Gene Symbol: NRPD1A
Description: nuclear RNA polymerase D1A
Alias: F16P17.19, F16P17_19, NRPD1, NUCLEAR RNA POLYMERASE D 1A, POL IVA, SDE4, SILENCING MOVEMENT DEFICIENT 2, SMD2, nuclear RNA polymerase D1A, nuclear RNA polymerase D1A
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Onodera Y, Haag J, Ream T, Costa Nunes P, Pontes O, Pikaard C. Plant nuclear RNA polymerase IV mediates siRNA and DNA methylation-dependent heterochromatin formation. Cell. 2005;120:613-22 pubmed
    ..However, disruption of the Pol IV catalytic subunit genes NRPD1 or NRPD2 inhibits heterochromatin association into chromocenters, coincident with losses in cytosine methylation ..
  2. Hamilton A, Voinnet O, Chappell L, Baulcombe D. Two classes of short interfering RNA in RNA silencing. EMBO J. 2002;21:4671-9 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal an unexpected level of complexity in the RNA silencing pathway in plants that may also apply in animals. ..
  3. Xie M, Ren G, Costa Nunes P, Pontes O, Yu B. A subgroup of SGS3-like proteins act redundantly in RNA-directed DNA methylation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:4422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that this group of SGS3-like proteins is an important component of RdDM. This study further enhances our understanding of the SGS3 gene family and the RdDM pathway. ..
  4. Herr A, Jensen M, Dalmay T, Baulcombe D. RNA polymerase IV directs silencing of endogenous DNA. Science. 2005;308:118-20 pubmed
    ..By mutation of the two largest subunits (NRPD1a and NRPD2), we show that Pol IV silences certain transposons and repetitive DNA in a short interfering RNA pathway ..
  5. Zhang H, Ma Z, Zeng L, Tanaka K, Zhang C, Ma J, et al. DTF1 is a core component of RNA-directed DNA methylation and may assist in the recruitment of Pol IV. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:8290-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest the involvement of DTF1 in an important negative feedback mechanism for DNA methylation at some RdDM target loci. ..
  6. Law J, Vashisht A, Wohlschlegel J, Jacobsen S. SHH1, a homeodomain protein required for DNA methylation, as well as RDR2, RDM4, and chromatin remodeling factors, associate with RNA polymerase IV. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002195 pubmed publisher
    ..Through the affinity purification of nuclear RNA polymerase D1 (NRPD1), the largest subunit of the Pol-IV polymerase, we found that several previously identified RdDM components co-..
  7. He X, Hsu Y, Pontes O, Zhu J, Lu J, Bressan R, et al. NRPD4, a protein related to the RPB4 subunit of RNA polymerase II, is a component of RNA polymerases IV and V and is required for RNA-directed DNA methylation. Genes Dev. 2009;23:318-30 pubmed publisher
    ..multisubunit Pol II, our current knowledge about Pol IV and Pol V is restricted to only the two largest subunits NRPD1a/NRPD1 and NRPD1b/NRPE1 and the one second-largest subunit NRPD2a...
  8. Pontier D, Yahubyan G, Vega D, Bulski A, Saez Vasquez J, Hakimi M, et al. Reinforcement of silencing at transposons and highly repeated sequences requires the concerted action of two distinct RNA polymerases IV in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2030-40 pubmed publisher
    ..two forms contain the same second-largest subunit (NRPD2), but differ at least by their largest subunit, termed NRPD1a and NRPD1b...
  9. Ream T, Haag J, Wierzbicki A, Nicora C, Norbeck A, Zhu J, et al. Subunit compositions of the RNA-silencing enzymes Pol IV and Pol V reveal their origins as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell. 2009;33:192-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support the hypothesis that Pol IV and Pol V are Pol II-like enzymes that evolved specialized roles in the production of noncoding transcripts for RNA silencing and genome defense. ..

More Information


  1. Li C, Pontes O, El Shami M, Henderson I, Bernatavichute Y, Chan S, et al. An ARGONAUTE4-containing nuclear processing center colocalized with Cajal bodies in Arabidopsis thaliana. Cell. 2006;126:93-106 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a function for Cajal bodies as a center for the assembly of an AGO4/NRPD1b/siRNA complex, facilitating its function in RNA-directed gene silencing at target loci...
  2. Pontes O, Li C, Costa Nunes P, Haag J, Ream T, Vitins A, et al. The Arabidopsis chromatin-modifying nuclear siRNA pathway involves a nucleolar RNA processing center. Cell. 2006;126:79-92 pubmed
    ..cytosine methylation at endogenous DNA repeats in a pathway involving two forms of nuclear RNA polymerase IV (Pol IVa and Pol IVb), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2), DICER-LIKE 3 (DCL3), ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4), the chromatin ..
  3. Zheng B, Wang Z, Li S, Yu B, Liu J, Chen X. Intergenic transcription by RNA polymerase II coordinates Pol IV and Pol V in siRNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2009;23:2850-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This study establishes that intergenic transcription by Pol II is required for siRNA-mediated TGS, and reveals an intricate collaboration and division of labor among the three polymerases in gene silencing. ..
  4. Blevins T, Podicheti R, Mishra V, Marasco M, Wang J, Rusch D, et al. Identification of Pol IV and RDR2-dependent precursors of 24 nt siRNAs guiding de novo DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. elife. 2015;4:e09591 pubmed publisher
    ..The 24 nt siRNAs primarily correspond to the 5' or 3' ends of P4R2 RNAs, suggesting a model whereby siRNAs are generated from either end of P4R2 duplexes by single dicing events. ..
  5. Eamens A, Vaistij F, Jones L. NRPD1a and NRPD1b are required to maintain post-transcriptional RNA silencing and RNA-directed DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;55:596-606 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, mutants defective for the NRPD1a and NRPD1b alternative largest subunits of PolIV were tested for their ability to undergo RdDM, transitive RNA ..
  6. Zhang X, Henderson I, Lu C, Green P, Jacobsen S. Role of RNA polymerase IV in plant small RNA metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4536-41 pubmed
    ..We also describe a class of RNAP IV-independent siRNAs produced from endogenous single-stranded hairpin RNA precursors. ..
  7. Brosnan C, Mitter N, Christie M, Smith N, Waterhouse P, Carroll B. Nuclear gene silencing directs reception of long-distance mRNA silencing in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:14741-6 pubmed
    ..We show that three genes involved in a chromatin silencing pathway, NRPD1a encoding RNA polymerase IVa, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 (RDR2), and DICER-like 3 (DCL3), are required for ..
  8. Han Y, Dou K, Ma Z, Zhang S, Huang H, Li L, et al. SUVR2 is involved in transcriptional gene silencing by associating with SNF2-related chromatin-remodeling proteins in Arabidopsis. Cell Res. 2014;24:1445-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that the involvement of SUVR2 in transcriptional gene silencing is related to nucleosome positioning mediated by its associated chromatin-remodeling proteins. ..
  9. Dunoyer P, Himber C, Voinnet O. DICER-LIKE 4 is required for RNA interference and produces the 21-nucleotide small interfering RNA component of the plant cell-to-cell silencing signal. Nat Genet. 2005;37:1356-60 pubmed
    ..At least three SILENCING MOVEMENT DEFICIENT genes (SMD1, SMD2 and SMD3) are required for trafficking, the extent of which correlates with siRNA levels in the veins...
  10. Mosher R. Maternal control of Pol IV-dependent siRNAs in Arabidopsis endosperm. New Phytol. 2010;186:358-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This unique expression pattern links p4-siRNAs to double fertilization, parental genome interactions and imprinted gene expression. ..