Gene Symbol: PAP1
Description: production of anthocyanin pigment 1
Alias: ATMYB75, F25P12.92, F25P12_92, MYB DOMAIN PROTEIN 75, MYB75, MYELOBLASTOSIS PROTEIN 75, SIAA1, SUC-INDUCED ANTHOCYANIN ACCUMULATION 1, phosphatidic acid phosphatase 1, production of anthocyanin pigment 1, production of anthocyanin pigment 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Qi T, Song S, Ren Q, Wu D, Huang H, Chen Y, et al. The Jasmonate-ZIM-domain proteins interact with the WD-Repeat/bHLH/MYB complexes to regulate Jasmonate-mediated anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1795-814 pubmed publisher
    ..with bHLH (Transparent Testa8, Glabra3 [GL3], and Enhancer of Glabra3 [EGL3]) and R2R3 MYB transcription factors (MYB75 and Glabra1), essential components of WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB transcriptional complexes, to repress JA-regulated ..
  2. Bhargava A, Mansfield S, Hall H, Douglas C, Ellis B. MYB75 functions in regulation of secondary cell wall formation in the Arabidopsis inflorescence stem. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1428-38 pubmed publisher
    ..b>MYB75, also called PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1, is a known regulator of the anthocyanin branch of the ..
  3. Tohge T, Nishiyama Y, Hirai M, Yano M, Nakajima J, Awazuhara M, et al. Functional genomics by integrated analysis of metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis plants over-expressing an MYB transcription factor. Plant J. 2005;42:218-35 pubmed
    ..we report a comprehensive analysis of the metabolome and transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing the PAP1 gene encoding an MYB transcription factor, for the identification of novel gene functions involved in flavonoid ..
  4. Gonzalez A, Zhao M, Leavitt J, Lloyd A. Regulation of the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway by the TTG1/bHLH/Myb transcriptional complex in Arabidopsis seedlings. Plant J. 2008;53:814-27 pubmed
    ..Previous overexpression of the PAP1 Myb suggested that genes from the entire phenylpropanoid pathway are targets of regulation by Myb/bHLH/WD-repeat ..
  5. Rowan D, Cao M, Lin Wang K, Cooney J, Jensen D, Austin P, et al. Environmental regulation of leaf colour in red 35S:PAP1 Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2009;182:102-15 pubmed publisher
    ..low-light (HTLL) treatment of 35S:PAP1 Arabidopsis thaliana over-expressing the PAP1 (Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1) gene results in reversible reduction of red colouration, suggesting the action of additional ..
  6. Tohge T, Matsui K, Ohme Takagi M, Yamazaki M, Saito K. Enhanced radical scavenging activity of genetically modified Arabidopsis seeds. Biotechnol Lett. 2005;27:297-303 pubmed
    The proanthocyanidin (PA) content was increased in seeds of pap1-D mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana, in which the expression of endogenous PAP1 gene encoding a Myb-like transcription factor was induced by activation-tagging with enhancer ..
  7. Teng S, Keurentjes J, Bentsink L, Koornneef M, Smeekens S. Sucrose-specific induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis requires the MYB75/PAP1 gene. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1840-52 pubmed
    ..contribution to the trait, SIAA1, was fine mapped and using a candidate gene approach, it was shown that the MYB75/PAP1 gene encodes SIAA1...
  8. Shi M, Xie D. Features of anthocyanin biosynthesis in pap1-D and wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown in different light intensity and culture media conditions. Planta. 2010;231:1385-400 pubmed publisher
    ..accelerate the understanding of these questions, we investigated anthocyanin biosynthesis in rosette leaves of both pap1-D and wild-type (WT) A...
  9. Maier A, Schrader A, Kokkelink L, Falke C, Welter B, Iniesto E, et al. Light and the E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1/SPA control the protein stability of the MYB transcription factors PAP1 and PAP2 involved in anthocyanin accumulation in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2013;74:638-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The increased anthocyanin levels in cop1 mutants requires the PAP1 gene family, indicating that COP1 functions upstream of the PAP1 gene family...

More Information


  1. Bhargava A, Ahad A, Wang S, Mansfield S, Haughn G, Douglas C, et al. The interacting MYB75 and KNAT7 transcription factors modulate secondary cell wall deposition both in stems and seed coat in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2013;237:1199-211 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis thaliana KNAT7 (KNOX family) and MYB75 (MYB family) transcription factors were each shown earlier to interact in yeast two-hybrid assays, and to modulate secondary cell wall formation in inflorescence stems...
  2. Broeckling B, Watson R, Steinwand B, Bush D. Intronic Sequence Regulates Sugar-Dependent Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1/MYB75. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0156673 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1 (PAP1) plays a key role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and expression of PAP1 is known to be regulated by sucrose...
  3. Onkokesung N, Reichelt M, van Doorn A, Schuurink R, van Loon J, Dicke M. Modulation of flavonoid metabolites in Arabidopsis thaliana through overexpression of the MYB75 transcription factor: role of kaempferol-3,7-dirhamnoside in resistance to the specialist insect herbivore Pieris brassicae. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:2203-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of MYB75 (oxMYB75) in Arabidopsis results in increasing anthocyanin and flavonol levels which enhances plant resistance to ..
  4. Lewis D, Ramirez M, Miller N, Vallabhaneni P, Ray W, Helm R, et al. Auxin and ethylene induce flavonol accumulation through distinct transcriptional networks. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:144-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also provides new evidence that quercetin is the flavonol that modulates basipetal auxin transport. ..
  5. Hok S, Danchin E, Allasia V, Panabières F, Attard A, Keller H. An Arabidopsis (malectin-like) leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase contributes to downy mildew disease. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1944-57 pubmed publisher
    ..According to the mutant phenotype, we denominated it Impaired Oomycete Susceptibility 1 (IOS1). ..
  6. Li S, Zachgo S. TCP3 interacts with R2R3-MYB proteins, promotes flavonoid biosynthesis and negatively regulates the auxin response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2013;76:901-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that TCP3 interactions with R2R3-MYBs lead to enhanced flavonoid production, which further negatively modulates the auxin response...
  7. Matsui K, Umemura Y, Ohme Takagi M. AtMYBL2, a protein with a single MYB domain, acts as a negative regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;55:954-67 pubmed publisher
    ..AtMYBL2 bound directly to TT8 protein and this complex suppressed the expression of DFR and TT8. The repression activity of AtMYBL2 appears to play a critical role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. ..
  8. Das P, Shin D, Choi S, Yoo S, Choi G, Park Y. Cytokinins enhance sugar-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Mol Cells. 2012;34:93-101 pubmed publisher
    ..structural gene UDPglucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyl transferase (UF3GT) and regulatory gene PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT 1 (PAP1)...
  9. Chang C, Li Y, Chen L, Chen W, Hsieh W, Shin J, et al. LZF1, a HY5-regulated transcriptional factor, functions in Arabidopsis de-etiolation. Plant J. 2008;54:205-19 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of PAP1/MYB75 is elevated in plants overexpressing LZF1, which leads to the hyperaccumulation of anthocyanin in transgenic ..
  10. Shin D, Choi M, Kim K, Bang G, Cho M, Choi S, et al. HY5 regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by inducing the transcriptional activation of the MYB75/PAP1 transcription factor in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:1543-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HY5, a component of light-signaling pathways, and PAP1, an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, share common regulatory targets on anthocyanin biosynthesis genes...
  11. Nakabayashi R, Yonekura Sakakibara K, Urano K, Suzuki M, Yamada Y, Nishizawa T, et al. Enhancement of oxidative and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis by overaccumulation of antioxidant flavonoids. Plant J. 2014;77:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..and drought stress in wild-type, single overexpressors of MYB12/PFG1 (PRODUCTION OF FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES1) or MYB75/PAP1 (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENT1), double overexpressors of MYB12 and PAP1, transparent testa4 (tt4) as a ..
  12. Zimmermann I, Heim M, Weisshaar B, Uhrig J. Comprehensive identification of Arabidopsis thaliana MYB transcription factors interacting with R/B-like BHLH proteins. Plant J. 2004;40:22-34 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed with respect to multi-functionality, specificity and redundancy of MYB and BHLH protein function. ..
  13. Sawano H, Matsuzaki T, Usui T, Tabara M, Fukudome A, Kanaya A, et al. Double-stranded RNA-binding protein DRB3 negatively regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis by modulating PAP1 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Res. 2017;130:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..When DRB3ox was crossed with the pap1-D line, which is an activation-tagged transgenic line that over-expresses the key transcription factor PAP1 (..
  14. Luo Q, Mittal A, Jia F, Rock C. An autoregulatory feedback loop involving PAP1 and TAS4 in response to sugars in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;80:117-29 pubmed publisher
    ..One siRNA, TAS4-siRNA81(-), targets a set of MYB transcription factors including PAP1, PAP2, and MYB113 which regulate the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway...
  15. Qiu J, Sun S, Luo S, Zhang J, Xiao X, Zhang L, et al. Arabidopsis AtPAP1 transcription factor induces anthocyanin production in transgenic Taraxacum brevicorniculatum. Plant Cell Rep. 2014;33:669-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Taraxacum brevicorniculatum species were developed through heterologous expression of the production of anthocyanin pigment 1 (AtPAP1) transcription factor from Arabidopsis thaliana...
  16. Li S, Wang W, Gao J, Yin K, Wang R, Wang C, et al. MYB75 Phosphorylation by MPK4 Is Required for Light-Induced Anthocyanin Accumulation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2016;28:2866-2883 pubmed
    ..the accumulation of photoprotective anthocyanin pigments is light dependent, and the R2R3 MYB transcription factor MYB75/PAP1 regulates anthocyanin accumulation...
  17. Zhou L, Shi M, Xie D. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis by nitrogen in TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1-programmed red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2012;236:825-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this investigation, we report the nitrogen regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis activated by TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 in red pap1-D cells...
  18. Zhang F, Gonzalez A, Zhao M, Payne C, Lloyd A. A network of redundant bHLH proteins functions in all TTG1-dependent pathways of Arabidopsis. Development. 2003;130:4859-69 pubmed
    ..two-hybrid and plant overexpression studies show that EGL3, like GL3, interacts with TTG1, the myb proteins GL1, PAP1 and 2, CPC and TRY, and it will form heterodimers with GL3...
  19. Appelhagen I, Lu G, Huep G, Schmelzer E, Weisshaar B, Sagasser M. TRANSPARENT TESTA1 interacts with R2R3-MYB factors and affects early and late steps of flavonoid biosynthesis in the endothelium of Arabidopsis thaliana seeds. Plant J. 2011;67:406-19 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana seed development. ..
  20. Cna ani A, Mühlemann J, Ravid J, Masci T, Klempien A, Nguyen T, et al. Petunia × hybrida floral scent production is negatively affected by high-temperature growth conditions. Plant Cell Environ. 2015;38:1333-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Blue Spark' plants overexpressing CaMV 35S-driven Arabidopsis thaliana production of anthocyanin pigments 1 (PAP1) under elevated versus standard temperature conditions...
  21. Lee W, Jeong C, Kwon J, Van Kien V, Lee D, Hong S, et al. Drastic anthocyanin increase in response to PAP1 overexpression in fls1 knockout mutant confers enhanced osmotic stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Rep. 2016;35:2369-2379 pubmed
    ..The MYB gene Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) plays a particularly important role in anthocyanin accumulation...