NPR1

Summary

Gene Symbol: NPR1
Description: regulatory protein (NPR1)
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES 1, ATNPR1, F15H21.6, F15H21_6, NIM1, NON-INDUCIBLE IMMUNITY 1, NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES 1, REGULATORY PROTEIN NPR1, SAI1, SALICYLIC ACID INSENSITIVE 1, regulatory protein (NPR1)
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Zhou J, Trifa Y, Silva H, Pontier D, Lam E, Shah J, et al. NPR1 differentially interacts with members of the TGA/OBF family of transcription factors that bind an element of the PR-1 gene required for induction by salicylic acid. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2000;13:191-202 pubmed
    b>NPR1 is a critical component of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of defense genes, such as the pathogenesis-related (PR)-1 gene, and enhanced disease resistance...
  2. Johnson C, Mhatre A, Arias J. NPR1 preferentially binds to the DNA-inactive form of Arabidopsis TGA2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1779:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of transcription factors such as TGA2 through a mechanism that may involve transient physical interaction with the NPR1 protein...
  3. Kohler A, Schwindling S, Conrath U. Benzothiadiazole-induced priming for potentiated responses to pathogen infection, wounding, and infiltration of water into leaves requires the NPR1/NIM1 gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1046-56 pubmed
    ..potentiation by BTH pretreatment of PAL gene activation and callose deposition was not seen in the Arabidopsis nonexpresser of PR genes 1/noninducible immunity 1 mutant, which is compromised in SAR...
  4. Stein E, Molitor A, Kogel K, Waller F. Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis conferred by the mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica requires jasmonic acid signaling and the cytoplasmic function of NPR1. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1747-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Piriformospora indica root colonization reduced G. orontii conidia in wild-type (Col-0), npr1-3 (nonexpressor of PR genes 1-3) and NahG plants, but not in the npr1-1 null mutant...
  5. Srinivasan T, Kumar K, Meur G, Kirti P. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 (AtNPR1) enhances oxidative stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:1343-51 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis, NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis related genes 1, AtNPR1) functions downstream of salicylic acid (SA) and modulates the SA mediated systemic acquired resistance...
  6. Zhang Y, Fan W, Kinkema M, Li X, Dong X. Interaction of NPR1 with basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors that bind sequences required for salicylic acid induction of the PR-1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6523-8 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance...
  7. Hepworth S, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn G. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1434-48 pubmed
    NONEXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is a key regulator of the plant defense response known as systemic acquired resistance...
  8. Xiao S, Chye M. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACBP3 enhances NPR1-dependent plant resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv tomato DC3000. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:2069-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the ACBP3 OE-1 line in combination with nonexpressor of PR genes1 (npr1-5) or coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1-2), we concluded that the enhanced PR gene expression and P...
  9. Delaney T, Friedrich L, Ryals J. Arabidopsis signal transduction mutant defective in chemically and biologically induced disease resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:6602-6 pubmed
    ..Because of its non-inducible immunity phenotype, we call this mutant nim1. Although nim1 plants fail to respond to SA, they retain the ability to accumulate wild-type levels of SA, a ..
  10. Spoel S, Koornneef A, Claessens S, Korzelius J, Van Pelt J, Mueller M, et al. NPR1 modulates cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways through a novel function in the cytosol. Plant Cell. 2003;15:760-70 pubmed
    ..in SA signal transduction, revealed that the antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling requires the regulatory protein NPR1. Nuclear localization of NPR1, which is essential for SA-mediated defense gene expression, is not ..

Detail Information

Publications77

  1. Zhou J, Trifa Y, Silva H, Pontier D, Lam E, Shah J, et al. NPR1 differentially interacts with members of the TGA/OBF family of transcription factors that bind an element of the PR-1 gene required for induction by salicylic acid. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2000;13:191-202 pubmed
    b>NPR1 is a critical component of the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated signal transduction pathway leading to the induction of defense genes, such as the pathogenesis-related (PR)-1 gene, and enhanced disease resistance...
  2. Johnson C, Mhatre A, Arias J. NPR1 preferentially binds to the DNA-inactive form of Arabidopsis TGA2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1779:583-9 pubmed publisher
    ..of transcription factors such as TGA2 through a mechanism that may involve transient physical interaction with the NPR1 protein...
  3. Kohler A, Schwindling S, Conrath U. Benzothiadiazole-induced priming for potentiated responses to pathogen infection, wounding, and infiltration of water into leaves requires the NPR1/NIM1 gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1046-56 pubmed
    ..potentiation by BTH pretreatment of PAL gene activation and callose deposition was not seen in the Arabidopsis nonexpresser of PR genes 1/noninducible immunity 1 mutant, which is compromised in SAR...
  4. Stein E, Molitor A, Kogel K, Waller F. Systemic resistance in Arabidopsis conferred by the mycorrhizal fungus Piriformospora indica requires jasmonic acid signaling and the cytoplasmic function of NPR1. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1747-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Piriformospora indica root colonization reduced G. orontii conidia in wild-type (Col-0), npr1-3 (nonexpressor of PR genes 1-3) and NahG plants, but not in the npr1-1 null mutant...
  5. Srinivasan T, Kumar K, Meur G, Kirti P. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 (AtNPR1) enhances oxidative stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants. Biotechnol Lett. 2009;31:1343-51 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis, NPR1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis related genes 1, AtNPR1) functions downstream of salicylic acid (SA) and modulates the SA mediated systemic acquired resistance...
  6. Zhang Y, Fan W, Kinkema M, Li X, Dong X. Interaction of NPR1 with basic leucine zipper protein transcription factors that bind sequences required for salicylic acid induction of the PR-1 gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:6523-8 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 has been shown to be a key regulator of gene expression during the onset of a plant disease-resistance response known as systemic acquired resistance...
  7. Hepworth S, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn G. BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1434-48 pubmed
    NONEXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) is a key regulator of the plant defense response known as systemic acquired resistance...
  8. Xiao S, Chye M. Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACBP3 enhances NPR1-dependent plant resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv tomato DC3000. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:2069-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the ACBP3 OE-1 line in combination with nonexpressor of PR genes1 (npr1-5) or coronatine-insensitive1 (coi1-2), we concluded that the enhanced PR gene expression and P...
  9. Delaney T, Friedrich L, Ryals J. Arabidopsis signal transduction mutant defective in chemically and biologically induced disease resistance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:6602-6 pubmed
    ..Because of its non-inducible immunity phenotype, we call this mutant nim1. Although nim1 plants fail to respond to SA, they retain the ability to accumulate wild-type levels of SA, a ..
  10. Spoel S, Koornneef A, Claessens S, Korzelius J, Van Pelt J, Mueller M, et al. NPR1 modulates cross-talk between salicylate- and jasmonate-dependent defense pathways through a novel function in the cytosol. Plant Cell. 2003;15:760-70 pubmed
    ..in SA signal transduction, revealed that the antagonistic effect of SA on JA signaling requires the regulatory protein NPR1. Nuclear localization of NPR1, which is essential for SA-mediated defense gene expression, is not ..
  11. Shah J, Tsui F, Klessig D. Characterization of a salicylic acid-insensitive mutant (sai1) of Arabidopsis thaliana, identified in a selective screen utilizing the SA-inducible expression of the tms2 gene. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 1997;10:69-78 pubmed
    ..These genes also were not induced in sai1 by 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (INA) or benzothiadiazole (BTH), two chemical inducers of SAR...
  12. Leon Reyes A, Spoel S, de Lange E, Abe H, Kobayashi M, Tsuda S, et al. Ethylene modulates the role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 in cross talk between salicylate and jasmonate signaling. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1797-809 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) was demonstrated to be required for SA-mediated suppression of JA-dependent defenses...
  13. Tada Y, Spoel S, Pajerowska Mukhtar K, Mou Z, Song J, Wang C, et al. Plant immunity requires conformational changes [corrected] of NPR1 via S-nitrosylation and thioredoxins. Science. 2008;321:952-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In plants, these redox changes regulate the conformation of NPR1, a master regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defense genes...
  14. Liu G, Holub E, Alonso J, Ecker J, Fobert P. An Arabidopsis NPR1-like gene, NPR4, is required for disease resistance. Plant J. 2005;41:304-18 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis genome contains six NPR1-related genes...
  15. Zhang Y, Cheng Y, Qu N, Zhao Q, Bi D, Li X. Negative regulation of defense responses in Arabidopsis by two NPR1 paralogs. Plant J. 2006;48:647-56 pubmed
    b>NPR1 is required for systemic acquired resistance, and there are five NPR1 paralogs in Arabidopsis. Here we report knockout analysis of two of these, NPR3 and NPR4...
  16. Ramirez V, van der Ent S, García Andrade J, Coego A, Pieterse C, Vera P. OCP3 is an important modulator of NPR1-mediated jasmonic acid-dependent induced defenses in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:199 pubmed publisher
    ..evidence showing that the over-expression of an engineered cytosolic isoform of the disease resistance regulator NPR1 restores the impaired JA-induced disease resistance in ocp3 plants...
  17. Fan W, Dong X. In vivo interaction between NPR1 and transcription factor TGA2 leads to salicylic acid-mediated gene activation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2002;14:1377-89 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is a key regulator of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated gene expression in systemic acquired resistance...
  18. Wu Y, Zhang D, Chu J, Boyle P, Wang Y, Brindle I, et al. The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is a receptor for the plant defense hormone salicylic acid. Cell Rep. 2012;1:639-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The transcriptional coregulator NPR1 is central to the activation of SA-dependent defense genes, and we previously found that Cys(521) and Cys(529) of ..
  19. Canet J, Dobon A, Roig A, Tornero P. Structure-function analysis of npr1 alleles in Arabidopsis reveals a role for its paralogs in the perception of salicylic acid. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:1911-22 pubmed publisher
    Salicylic acid (SA) is necessary for plant defence against some pathogens, whereas NPR1 is necessary for SA perception. Plant defence can be induced to an extreme by several applications of benzothiadiazole (BTH), an analogue of SA...
  20. Despres C, Delong C, Glaze S, Liu E, Fobert P. The Arabidopsis NPR1/NIM1 protein enhances the DNA binding activity of a subgroup of the TGA family of bZIP transcription factors. Plant Cell. 2000;12:279-90 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene is essential in activating systemic, inducible plant defense responses...
  21. Fu Z, Yan S, Saleh A, Wang W, Ruble J, Oka N, et al. NPR3 and NPR4 are receptors for the immune signal salicylic acid in plants. Nature. 2012;486:228-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis requires the transcription cofactor nonexpresser of PR genes 1 (NPR1), the degradation of which acts as a molecular switch...
  22. Spoel S, Mou Z, Tada Y, Spivey N, Genschik P, Dong X. Proteasome-mediated turnover of the transcription coactivator NPR1 plays dual roles in regulating plant immunity. Cell. 2009;137:860-72 pubmed publisher
    ..plant immune response involving profound transcriptional changes that are regulated by the coactivator NPR1. Nuclear translocation of NPR1 is a critical regulatory step, but how the protein is regulated in the nucleus is ..
  23. Boyle P, Le Su E, Rochon A, Shearer H, Murmu J, Chu J, et al. The BTB/POZ domain of the Arabidopsis disease resistance protein NPR1 interacts with the repression domain of TGA2 to negate its function. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3700-13 pubmed publisher
    TGA2 and NONEXPRESSER OF PR GENES1 (NPR1) are activators of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and of the SAR marker gene pathogenesis-related-1 (PR-1) in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  24. Makandar R, Essig J, Schapaugh M, Trick H, Shah J. Genetically engineered resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat by expression of Arabidopsis NPR1. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2006;19:123-9 pubmed
    ..Sumai 3. Here, we show that the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene (AtNPR1), which regulates the activation of systemic acquired resistance, when expressed in the FHB-susceptible wheat cv...
  25. Cao H, Glazebrook J, Clarke J, Volko S, Dong X. The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene that controls systemic acquired resistance encodes a novel protein containing ankyrin repeats. Cell. 1997;88:57-63 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis NPR1 gene controls the onset of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a plant immunity, to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is normally established after a primary exposure to avirulent pathogens...
  26. Glazebrook J. Genes controlling expression of defense responses in Arabidopsis--2001 status. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2001;4:301-8 pubmed
    ..Genes required for jasmonic-acid-dependent signaling and for induced systemic resistance have also been identified. ..
  27. Rochon A, Boyle P, Wignes T, Fobert P, Despres C. The coactivator function of Arabidopsis NPR1 requires the core of its BTB/POZ domain and the oxidation of C-terminal cysteines. Plant Cell. 2006;18:3670-85 pubmed
    NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) regulates systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis thaliana, and current models propose that after treatment with salicylic acid (SA), Cys-82 and Cys-216 of NPR1 are reduced, ..
  28. Mukherjee M, Larrimore K, Ahmed N, Bedick T, Barghouthi N, Traw M, et al. Ascorbic acid deficiency in arabidopsis induces constitutive priming that is dependent on hydrogen peroxide, salicylic acid, and the NPR1 gene. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2010;23:340-51 pubmed publisher
    ..double mutants defective in the AA-biosynthetic gene VTC1 and the SA signaling pathway genes PAD4, EDS5, and NPR1, respectively. All vtc mutants were more resistant to P. syringae than the wild type...
  29. Zhang X, Chen S, Mou Z. Nuclear localization of NPR1 is required for regulation of salicylate tolerance, isochorismate synthase 1 expression and salicylate accumulation in Arabidopsis. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The Arabidopsis transcription coactivator NPR1 is a key regulator of SAR, which functions at multiple nodes in the SA signaling network...
  30. Blanco F, Garreton V, Frey N, Dominguez C, Perez Acle T, Van Der Straeten D, et al. Identification of NPR1-dependent and independent genes early induced by salicylic acid treatment in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;59:927-44 pubmed
    ..We also evaluated NPR1 requirement for the induction of the 12 up-regulated genes, and found that only those belonging to Group 2 require ..
  31. Despres C, Chubak C, Rochon A, Clark R, Bethune T, Desveaux D, et al. The Arabidopsis NPR1 disease resistance protein is a novel cofactor that confers redox regulation of DNA binding activity to the basic domain/leucine zipper transcription factor TGA1. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2181-91 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis NPR1 protein is essential for regulating salicylic acid-dependent gene expression during systemic acquired resistance...
  32. Greenberg J, Silverman F, Liang H. Uncoupling salicylic acid-dependent cell death and defense-related responses from disease resistance in the Arabidopsis mutant acd5. Genetics. 2000;156:341-50 pubmed
    ..of PR1, in which SA signaling is partially blocked, show greatly attenuated cell death, indicating a role for NPR1 in controlling cell death...
  33. Kovács I, Durner J, Lindermayr C. Crosstalk between nitric oxide and glutathione is required for NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1)-dependent defense signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2015;208:860-72 pubmed publisher
    ..S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) promoted the nuclear accumulation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) protein accompanied by an elevated SA concentration and the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, leading ..
  34. Prithiviraj B, Bais H, Jha A, Vivanco J. Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity on Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated either by a direct effect of salicylic acid on the pathogen or by SA-dependent, NPR1-independent host responses. Plant J. 2005;42:417-32 pubmed publisher
    ..in jasmonic acid production and hyper-accumulator of SA), and mutants ics1 (depleted in SA accumulation), and npr1-1 (non-expressor of pathogenesis-related protein) we show that resistance of Arabidopsis to typical plant pathogens ..
  35. Shi Z, Maximova S, Liu Y, Verica J, Guiltinan M. Functional analysis of the Theobroma cacao NPR1 gene in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:248 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 gene encodes a transcription coactivator (NPR1) that plays a major role in the mechanisms regulating plant defense response...
  36. Cuzick A, Lee S, Gezan S, Hammond Kosack K. NPR1 and EDS11 contribute to host resistance against Fusarium culmorum in Arabidopsis buds and flowers. Mol Plant Pathol. 2008;9:697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..susceptibility and higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol mycotoxin were observed in buds and flowers of the npr1 and eds11 mutants than in the wild-type Col-0 plants...
  37. Cheng Y, Germain H, Wiermer M, Bi D, Xu F, García A, et al. Nuclear pore complex component MOS7/Nup88 is required for innate immunity and nuclear accumulation of defense regulators in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2503-16 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear accumulation of snc1 and the defense signaling components Enhanced Disease Susceptibility 1 and Nonexpresser of PR genes 1 is significantly reduced in mos7-1 plants, while nuclear retention of other tested proteins is ..
  38. Lindermayr C, Sell S, Müller B, Leister D, Durner J. Redox regulation of the NPR1-TGA1 system of Arabidopsis thaliana by nitric oxide. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2894-907 pubmed publisher
    The role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in local and systemic defense reactions is well documented. NPR1 and TGA1 are key redox-controlled regulators of systemic acquired resistance in plants...
  39. Zhang S, Wang X. Overexpression of GASA5 increases the sensitivity of Arabidopsis to heat stress. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:2093-101 pubmed publisher
    ..However, expression of the gene encoding the noexpresser of PR genes 1 (NPR1), a key component of the SA-signaling pathway, was downregulated by GASA5 overexpression...
  40. Ahn I, Kim S, Lee Y, Suh S. Vitamin B1-induced priming is dependent on hydrogen peroxide and the NPR1 gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:838-48 pubmed
    ..etr1), or abscisic acid (abi3-3), but not in plants expressing bacterial NahG and lacking regulation of SAR (npr1 [nonexpressor of PR genes 1])...
  41. Buxdorf K, Rahat I, Gafni A, Levy M. The epiphytic fungus Pseudozyma aphidis induces jasmonic acid- and salicylic acid/nonexpressor of PR1-independent local and systemic resistance. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:2014-22 pubmed publisher
    ..cinerea infection via induced resistance in a manner independent of SA, JA, and Nonexpressor of PR1 (NPR1). P. aphidis primed the plant defense machinery and induced stronger activation of PDF1.2 after B...
  42. Yoshimoto K, Jikumaru Y, Kamiya Y, Kusano M, Consonni C, Panstruga R, et al. Autophagy negatively regulates cell death by controlling NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling during senescence and the innate immune response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2914-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of an SA agonist induces the senescence/cell death phenotype in SA-deficient atg mutants but not in atg npr1 plants, suggesting that the cell death phenotypes in the atg mutants are dependent on the SA signal transducer ..
  43. Peleg Grossman S, Golani Y, Kaye Y, Melamed Book N, Levine A. NPR1 protein regulates pathogenic and symbiotic interactions between Rhizobium and legumes and non-legumes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8399 pubmed publisher
    ..Inoculation of Sinorhizobium meliloti or purified NF on Medicago truncatula or nim1/npr1 A. thaliana mutants induced root hair deformation and transcription of early and late nodulins...
  44. Canet J, Dobon A, Fajmonová J, Tornero P. The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE genes of Arabidopsis are essential for resistance induced by methyl jasmonate. BMC Plant Biol. 2012;12:199 pubmed publisher
    b>NPR1 is a gene of Arabidopsis thaliana required for the perception of salicylic acid. This perception triggers a defense response and negatively regulates the perception of jasmonates...
  45. Ding Y, Dommel M, Mou Z. Abscisic acid promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of the transcription coactivator NPR1 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2016;86:20-34 pubmed publisher
    Proteasome-mediated turnover of the transcription coactivator NPR1 is pivotal for efficient activation of the broad-spectrum plant immune responses known as localized acquired resistance (LAR) and systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in ..
  46. Consonni C, Humphry M, Hartmann H, Livaja M, Durner J, Westphal L, et al. Conserved requirement for a plant host cell protein in powdery mildew pathogenesis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:716-20 pubmed
  47. Niu D, Wang X, Wang Y, Song X, Wang J, Guo J, et al. Bacillus cereus AR156 activates PAMP-triggered immunity and induces a systemic acquired resistance through a NPR1-and SA-dependent signaling pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016;469:120-125 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, AR156 can trigger SAR in jar1 or ein2 mutants, but not in the NahG transgenic and NPR1 mutant plants...
  48. Yao Y, Danna C, Zemp F, Titov V, Ciftçi O, Przybylski R, et al. UV-C-irradiated Arabidopsis and tobacco emit volatiles that trigger genomic instability in neighboring plants. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3842-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (npr1) mutant, defective in SA signaling, is impaired in both the production and the perception of the volatile signals, ..
  49. Mewis I, Appel H, Hom A, Raina R, Schultz J. Major signaling pathways modulate Arabidopsis glucosinolate accumulation and response to both phloem-feeding and chewing insects. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1149-62 pubmed
    ..hrl1) mutants reduced constitutive GS concentrations, while blocking SA signaling at the mediator protein npr1 mutant (NPR) increased them...
  50. Stotz H, Findling S, Nukarinen E, Weckwerth W, Mueller M, Berger S. A tandem affinity purification tag of TGA2 for isolation of interacting proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2014;9:e972794 pubmed publisher
    ..TAP-tagged TGA2 was used to pull down NPR1, a protein known to interact with this transcription factor...
  51. Shi Z, Maximova S, Liu Y, Verica J, Guiltinan M. The salicylic acid receptor NPR3 is a negative regulator of the transcriptional defense response during early flower development in Arabidopsis. Mol Plant. 2013;6:802-16 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis non-expressor of PR1 (NPR1) is a transcription co-activator that plays a central role in regulating the transcriptional response to plant pathogens. The NPR family consists of NPR1 and five NPR1-like genes...
  52. Xie C, Zhou X, Deng X, Guo Y. PKS5, a SNF1-related kinase, interacts with and phosphorylates NPR1, and modulates expression of WRKY38 and WRKY62. J Genet Genomics. 2010;37:359-69 pubmed publisher
    b>NPR1 (Nonexpressor of Pathogenesis-Related gene 1) is a major co-activator of plant defense...
  53. van de Mortel J, De Vos R, Dekkers E, Pineda A, Guillod L, Bouwmeester K, et al. Metabolic and transcriptomic changes induced in Arabidopsis by the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:2173-88 pubmed publisher
  54. Chai J, Liu J, Zhou J, Xing D. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 regulates NPR1 gene expression and activation during leaf senescence induced by salicylic acid. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:6513-28 pubmed publisher
    ..The nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (npr1) mutant is defective in the salicylic acid (SA) signalling pathway, displaying delayed yellowing during ..
  55. Chern M, Canlas P, Ronald P. Strong suppression of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis by NRR is dependent on its ability to interact with NPR1 and its putative repression domain. Mol Plant. 2008;1:552-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis NPR1/NIM1 is a key regulator of the SAR response...
  56. Wang X, Sager R, Cui W, Zhang C, Lu H, Lee J. Salicylic acid regulates Plasmodesmata closure during innate immune responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2315-29 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss a model wherein the SA signaling pathway and plasmodesmata-mediated cell-to-cell communication converge under an intricate regulatory loop...
  57. Mishina T, Zeier J. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition rather than development of tissue necrosis contributes to bacterial induction of systemic acquired resistance in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2007;50:500-13 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that PAMPs significantly contribute to SAR initiation in Arabidopsis and that tissue necroses at inoculation sites are dispensable for SAR activation. ..
  58. Molla K, Karmakar S, Chanda P, Sarkar S, Datta S, Datta K. Tissue-specific expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 gene in rice for sheath blight resistance without compromising phenotypic cost. Plant Sci. 2016;250:105-114 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous reports have indicated that constitutive expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana NPR1 (AtNPR1) gene results in disease resistance in rice but has a negative impact on growth and agronomic traits...
  59. Jayakannan M, Bose J, Babourina O, Shabala S, Massart A, Poschenrieder C, et al. The NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signalling pathway is pivotal for enhanced salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:1865-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis SA signalling mutants, namely npr1-5 (non-expresser of pathogenesis related gene1), which lacks NPR1-dependent SA signalling, and nudt7 (nudix ..
  60. Zwicker S, Mast S, Stos V, Pfitzner A, Pfitzner U. Tobacco NIMIN2 proteins control PR gene induction through transient repression early in systemic acquired resistance. Mol Plant Pathol. 2007;8:385-400 pubmed publisher
    b>NPR1 (for Nonexpressor of PR genes; also known as NIM1) is a positive regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis, which controls the induction of Pathogenesis-Related (PR) genes by salicylic acid (SA)...
  61. Kim H, Delaney T. Over-expression of TGA5, which encodes a bZIP transcription factor that interacts with NIM1/NPR1, confers SAR-independent resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana to Peronospora parasitica. Plant J. 2002;32:151-63 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis thaliana NIM1/NPR1 gene product is required for induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) by pathogens, salicylic acid (SA) or synthetic SA analogs...
  62. Choi J, Huh S, Kojima M, Sakakibara H, Paek K, Hwang I. The cytokinin-activated transcription factor ARR2 promotes plant immunity via TGA3/NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2010;19:284-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that cytokinins modulate the SA signaling to augment resistance against Pst, a process in which the interaction between TGA3 and ARR2 is important. ..
  63. Xie L, Yu L, Chen Q, Wang F, Huang L, Xia F, et al. Arabidopsis acyl-CoA-binding protein ACBP3 participates in plant response to hypoxia by modulating very-long-chain fatty acid metabolism. Plant J. 2015;81:53-67 pubmed publisher
    ..By analyses of double combinations of OE-1 with npr1-5, coi1-2, ein3-1 as well as ctr1-1 mutants, we observed that the attenuated hypoxic tolerance in ACBP3-OEs was ..
  64. Pape S, Thurow C, Gatz C. The Arabidopsis PR-1 promoter contains multiple integration sites for the coactivator NPR1 and the repressor SNI1. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1805-18 pubmed publisher
    ..the control of two proteins that do not directly contact the DNA: the positive regulator NONEXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1 (NPR1), which physically interacts with TGA factors, and the repressor SUPPRESSOR OF NPR1, INDUCIBLE1 (SNI1)...
  65. Mao P, Duan M, Wei C, Li Y. WRKY62 transcription factor acts downstream of cytosolic NPR1 and negatively regulates jasmonate-responsive gene expression. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:833-42 pubmed
    Cytosolic NPR1 has been shown to be essential for the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated suppression of jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive gene expression. However, factors downstream of NPR1 in the cross-talk between SA and JA signaling are unclear...
  66. Sun A, Nie S, Xing D. Nitric oxide-mediated maintenance of redox homeostasis contributes to NPR1-dependent plant innate immunity triggered by lipopolysaccharides. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:1081-96 pubmed publisher
    ..This work investigated the biosynthetic origin of NO and the role of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) to gain insight into the mechanism involved in LPS-induced resistance of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  67. Meur G, Budatha M, Srinivasan T, Rajesh Kumar K, Dutta Gupta A, Kirti P. Constitutive expression of Arabidopsis NPR1 confers enhanced resistance to the early instars of Spodoptera litura in transgenic tobacco. Physiol Plant. 2008;133:765-75 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis, NPR1 (AtNPR1) regulates salicylic acid (SA)-mediated activation of PR genes at the onset of systemic acquired resistance...
  68. Saleh A, Withers J, Mohan R, Marqués J, Gu Y, Yan S, et al. Posttranslational Modifications of the Master Transcriptional Regulator NPR1 Enable Dynamic but Tight Control of Plant Immune Responses. Cell Host Microbe. 2015;18:169-82 pubmed publisher
    b>NPR1, a master regulator of basal and systemic acquired resistance in plants, confers immunity through a transcriptional cascade, which includes transcription activators (e.g., TGA3) and repressors (e.g...
  69. Adie B, Pérez Pérez J, Perez Perez M, Godoy M, Sanchez Serrano J, Schmelz E, et al. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defenses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1665-81 pubmed
    ..The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. ..
  70. Pape S, Thurow C, Gatz C. Exchanging the as-1-like element of the PR-1 promoter by the as-1 element of the CaMV 35S promoter abolishes salicylic acid responsiveness and regulation by NPR1 and SNI1. Plant Signal Behav. 2010;5:1669-71 pubmed
    ..Activation is mediated by the transcriptional co-activator NPR1 (NON EXPRESSOR OF PR GENES1), which physically interacts with TGA factors...
  71. Shearer H, Cheng Y, Wang L, Liu J, Boyle P, Despres C, et al. Arabidopsis clade I TGA transcription factors regulate plant defenses in an NPR1-independent fashion. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2012;25:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    Transcriptional reprogramming during induction of salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defenses is regulated primarily by NPR1 (NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1), likely through interactions with TGA bZIP transcription factors...
  72. Brosché M, Kangasjärvi J. Low antioxidant concentrations impact on multiple signalling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana partly through NPR1. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:1849-61 pubmed publisher
    ..acid (SA)-regulated genes, a response found to be dependent on the redox-regulated transcriptional co-regulator NPR1. In contrast, low glutathione concentrations in cad2 or pad2 reduced expression of SA-regulated genes...
  73. Weigel R, Bäuscher C, Pfitzner A, Pfitzner U. NIMIN-1, NIMIN-2 and NIMIN-3, members of a novel family of proteins from Arabidopsis that interact with NPR1/NIM1, a key regulator of systemic acquired resistance in plants. Plant Mol Biol. 2001;46:143-60 pubmed
    NPR1/NIM1 is a key regulator of systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in Arabidopsis...
  74. Dong X, Hong Z, Chatterjee J, Kim S, Verma D. Expression of callose synthase genes and its connection with Npr1 signaling pathway during pathogen infection. Planta. 2008;229:87-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the genes that are induced, CalS1 and CalS12 showed the highest responses. In Arabidopsis npr1 mutant, impaired in response of pathogenesis related (PR) genes to SA, the induction of CalS1 and CalS12 genes by ..
  75. Ahammed G, Li X, Yu J, Shi K. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e1011944 pubmed publisher
    ..of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA ..
  76. Genger R, Jurkowski G, McDowell J, Lu H, Jung H, Greenberg J, et al. Signaling pathways that regulate the enhanced disease resistance of Arabidopsis "defense, no death" mutants. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2008;21:1285-96 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the contributions of NPR1, SID2 (EDS16), NDR1, and EIN2 to dnd phenotypes...