Gene Symbol: NPQ1
Description: non-photochemical quenching 1
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS VIOLAXANTHIN DE-EPOXIDASE 1, AVDE1, F22O13.3, F22O13_3, VIOLAXANTHIN DE-EPOXIDASE PRECURSOR, non-photochemical quenching 1, non-photochemical quenching 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Frechilla S, Zhu J, Talbott L, Zeiger E. Stomata from npq1, a zeaxanthin-less Arabidopsis mutant, lack a specific response to blue light. Plant Cell Physiol. 1999;40:949-54 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis mutant npq1, which cannot accumulate zeaxanthin because of a defective violaxanthin deepoxidase, was used to investigate the role of zeaxanthin in the stomatal response to blue light...
  2. Arnoux P, Morosinotto T, Saga G, Bassi R, Pignol D. A structural basis for the pH-dependent xanthophyll cycle in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2036-44 pubmed publisher
  3. Hieber A, Bugos R, Yamamoto H. Plant lipocalins: violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1482:84-91 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the discovery and characterization of these two unique lipocalin enzymes and examines the possibility of other potential plant lipocalin proteins. ..
  4. Sarvikas P, Hakala M, Pätsikkä E, Tyystjarvi T, Tyystjärvi E. Action spectrum of photoinhibition in leaves of wild type and npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:391-400 pubmed
    ..We measured the action spectrum of photoinhibition in vivo from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. and from the npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants defective in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitations of the PSII antenna...
  5. Lu Y, Du J, Yu Z, Peng J, Xu J, Wang X. Identification of potential targets for thylakoid oxidoreductase AtVKOR/LTO1 in chloroplasts. Protein Pept Lett. 2014;22:219-25 pubmed
    ..5×10(-6) M. These results suggest that AtVKOR can interact with partial thylakoid lumenal proteins and indicates AtVKOR plays an important role in regulating the thylakoid lumen redox. ..
  6. Havaux M, Eymery F, Porfirova S, Rey P, Dormann P. Vitamin E protects against photoinhibition and photooxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2005;17:3451-69 pubmed
    ..accumulated more zeaxanthin in high light than the wild type, and inhibiting zeaxanthin synthesis in the vte1 npq1 double mutant resulted in PSII photoinhibition accompanied by extensive oxidation of lipids and pigments...
  7. Hall M, Mata Cabana A, Akerlund H, Florencio F, Schröder W, Lindahl M, et al. Thioredoxin targets of the plant chloroplast lumen and their implications for plastid function. Proteomics. 2010;10:987-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that redox-controlled reactions in the chloroplast lumen play essential roles in the function of photosystem II and the regulation of adaptation to light intensity. ..
  8. Fufezan C, Simionato D, Morosinotto T. Identification of key residues for pH dependent activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase from Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35669 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that VDE activation relies on a robust and redundant network, in which the four residues identified in this study play a major role. ..
  9. Chen Z, Jolley B, Caldwell C, Gallie D. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIFiso4G is required to regulate violaxanthin De-epoxidase expression in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:13926-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that eIFiso4G expression is required to regulate violaxanthin de-epoxidase expression and to support photosynthetic activity. ..

More Information


  1. Larkindale J, Hall J, Knight M, Vierling E. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:882-97 pubmed
    ..Ethylene signaling mutants (ein2 and etr1) and reactive oxygen metabolism mutants (vtc1, vtc2, npq1, and cad2) were more defective in basal than acquired thermotolerance, especially under high light...
  2. Breitholtz H, Srivastava R, Tyystjärvi E, Rintamäki E. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching. Photosynth Res. 2005;84:217-23 pubmed for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana...
  3. Havaux M, Dall Osto L, Bassi R. Zeaxanthin has enhanced antioxidant capacity with respect to all other xanthophylls in Arabidopsis leaves and functions independent of binding to PSII antennae. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1506-20 pubmed
    ..Suppression of zeaxanthin by crossing ch1 with npq1 resulted in oxidative stress in high light, while removing other xanthophylls or the PSII protein PsbS had no such ..
  4. Ware M, Belgio E, Ruban A. Comparison of the protective effectiveness of NPQ in Arabidopsis plants deficient in PsbS protein and zeaxanthin. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:1259-70 pubmed publisher
    ..protect all PSII reaction centres (pNPQ) under a gradually increasing light intensity, in the zeaxanthin-deficient (npq1) Arabidopsis mutant, compared with PsbS protein-deficient (npq4) and wild-type plants...
  5. Simionato D, Basso S, Zaffagnini M, Lana T, Marzotto F, Trost P, et al. Protein redox regulation in the thylakoid lumen: the importance of disulfide bonds for violaxanthin de-epoxidase. FEBS Lett. 2015;589:919-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Redox titration showed that VDE activity is sensitive to variation in redox potential, suggesting the possibility that dithiol/disulfide exchange reactions may represent a mechanism for VDE regulation. ..