E, Gyula P, Hall A, Kozma Bognar L, Kim W, Eriksson M, et al. Forward genetic analysis of the circadian clock separates the multiple functions of ZEITLUPE. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:933-45 pubmed
    ..Forward genetics continues to provide insight regarding both known and newly discovered components of the circadian system, although current approaches have saturated mutations at some loci. ..
  50. Zhang X, Huai J, Shang F, Xu G, Tang W, Jing Y, et al. A PIF1/PIF3-HY5-BBX23 Transcription Factor Cascade Affects Photomorphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2017;174:2487-2500 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and PIF1 transcription factors directly bind to the regulatory regions of ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5) and a B-box ..
  51. Adams E, Diaz C, Hong J, Shin R. 14-3-3 proteins participate in light signaling through association with PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15:22801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis revealed that the 14-3-3 kappa isoform (14-3-3κ) could bind to PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) and CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1)...
  52. Li Y, Jing Y, Li J, Xu G, Lin R. Arabidopsis VQ MOTIF-CONTAINING PROTEIN29 represses seedling deetiolation by interacting with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1. Plant Physiol. 2014;164:2068-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our study reveals that VQ29 is a negative transcriptional regulator of light-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl elongation that likely promotes the transcriptional activity of PIF1 during early seedling development. ..
  53. Quail P. Phytochrome-interacting factors. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2000;11:457-66 pubmed
    ..The phytochrome molecules are proposed to function as integral, light-switchable components of transcriptional regulator complexes targeting environmental light signals directly and instantly to specific gene promoters. ..
  54. Bai S, Yao T, Li M, Guo X, Zhang Y, Zhu S, et al. PIF3 is involved in the primary root growth inhibition of Arabidopsis induced by nitric oxide in the light. Mol Plant. 2014;7:616-25 pubmed publisher
    PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 (PIF3) is an important component in the phytochrome signaling pathway and mediates plant responses to various environmental conditions...
  55. Nito K, Wong C, Yates J, Chory J. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the activity of phytochrome photoreceptors. Cell Rep. 2013;3:1970-9 pubmed publisher
    ..phyBY104E, is unable to complement any phyB-related phenotype, is defective in binding to its signaling partner PIF3, and fails to form stable nuclear bodies even though it retains normal photochemistry in vitro...
  56. Soy J, Leivar P, Monte E. PIF1 promotes phytochrome-regulated growth under photoperiodic conditions in Arabidopsis together with PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:2925-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Current evidence indicates that this behaviour involves the action of PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 3 (PIF3) together with PIF4 and PIF5, through direct regulation of growth-related genes at dawn coinciding with a PIF3 ..
  57. Phee B, Kim J, Shin D, Yoo J, Park K, Han Y, et al. A novel protein phosphatase indirectly regulates phytochrome-interacting factor 3 via phytochrome. Biochem J. 2008;415:247-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, PAPP2C indirectly mediates the dephosphorylation of PIF3 (phytochrome-interacting factor 3) in vitro...