Gene Symbol: PHOT2
Description: phototropin 2
Alias: AtPHOT2, K21L19.6, K21L19_6, NON PHOTOTROPIC HYPOCOTYL 1-LIKE, NPL1, phototropin 2, phototropin 2
Species: thale cress
Products:     PHOT2

Top Publications

  1. Sakai T, Kagawa T, Kasahara M, Swartz T, Christie J, Briggs W, et al. Arabidopsis nph1 and npl1: blue light receptors that mediate both phototropism and chloroplast relocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6969-74 pubmed
    ..A likely candidate is the nph1 homologue, npl1, which has recently been shown to mediate the avoidance response of chloroplasts to high-intensity blue light in ..
  2. Chen X, Lin W, Wang Y, Luan S, Xue H. An inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase functions in PHOTOTROPIN1 signaling in Arabidopis by altering cytosolic Ca2+. Plant Cell. 2008;20:353-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression level of 5PTase13 was significantly enhanced in phot1 single or phot1 phot2 double mutants under blue light, and suppression of 5PTase13 expression rescued the elongated hypocotyls in the ..
  3. Kong S, Kinoshita T, Shimazaki K, Mochizuki N, Suzuki T, Nagatani A. The C-terminal kinase fragment of Arabidopsis phototropin 2 triggers constitutive phototropin responses. Plant J. 2007;51:862-73 pubmed
    ..One of two phototropins in Arabidopsis thaliana, phot2, associates with the Golgi apparatus in a light-dependent manner...
  4. Matsuoka D, Tokutomi S. Blue light-regulated molecular switch of Ser/Thr kinase in phototropin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13337-42 pubmed
    ..Bacterially expressed Arabidopsis phototropin 2 kinase domain (KD) with GST-tag showed a constitutive kinase activity on casein, a common in vitro substrate ..
  5. Kong S, Suzuki T, Tamura K, Mochizuki N, Hara Nishimura I, Nagatani A. Blue light-induced association of phototropin 2 with the Golgi apparatus. Plant J. 2006;45:994-1005 pubmed
    Phototropins 1 and 2 (phot1 and phot2) function as blue light (BL) photoreceptors for phototropism, chloroplast relocation, stomatal opening and leaf flattening in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  6. Luesse D, DeBlasio S, Hangarter R. Integration of Phot1, Phot2, and PhyB signalling in light-induced chloroplast movements. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:4387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Examination of fluence-rate response dependencies in phot1 and phot2 mutants revealed that although both photoreceptors are capable of inducing chloroplast accumulation under low-..
  7. Suetsugu N, Kagawa T, Wada M. An auxilin-like J-domain protein, JAC1, regulates phototropin-mediated chloroplast movement in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:151-62 pubmed
    ..thaliana), the accumulation response is mediated by two blue-light receptors, termed phototropins (phot1 and phot2) that act redundantly, and the avoidance response is mediated by phot2 alone...
  8. Kong S, Suetsugu N, Kikuchi S, Nakai M, Nagatani A, Wada M. Both phototropin 1 and 2 localize on the chloroplast outer membrane with distinct localization activity. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:80-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Phototropins (phot1 and phot2 in Arabidopsis) are plant-specific blue light photoreceptors that perceive changes in light intensity and ..
  9. Kinoshita T, Doi M, Suetsugu N, Kagawa T, Wada M, Shimazaki K. Phot1 and phot2 mediate blue light regulation of stomatal opening. Nature. 2001;414:656-60 pubmed
    ..responses have identified four blue light receptors, cryptochrome 1 (cry1), cryptochrome 2 (cry2), phot1 and phot2. Here we show that in a double mutant of phot1 and phot2 stomata do not respond to blue light although single ..

More Information


  1. Briggs W, Christie J. Phototropins 1 and 2: versatile plant blue-light receptors. Trends Plant Sci. 2002;7:204-10 pubmed
    ..The phototropins (phot1 and phot2) represent a new class of receptor kinases that appear to be exclusive to plants...
  2. Sakamoto K, Briggs W. Cellular and subcellular localization of phototropin 1. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1723-35 pubmed
    ..Phot1 is plasma membrane associated and, as with phot2, has been shown to function as a photoreceptor for phototropism, blue light-induced chloroplast movement, and blue ..
  3. Iwabuchi K, Sakai T, Takagi S. Blue light-dependent nuclear positioning in Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:1291-8 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the response to blue light was induced in phot1 but not in phot2 and phot1phot2 mutants...
  4. Aihara Y, Tabata R, Suzuki T, Shimazaki K, Nagatani A. Molecular basis of the functional specificities of phototropin 1 and 2. Plant J. 2008;56:364-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Two phototropins, phot1 and phot2, which have overlapping and distinct functions, exist in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  5. Cho H, Tseng T, Kaiserli E, Sullivan S, Christie J, Briggs W. Physiological roles of the light, oxygen, or voltage domains of phototropin 1 and phototropin 2 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:517-29 pubmed
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant blue-light receptors that mediate phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, rapid inhibition of growth of etiolated seedlings, and leaf expansion in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  6. de Carbonnel M, Davis P, Roelfsema M, Inoue S, Schepens I, Lariguet P, et al. The Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME KINASE SUBSTRATE2 protein is a phototropin signaling element that regulates leaf flattening and leaf positioning. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1391-405 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the blue light photoreceptor phototropins (phot1 and phot2) fine-tune the photosynthetic status of the plant by controlling several important adaptive processes in response to environmental light ..
  7. Tseng T, Briggs W. The Arabidopsis rcn1-1 mutation impairs dephosphorylation of Phot2, resulting in enhanced blue light responses. Plant Cell. 2010;22:392-402 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified the A1 subunit of Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) as interacting with full-length phot2 in yeast and also interacting with phot2 in an in vitro protein binding assay...
  8. Takemiya A, Inoue S, Doi M, Kinoshita T, Shimazaki K. Phototropins promote plant growth in response to blue light in low light environments. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1120-7 pubmed
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are plant-specific blue light receptors for phototropism, chloroplast movement, leaf expansion, and stomatal opening...
  9. Suetsugu N, Kong S, Kasahara M, Wada M. Both LOV1 and LOV2 domains of phototropin2 function as the photosensory domain for hypocotyl phototropic responses in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae). Am J Bot. 2013;100:60-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana has two phototropins, phot1 and phot2. Although both phot1 and phot2 redundantly mediate photomovement responses, phot2 uniquely regulates phototropism ..
  10. Takayama Y, Nakasako M, Okajima K, Iwata A, Kashojiya S, Matsui Y, et al. Light-induced movement of the LOV2 domain in an Asp720Asn mutant LOV2-kinase fragment of Arabidopsis phototropin 2. Biochemistry. 2011;50:1174-83 pubmed publisher
    ..To understand this molecular mechanism in Arabidopsis phototropin 2, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering analysis on a fragment composed of the LOV2 and kinase domains, ..
  11. Wang Y, Maruhnich S, Mageroy M, Justice J, Folta K. Phototropin 1 and cryptochrome action in response to green light in combination with other wavelengths. Planta. 2013;237:225-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The GL opposition of RL responses persists in phyA, phyB, cry1cry2 and phot2 mutants...
  12. Jeong R, Chandra Shekara A, Barman S, Navarre D, Klessig D, Kachroo A, et al. Cryptochrome 2 and phototropin 2 regulate resistance protein-mediated viral defense by negatively regulating an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13538-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of HRT can compensate for the absence of PHOT2 but not CRY2...
  13. Inoue S, Matsushita T, Tomokiyo Y, Matsumoto M, Nakayama K, Kinoshita T, et al. Functional analyses of the activation loop of phototropin2 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:117-28 pubmed publisher
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are autophosphorylating blue-light receptor kinases that mediate blue-light responses such as phototropism, chloroplast accumulation, and stomatal opening in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  14. Kong S, Arai Y, Suetsugu N, Yanagida T, Wada M. Rapid severing and motility of chloroplast-actin filaments are required for the chloroplast avoidance response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:572-90 pubmed publisher
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2 in Arabidopsis thaliana) relay blue light intensity information to the chloroplasts, which move toward weak light (the accumulation response) and away from strong light (the avoidance response)...
  15. Marten H, Hedrich R, Roelfsema M. Blue light inhibits guard cell plasma membrane anion channels in a phototropin-dependent manner. Plant J. 2007;50:29-39 pubmed
    ..Blue light also inhibited plasma membrane anion channels in A. thaliana guard cells, but not in the phot1 phot2 double mutant...
  16. Nakasako M, Hirata M, Shimizu N, Hosokawa S, Matsuoka D, Oka T, et al. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis [correction of anaylsis] of the LOV1 domains of phototropin 1 and 2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2008;64:617-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Higher plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana have two isoforms of phototropin: phototropin 1 and phototropin 2. Both isoforms comprise a tandem pair of blue-light-absorbing light-oxygen-voltage domains named LOV1 and LOV2 ..
  17. Kozuka T, Suetsugu N, Wada M, Nagatani A. Antagonistic regulation of leaf flattening by phytochrome B and phototropin in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:69-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study provides new insights into a mechanism in which leaf flatness is regulated in response to different light environmental cues. ..
  18. Aggarwal C, Banaś A, Kasprowicz Maluśki A, Borghetti C, Labuz J, Dobrucki J, et al. Blue-light-activated phototropin2 trafficking from the cytoplasm to Golgi/post-Golgi vesicles. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:3263-76 pubmed publisher
    ..It is shown that Atphot2 behaves in a similar manner when expressed transiently under 35S or its native promoter...
  19. Tseng T, Whippo C, Hangarter R, Briggs W. The role of a 14-3-3 protein in stomatal opening mediated by PHOT2 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:1114-26 pubmed publisher
    The 14-3-3 ? isoform is required for normal stomatal opening mediated by PHOT2 in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  20. Nakasako M, Zikihara K, Matsuoka D, Katsura H, Tokutomi S. Structural basis of the LOV1 dimerization of Arabidopsis phototropins 1 and 2. J Mol Biol. 2008;381:718-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show the crystal structures of LOV1 domains of Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2 in the dark at resolutions of 2.1 A and 2.0 A, respectively...
  21. Katsura H, Zikihara K, Okajima K, Yoshihara S, Tokutomi S. Oligomeric structure of LOV domains in Arabidopsis phototropin. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:526-30 pubmed publisher
    Oligomeric structures of the four LOV domains in Arabidopsis phototropin1 (phot1) and 2 (phot2) were studied using crosslinking...
  22. Kozuka T, Kong S, Doi M, Shimazaki K, Nagatani A. Tissue-autonomous promotion of palisade cell development by phototropin 2 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3684-95 pubmed publisher
    ..observed under lower intensities of blue light was mediated exclusively by a blue light photoreceptor, phototropin 2 (PHOT2). Another response was elicited under higher intensities of light in a phototropin-independent manner...
  23. Kagawa T, Kimura M, Wada M. Blue light-induced phototropism of inflorescence stems and petioles is mediated by phototropin family members phot1 and phot2. Plant Cell Physiol. 2009;50:1774-85 pubmed publisher
    Phototropin family photoreceptors, phot1 and phot2, in Arabidopsis thaliana control the blue light (BL)-mediated phototropic responses of the hypocotyl, chloroplast relocation movement and stomatal opening...
  24. Takemiya A, Shimazaki K. Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2 phosphorylate BLUS1 kinase with different efficiencies in stomatal opening. J Plant Res. 2016;129:167-74 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis thaliana, phototropins (phot1 and phot2), light-activated receptor kinases, redundantly regulate various photoresponses such as phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movement, stomatal opening, and leaf flattening...
  25. Okajima K, Kashojiya S, Tokutomi S. Photosensitivity of kinase activation by blue light involves the lifetime of a cysteinyl-flavin adduct intermediate, S390, in the photoreaction cycle of the LOV2 domain in phototropin, a plant blue light receptor. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:40972-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis has two homologues, phot1 and phot2, that share physiological functions depending on light intensity...
  26. Lehmann P, Nöthen J, von Braun S, Bohnsack M, Mirus O, Schleiff E. Transitions of gene expression induced by short-term blue light. Plant Biol (Stuttg). 2011;13:349-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Three genes were identified as important for the latter process, namely PHOT1, PHOT2 and CHUP1. The former two phototropin blue light receptors act in perception of the blue light signal...
  27. Nakasone Y, Kawaguchi Y, Kong S, Wada M, Terazima M. Photoinduced oligomerization of Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin 2 LOV1. J Phys Chem B. 2014;118:14314-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the reactions of the Arabidopsis phototropin 2 LOV1 (phot2LOV1) domain were revealed by the transient grating (TG) method...
  28. Harada A, Takemiya A, Inoue S, Sakai T, Shimazaki K. Role of RPT2 in leaf positioning and flattening and a possible inhibition of phot2 signaling by phot1. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:36-47 pubmed publisher
    We investigated the roles of the blue light receptors phototropins (phot1 and phot2) and ROOT PHOTOTROPISM 2 (RPT2) in leaf positioning and flattening, and plant growth under weak, moderate and strong white light (10, 25 and 70 µmol m(-..
  29. Ichikawa S, Yamada N, Suetsugu N, Wada M, Kadota A. Red light, Phot1 and JAC1 modulate Phot2-dependent reorganization of chloroplast actin filaments and chloroplast avoidance movement. Plant Cell Physiol. 2011;52:1422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..No reorganization of cp-actin filaments was seen in phot2 or phot1phot2 mutants lacking phot2, which is responsible for avoidance movements...
  30. Qi Y, Katagiri F. Purification of low-abundance Arabidopsis plasma-membrane protein complexes and identification of candidate components. Plant J. 2009;57:932-44 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified RIN4, a known RPS2 interactor, as well as other potential components of the RPS2 complex(es). Thus, the HPB tag method is suitable for the purification of low-abundance PM protein complexes. ..
  31. Łabuz J, Hermanowicz P, Gabryś H. The impact of temperature on blue light induced chloroplast movements in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Sci. 2015;239:238-49 pubmed publisher
    ..The physiological role of the cold-enhancement of the avoidance response is explained in the context of phototropin levels, photochemical activities and signaling in the cell. ..
  32. Kong S, Kagawa T, Wada M, Nagatani A. A C-terminal membrane association domain of phototropin 2 is necessary for chloroplast movement. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:57-68 pubmed publisher
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), plant-specific blue light receptor kinases, mediate a range of physiological responses in Arabidopsis, including phototropism, chloroplast photorelocation movement, stomatal opening and leaf flattening...
  33. Litthauer S, Battle M, Lawson T, Jones M. Phototropins maintain robust circadian oscillation of PSII operating efficiency under blue light. Plant J. 2015;83:1034-45 pubmed publisher
    ..As phototropins do not influence circadian gene expression in the nucleus our imaging methodology highlights differences between the modulation of circadian outputs in distinct subcellular compartments. ..
  34. Eitoku T, Nakasone Y, Zikihara K, Matsuoka D, Tokutomi S, Terazima M. Photochemical intermediates of Arabidopsis phototropin 2 LOV domains associated with conformational changes. J Mol Biol. 2007;371:1290-303 pubmed
    The photochemical reactions of Arabidopsis phototropin 2 light- oxygen-voltage domain 2 (LOV2) with the linker region (LOV2-linker), without the linker (LOV2), and LOV1 were studied using the time-resolved transient grating (TG) and ..
  35. Zhao X, Wang Y, Qiao X, Wang J, Wang L, Xu C, et al. Phototropins function in high-intensity blue light-induced hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis by altering cytosolic calcium. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1539-51 pubmed publisher
    Phototropins (phot1 and phot2), the blue light receptors in plants, regulate hypocotyl phototropism in a fluence-dependent manner...
  36. Königer M, Jessen B, Yang R, Sittler D, Harris G. Light, genotype, and abscisic acid affect chloroplast positioning in guard cells of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in distinct ways. Photosynth Res. 2010;105:213-27 pubmed publisher
    ..This was not the case for phot1-5/phot2-1 or phot2-1 plants, thus phototropins are essential for chloroplast positioning in guard cells...
  37. Han I, Cho H, Moni A, Lee A, Briggs W. Investigations on the photoregulation of chloroplast movement and leaf positioning in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:48-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that phyA mediates the enhancement, induced by a red light pulse, of blue light-induced chloroplast movements. ..