Gene Symbol: NIA2
Description: nitrate reductase 2
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS NITRATE REDUCTASE 2, ATNR2, B29, CHL3, CHLORATE RESISTANT 3, F28L22.2, F28L22_2, NIA2-1, NITRATE REDUCTASE, NITRATE REDUCTASE 2, NR2, nitrate reductase 2, nitrate reductase 2
Species: thale cress
Products:     NIA2

Top Publications

  1. Seligman K, Saviani E, Oliveira H, Pinto Maglio C, Salgado I. Floral transition and nitric oxide emission during flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana is affected in nitrate reductase-deficient plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1112-21 pubmed publisher
    The nitrate reductase (NR)-defective double mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana (nia1 nia2) has previously been shown to present a low endogenous content of NO in its leaves compared with the wild-type plants...
  2. Desikan R, Griffiths R, Hancock J, Neill S. A new role for an old enzyme: nitrate reductase-mediated nitric oxide generation is required for abscisic acid-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:16314-8 pubmed
    ..physiological, and genetic evidence that NO synthesis in Arabidopsis guard cells is mediated by the enzyme nitrate reductase (NR)...
  3. Zhao M, Chen L, Zhang L, Zhang W. Nitric reductase-dependent nitric oxide production is involved in cold acclimation and freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..and freezing tolerance using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) wild type and mutants nia1nia2 (for nitrate reductase [NR]-defective double mutant) and Atnoa1/rif1 (for nitric oxide associated1/resistant to inhibition by ..
  4. Kolbert Z, Ortega L, Erdei L. Involvement of nitrate reductase (NR) in osmotic stress-induced NO generation of Arabidopsis thaliana L. roots. J Plant Physiol. 2010;167:77-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of nitrate reductase (NR) as the source of NO accumulation in the root system of wild-type and NR-deficient nia1, nia2 mutant ..
  5. Chi J, Roeper J, Schwarz G, Fischer Schrader K. Dual binding of 14-3-3 protein regulates Arabidopsis nitrate reductase activity. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2015;20:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..One important 14-3-3 target in higher plants is nitrate reductase (NR), whose activity is regulated by different physiological conditions...
  6. Du S, Zhang R, Zhang P, Liu H, Yan M, Chen N, et al. Elevated CO2-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) by NO synthase differentially affects nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis plants under different nitrate supplies. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:893-904 pubmed publisher
    CO2 elevation often alters the plant's nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the first enzyme acting in the nitrate assimilation pathway. However, the mechanism underlying this process remains unknown...
  7. Wilkinson J, Crawford N. Identification and characterization of a chlorate-resistant mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana with mutations in both nitrate reductase structural genes NIA1 and NIA2. Mol Gen Genet. 1993;239:289-97 pubmed
    ..Only one of the CHL genes, CHL3, has been shown genetically to be a nitrate reductase (NR) structural gene (NIA2) even though two NR genes (NIA1 and NIA2) have been cloned from the Arabidopsis ..
  8. Jonassen E, Sandsmark B, Lillo C. Unique status of NIA2 in nitrate assimilation: NIA2 expression is promoted by HY5/HYH and inhibited by PIF4. Plant Signal Behav. 2009;4:1084-6 pubmed
    ..HYPOCOTYL5) and HYH (HOMOLOG OF HY5) were identified as positive regulators in light activation of NIA2 (nitrate reductase 2)...
  9. Lambeck I, Fischer Schrader K, Niks D, Roeper J, Chi J, Hille R, et al. Molecular mechanism of 14-3-3 protein-mediated inhibition of plant nitrate reductase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:4562-71 pubmed publisher
    ..key processes in eukaryotic cells including nitrogen assimilation in plants by tuning the activity of nitrate reductase (NR), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in this pathway...

More Information


  1. Wang P, Du Y, Li Y, Ren D, Song C. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of MAP kinase 6 modulates nitric oxide biosynthesis and signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2981-98 pubmed publisher
    ..In both mpk6 mutants studied, H?O?-induced NO synthesis and nitrate reductase (NR) activity were decreased dramatically...
  2. Chen Z, Wang Y, Wang J, Babla M, Zhao C, García Mata C, et al. Nitrate reductase mutation alters potassium nutrition as well as nitric oxide-mediated control of guard cell ion channels in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2016;209:1456-69 pubmed publisher, gene expression and ABA signalling transduction were compared in wild-type Columbia-0 (Col-0) and the nitrate reductase mutant nia1nia2...
  3. Jonassen E, Sévin D, Lillo C. The bZIP transcription factors HY5 and HYH are positive regulators of the main nitrate reductase gene in Arabidopsis leaves, NIA2, but negative regulators of the nitrate uptake gene NRT1.1. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:2071-6 pubmed publisher
    Previously we have shown that nitrate reductase (NR) activity was impaired in Arabidopsis seedlings and rosette stage leaves when the basic leucine zipper transcription factors HY5 and HYH were absent...
  4. Kalcsits L, Guy R. Whole-plant and organ-level nitrogen isotope discrimination indicates modification of partitioning of assimilation, fluxes and allocation of nitrogen in knockout lines of Arabidopsis thaliana. Physiol Plant. 2013;149:249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Nitrate reductase 2 (nia2), nitrate reductase 1 (nia1) and nitrate transporter (nrt2) mutant lines and the Col-0 wild type were ..
  5. Reda M. Regulation of nitrate reduction in Arabidopsis WT and hxk1 mutant under C and N metabolites. Physiol Plant. 2013;149:260-72 pubmed publisher
    ..mutant with T-DNA insertion in the AtHXK1 gene and defects in glucose signaling (hxk1) was used to determine nitrate reductase (NR) activity, NIA genes expression in leaves after 8-h treatment with sugars (glucose and sucrose), organic ..
  6. Shahollari B, Vadassery J, Varma A, Oelmuller R. A leucine-rich repeat protein is required for growth promotion and enhanced seed production mediated by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2007;50:1-13 pubmed
    ..indica interaction. Thus, pii-2, and presumably also At5g16590, two proteins present in plasma membrane microdomains, appear to be involved in P. indica-induced growth promotion and enhanced seed production in Arabidopsis thaliana. ..
  7. Santos Filho P, Vitor S, Frungillo L, Saviani E, Oliveira H, Salgado I. Nitrate reductase- and nitric oxide-dependent activation of sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1607-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitrate reductase (NR) activity is necessary for the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a key signaling molecule in plants...
  8. Kruse T, Gehl C, Geisler M, Lehrke M, Ringel P, Hallier S, et al. Identification and biochemical characterization of molybdenum cofactor-binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:6623-35 pubmed publisher
    ..MoBPs were able to enhance Moco transfer to apo-nitrate reductase in the Moco-free Neurospora crassa mutant nit-1...
  9. Park B, Song J, Seo H. Arabidopsis nitrate reductase activity is stimulated by the E3 SUMO ligase AtSIZ1. Nat Commun. 2011;2:400 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased nitrate reductase activity in siz1-2 plants resulted in low nitrogen concentrations, low nitric oxide production and high ..
  10. Xie Y, Mao Y, Lai D, Zhang W, Zheng T, Shen W. Roles of NIA/NR/NOA1-dependent nitric oxide production and HY1 expression in the modulation of Arabidopsis salt tolerance. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:3045-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To fill this knowledge gap, the interaction network among nitrate reductase (NIA/NR)- and NOA1-dependent NO production and HY1 expression was studied at the genetic and molecular ..
  11. Zhao C, Cai S, Wang Y, Chen Z. Loss of nitrate reductases NIA1 and NIA2 impairs stomatal closure by altering genes of core ABA signaling components in Arabidopsis. Plant Signal Behav. 2016;11:e1183088 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the role for NIA1 and NIA2 in ABA signaling has not been paid much attention in nitrate reductase loss-of-function mutant nia1nia2...
  12. Cheng C, Dewdney J, Nam H, den Boer B, Goodman H. A new locus (NIA 1) in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding nitrate reductase. EMBO J. 1988;7:3309-14 pubmed
    We have isolated two nitrate reductase genes and their corresponding cDNAs from Arabidopsis thaliana...
  13. Le Masson I, Jauvion V, Bouteiller N, Rivard M, Elmayan T, Vaucheret H. Mutations in the Arabidopsis H3K4me2/3 demethylase JMJ14 suppress posttranscriptional gene silencing by decreasing transgene transcription. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3603-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Removing JMJ14 likely allows other H3K4 demethylases encoded by the Arabidopsis thaliana genome to act on transgenes and reduce transcription levels, thus preventing the triggering of S-PTGS. ..
  14. Wilkinson J, Crawford N. Identification of the Arabidopsis CHL3 gene as the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2. Plant Cell. 1991;3:461-71 pubmed
    ..identities of the genes at these loci are not known; however, one of these loci--chl3--maps very near the nitrate reductase structural gene NIA2...
  15. Cookson S, Williams L, Miller A. Light-dark changes in cytosolic nitrate pools depend on nitrate reductase activity in Arabidopsis leaf cells. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1097-105 pubmed
    ..not only ion fluxes across the plasma membrane and tonoplast but also assimilation by the activity of nitrate reductase (NR)...
  16. Hao F, Zhao S, Dong H, Zhang H, Sun L, Miao C. Nia1 and Nia2 are involved in exogenous salicylic acid-induced nitric oxide generation and stomatal closure in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol. 2010;52:298-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects were significantly inhibited by the NO scavenger c-PTIO, NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME or nitrate reductase suppressor tungstate respectively, implying that NOS and nitrate reductase (NR) participate in SA-evoked ..
  17. Kalimuthu P, Fischer Schrader K, Schwarz G, Bernhardt P. A sensitive and stable amperometric nitrate biosensor employing Arabidopsis thaliana nitrate reductase. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2015;20:385-93 pubmed publisher
    b>Nitrate reductase (NR) from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been employed in the development of an amperometric nitrate biosensor that functions at physiological pH...
  18. LaBrie S, Crawford N. A glycine to aspartic acid change in the MoCo domain of nitrate reductase reduces both activity and phosphorylation levels in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:14497-501 pubmed
    b>Nitrate reductase (NR), the first enzyme in the nitrate assimilation pathway, is regulated post-transcriptionally in response to light and CO2...
  19. Wang P, Du Y, Song C. Phosphorylation by MPK6: a conserved transcriptional modification mediates nitrate reductase activation and NO production?. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:889-91 pubmed
    b>Nitrate reductase is a central enzyme of nitrogen assimilation in plants...
  20. Kanamaru K, Wang R, Su W, Crawford N. Ser-534 in the hinge 1 region of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase is conditionally required for binding of 14-3-3 proteins and in vitro inhibition. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:4160-5 pubmed
    14-3-3 proteins bind to the hinge 1 region of nitrate reductase (NR) and inhibit its activity...