Gene Symbol: MPK3
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase 3
Alias: ATMAPK3, ATMPK3, T6D9.4, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase 3
Species: thale cress
Products:     MPK3

Top Publications

  1. Mizoguchi T, Irie K, Hirayama T, Hayashida N, Yamaguchi Shinozaki K, Matsumoto K, et al. A gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase is induced simultaneously with genes for a mitogen-activated protein kinase and an S6 ribosomal protein kinase by touch, cold, and water stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:765-9 pubmed
    ..of three protein kinases was examined by Northern blot analyses: ATMEKK1 (structurally related to MAPKKK), ATMPK3 (structurally related to MAPK), and ATPK19 (structurally related to ribosomal S6 kinase)...
  2. Mao G, Meng X, Liu Y, Zheng Z, Chen Z, Zhang S. Phosphorylation of a WRKY transcription factor by two pathogen-responsive MAPKs drives phytoalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1639-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that MPK3 and MPK6, two pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, play essential roles in the induction of ..
  3. Sörensson C, Lenman M, Veide Vilg J, Schopper S, Ljungdahl T, Grøtli M, et al. Determination of primary sequence specificity of Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 leads to identification of new substrates. Biochem J. 2012;446:271-8 pubmed publisher
    ..we used a random positional peptide library to search for consensus phosphorylation sequences for Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6. These experiments indicated a preference towards the sequence L/P-P/X-S-P-R/K for both kinases...
  4. Kim S, Woo D, Kim J, Lee S, Chung W, Moon Y. Arabidopsis MKK4 mediates osmotic-stress response via its regulation of MPK3 activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:150-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In-gel kinase assays revealed that MKK4 regulates the activity of MPK3 upon NaCl exposure...
  5. Wang H, Liu Y, Bruffett K, Lee J, Hause G, Walker J, et al. Haplo-insufficiency of MPK3 in MPK6 mutant background uncovers a novel function of these two MAPKs in Arabidopsis ovule development. Plant Cell. 2008;20:602-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that two closely related mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana, MPK3 and MPK6, share a novel function in ovule development: in the MPK6 mutant background, MPK3 is haplo-insufficient, ..
  6. Kohorn B, Kohorn S, Todorova T, Baptiste G, Stansky K, McCullough M. A dominant allele of Arabidopsis pectin-binding wall-associated kinase induces a stress response suppressed by MPK6 but not MPK3 mutations. Mol Plant. 2012;5:841-51 pubmed publisher
    ..cell surface receptors and both transcriptional and enzyme regulation in eukaryotes, and Arabidopsis MPK6 and MPK3 indeed have important roles in development and the response to stress and pathogens...
  7. Wang H, Ngwenyama N, Liu Y, Walker J, Zhang S. Stomatal development and patterning are regulated by environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:63-73 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that Arabidopsis MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 (MPK3) and MPK6, two environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and their upstream MAPK ..
  8. Lu C, Han M, Guevara Garcia A, Fedoroff N. Mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in postgermination arrest of development by abscisic acid. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15812-7 pubmed
    ..Making use of the ABA-hypersensitive hyl1 mutant of Arabidopsis, we show that the ABA signal is transmitted to the transcriptional apparatus through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. ..
  9. Djamei A, Pitzschke A, Nakagami H, Rajh I, Hirt H. Trojan horse strategy in Agrobacterium transformation: abusing MAPK defense signaling. Science. 2007;318:453-6 pubmed
    ..a transcription factor that is a direct target of the Agrobacterium-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) MPK3. Upon phosphorylation by MPK3, VIP1 relocalizes from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and regulates the expression of ..

More Information


  1. Meng X, Xu J, He Y, Yang K, Mordorski B, Liu Y, et al. Phosphorylation of an ERF transcription factor by Arabidopsis MPK3/MPK6 regulates plant defense gene induction and fungal resistance. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1126-42 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis thaliana MPK3 and MPK6, two mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs or MPKs), play critical roles in plant disease resistance by regulating multiple defense responses...
  2. Pitzschke A, Djamei A, Teige M, Hirt H. VIP1 response elements mediate mitogen-activated protein kinase 3-induced stress gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:18414-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and VIP1 was shown to undergo nuclear localization upon phosphorylation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. Here, we provide evidence that VIP1 encodes a functional bZIP transcription factor that stimulates stress-..
  3. Persak H, Pitzschke A. Tight interconnection and multi-level control of Arabidopsis MYB44 in MAPK cascade signalling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57547 pubmed publisher
    ..Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are universal signalling modules. In Arabidopsis, the MAPK MPK3 and its upstream regulator MAPK kinase MKK4 initiate the adaptation response to numerous abiotic and biotic ..
  4. Galletti R, Ferrari S, De Lorenzo G. Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 play different roles in basal and oligogalacturonide- or flagellin-induced resistance against Botrytis cinerea. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:804-14 pubmed publisher
    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are fundamental components of the plant innate immune system. MPK3 and MPK6 are Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) MAPKs activated by pathogens and elicitors such as oligogalacturonides (OGs), ..
  5. Li G, Meng X, Wang R, Mao G, Han L, Liu Y, et al. Dual-level regulation of ACC synthase activity by MPK3/MPK6 cascade and its downstream WRKY transcription factor during ethylene induction in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002767 pubmed publisher
    ..isoforms, in Botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene biosynthesis and their regulation at the protein stability level by MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs)...
  6. Brock A, Willmann R, Kolb D, Grefen L, Lajunen H, Bethke G, et al. The Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase PP2C5 affects seed germination, stomatal aperture, and abscisic acid-inducible gene expression. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1098-111 pubmed publisher
    ..The PP2C5 protein colocalizes and directly interacts with stress-induced MPK3, MPK4, and MPK6, predominantly in the nucleus. Importantly, altered PP2C5 levels affect MAPK activation...
  7. Beckers G, Jaskiewicz M, Liu Y, UNDERWOOD W, He S, Zhang S, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinases 3 and 6 are required for full priming of stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2009;21:944-53 pubmed publisher
    ..priming is associated with accumulation of mRNA and inactive proteins of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs), MPK3 and MPK6...
  8. Han L, Li G, Yang K, Mao G, Wang R, Liu Y, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and 6 regulate Botrytis cinerea-induced ethylene production in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2010;64:114-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that MPK3, which shares high homology and common upstream MAPK kinases with MPK6, is also capable of phosphorylating ACS2 and ..
  9. Ren D, Liu Y, Yang K, Han L, Mao G, Glazebrook J, et al. A fungal-responsive MAPK cascade regulates phytoalexin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5638-43 pubmed publisher
    Plant recognition of pathogens leads to rapid activation of MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and their orthologs in other species...
  10. Kang C, Feng Y, Vikram M, Jeong I, Lee J, Bahk J, et al. Arabidopsis thaliana PRP40s are RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain-associating proteins. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2009;484:30-8 pubmed publisher
    ..AtPRP40s are ubiquitously expressed and localize to the nucleus. These results establish that AtPRP40s are specific PCAPs, which is consistent with the predicted function of the AtPRP40 family in pre-mRNA splicing. ..
  11. Gudesblat G, Iusem N, Morris P. Guard cell-specific inhibition of Arabidopsis MPK3 expression causes abnormal stomatal responses to abscisic acid and hydrogen peroxide. New Phytol. 2007;173:713-21 pubmed
    MAP kinases have been linked to guard cell signalling. Arabidopsis thaliana MAP Kinase 3 (MPK3) is known to be activated by abscisic acid (ABA) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), which also control stomatal movements...
  12. Xu J, Xie J, Yan C, Zou X, Ren D, Zhang S. A chemical genetic approach demonstrates that MPK3/MPK6 activation and NADPH oxidase-mediated oxidative burst are two independent signaling events in plant immunity. Plant J. 2014;77:222-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis has at least four PAMP/pathogen-responsive MAPKs: MPK3, MPK6, MPK4 and MPK11...
  13. Miles G, Samuel M, Ellis B. Suppression of MKK5 reduces ozone-induced signal transmission to both MPK3 and MPK6 and confers increased ozone sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2009;4:687-92 pubmed
    ..thaliana, ozone-induced signaling has been shown to involve the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) MPK3 and MPK6...
  14. Lee H, Back K. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are required for melatonin-mediated defense responses in plants. J Pineal Res. 2016;60:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Two MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, were activated rapidly and transiently by 1 μm melatonin treatment in Arabidopsis...
  15. Li F, Cheng C, Cui F, de Oliveira M, Yu X, Meng X, et al. Modulation of RNA polymerase II phosphorylation downstream of pathogen perception orchestrates plant immunity. Cell Host Microbe. 2014;16:748-58 pubmed publisher
  16. Merkouropoulos G, Andreasson E, Hess D, Boller T, Peck S. An Arabidopsis protein phosphorylated in response to microbial elicitation, AtPHOS32, is a substrate of MAP kinases 3 and 6. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10493-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in vitro kinase assays, we confirmed that AtPHOS32 is a substrate of both AtMPK3 and AtMPK6...
  17. Nguyen X, Kim S, Lee K, Kim K, Liu X, Han H, et al. Identification of a C2H2-type zinc finger transcription factor (ZAT10) from Arabidopsis as a substrate of MAP kinase. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:737-45 pubmed publisher vitro and in vivo protein-protein interaction analyses, we demonstrated that ZAT10 directly interacted with MPK3 and MPK6. ZAT10 was phosphorylated by recombinant Arabidopsis MPK3 and MPK6 in a kinase assay...
  18. Raghuram B, Sheikh A, Rustagi Y, Sinha A. MicroRNA biogenesis factor DRB1 is a phosphorylation target of mitogen activated protein kinase MPK3 in both rice and Arabidopsis. FEBS J. 2015;282:521-36 pubmed publisher
    ..sativa and Arabidopsis. MicroRNA microarray analysis in atmpk3 and atmpk6 mutants indicate the importance of AtMPK3 in maintaining the level of miRNAs in the plant.
  19. Frei dit Frey N, Garcia A, Bigeard J, Zaag R, Bueso E, Garmier M, et al. Functional analysis of Arabidopsis immune-related MAPKs uncovers a role for MPK3 as negative regulator of inducible defences. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R87 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, perception of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) activates the MAPKs MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6...
  20. Forzani C, Carreri A, de la Fuente van Bentem S, Lecourieux D, Lecourieux F, Hirt H. The Arabidopsis protein kinase Pto-interacting 1-4 is a common target of the oxidative signal-inducible 1 and mitogen-activated protein kinases. FEBS J. 2011;278:1126-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Its activity is required for full activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, in response to oxidative stress...
  21. Ulm R, Ichimura K, Mizoguchi T, Peck S, Zhu T, Wang X, et al. Distinct regulation of salinity and genotoxic stress responses by Arabidopsis MAP kinase phosphatase 1. EMBO J. 2002;21:6483-93 pubmed
    ..Indeed, mkp1 plants have increased resistance to salinity. Thus MKP1 apparently plays a pivotal role in the integration and fine-tuning of plant responses to various environmental challenges. ..
  22. Sethi V, Raghuram B, Sinha A, Chattopadhyay S. A mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade module, MKK3-MPK6 and MYC2, is involved in blue light-mediated seedling development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3343-57 pubmed publisher
    ..We present mutational and physiological studies that illustrate the function of the MKK3-MPK6-MYC2 module in Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development and provide a revised mechanistic view of photomorphogenesis. ..
  23. Bartels S, Anderson J, González Besteiro M, Carreri A, Hirt H, Buchala A, et al. MAP kinase phosphatase1 and protein tyrosine phosphatase1 are repressors of salicylic acid synthesis and SNC1-mediated responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2884-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, mutations in MPK3 and MPK6 distinctly suppress mkp1 and mkp1 ptp1 phenotypes, indicating that MKP1 and PTP1 act as repressors of ..
  24. Ahlfors R, Macioszek V, Rudd J, Brosché M, Schlichting R, Scheel D, et al. Stress hormone-independent activation and nuclear translocation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis thaliana during ozone exposure. Plant J. 2004;40:512-22 pubmed
    ..These were identified as AtMPK3 and AtMPK6...
  25. Chang R, Jang C, Branco Price C, Nghiem P, Bailey Serres J. Transient MPK6 activation in response to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation is mediated by mitochondria and aids seedling survival in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;78:109-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report the rapid and transient activation of MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 upon oxygen deprivation as well as reoxygenation in seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana...
  26. Genot B, Lang J, Berriri S, Garmier M, Gilard F, Pateyron S, et al. Constitutively Active Arabidopsis MAP Kinase 3 Triggers Defense Responses Involving Salicylic Acid and SUMM2 Resistance Protein. Plant Physiol. 2017;174:1238-1249 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a gain-of-function approach, we investigated the responses controlled by a constitutively active (CA) MPK3 in Arabidopsis thalianaCA-MPK3 plants are dwarfed and display a massive derepression of defense genes ..
  27. Wang P, Du Y, Li Y, Ren D, Song C. Hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of MAP kinase 6 modulates nitric oxide biosynthesis and signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2981-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support strongly a function of MPK6 in modulating NO production and signal transduction in response to H?O? during Arabidopsis root development. ..
  28. Ramonell K, Berrocal Lobo M, Koh S, Wan J, Edwards H, Stacey G, et al. Loss-of-function mutations in chitin responsive genes show increased susceptibility to the powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:1027-36 pubmed
    ..Also, this study demonstrates the value of microarray data for identifying new components of uncharacterized signaling pathways. ..
  29. Schweighofer A, Shubchynskyy V, Kazanaviciute V, Djamei A, Meskiene I. Bimolecular fluorescent complementation (BiFC) by MAP kinases and MAPK phosphatases. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1171:147-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The interactions of the MAPKs MPK3, MKP4 and MPK6 with the phosphatases AP2C1 and AP2C3 have been tested.
  30. Cheng Z, Li J, Niu Y, Zhang X, Woody O, Xiong Y, et al. Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway. Nature. 2015;521:213-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems. ..
  31. Guan Y, Lu J, Xu J, McClure B, Zhang S. Two Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, Are Required for Funicular Guidance of Pollen Tubes in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2014;165:528-533 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitogen-activated protein kinases, mediate the guidance response ..
  32. Li H, Ding Y, Shi Y, Zhang X, Zhang S, Gong Z, et al. MPK3- and MPK6-Mediated ICE1 Phosphorylation Negatively Regulates ICE1 Stability and Freezing Tolerance in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2017;43:630-642.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the regulation of ICE1 is not well understood. Here, we report that mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 (MPK3) and MPK6 interact with and phosphorylate ICE1, which reduces its stability and transcriptional activity...
  33. . Mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades in plants: a new nomenclature. Trends Plant Sci. 2002;7:301-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we propose a simplified nomenclature for Arabidopsis MAPKs and MAPK kinases that might also serve as a basis for standard annotation of these gene families in all plants. ..
  34. Gao F, Su Q, Fan Y, Wang L. Expression pattern and core region analysis of AtMPK3 promoter in response to environmental stresses. Sci China Life Sci. 2010;53:1315-21 pubmed publisher
    The protein kinase AtMPK3, a component of the MAP kinase cascade, plays an important role in stress signal transduction in plant cells...
  35. Su J, Zhang M, Zhang L, Sun T, Liu Y, Lukowitz W, et al. Regulation of Stomatal Immunity by Interdependent Functions of a Pathogen-Responsive MPK3/MPK6 Cascade and Abscisic Acid. Plant Cell. 2017;29:526-542 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that MPK3 and MPK6, two Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen-responsive MAPKs, and their upstream MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK5,..
  36. Walley J, Coughlan S, Hudson M, Covington M, Kaspi R, Banu G, et al. Mechanical stress induces biotic and abiotic stress responses via a novel cis-element. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:1800-12 pubmed
    ..This structure suggests that plants may have a transcriptional network resembling the general stress signaling pathway in yeast and that the RSRE element may provide the key to this coordinate regulation. ..
  37. Pitzschke A, Datta S, Persak H. Salt stress in Arabidopsis: lipid transfer protein AZI1 and its control by mitogen-activated protein kinase MPK3. Mol Plant. 2014;7:722-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, MPK3 is particularly strongly associated with numerous abiotic and biotic stress responses...
  38. Li F, Wang J, Wu M, Fan C, Li X, He J. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphatases Affect UV-B-Induced Stomatal Closure via Controlling NO in Guard Cells. Plant Physiol. 2017;173:760-770 pubmed publisher
    ..B (UV-B) radiation induces the activation of MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE PHOSPHATASE1 (MKP1) and its targets MPK3 and MPK6, but whether they participate in UV-B guard cell signaling is not clear...
  39. Pérez Salamó I, Papdi C, Rigó G, Zsigmond L, Vilela B, Lumbreras V, et al. The heat shock factor A4A confers salt tolerance and is regulated by oxidative stress and the mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6. Plant Physiol. 2014;165:319-34 pubmed publisher
    ..HSFA4A interacts with mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 in yeast and plant cells...
  40. Nie S, Xu H. Riboflavin-Induced Disease Resistance Requires the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases 3 and 6 in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0153175 pubmed publisher
    ..Further was suggested that the transcript levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, were primed under riboflavin...
  41. Kovtun Y, Chiu W, Tena G, Sheen J. Functional analysis of oxidative stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade in plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:2940-5 pubmed
    ..protein kinase kinase kinase, ANP1, which initiates a phosphorylation cascade involving two stress MAPKs, AtMPK3 and AtMPK6...
  42. Zhao F, Zheng Y, Zeng T, Sun R, Yang J, Li Y, et al. Phosphorylation of SPOROCYTELESS/NOZZLE by the MPK3/6 Kinase Is Required for Anther Development. Plant Physiol. 2017;173:2265-2277 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 can both interact with SPL in vitro and in vivo and can phosphorylate the SPL protein in vitro...
  43. Lumbreras V, Vilela B, Irar S, Sole M, Capellades M, Valls M, et al. MAPK phosphatase MKP2 mediates disease responses in Arabidopsis and functionally interacts with MPK3 and MPK6. Plant J. 2010;63:1017-30 pubmed publisher
    ..the transmission of ROS and pathogen signalling by MAPKs involves the coordinated activation of MPK6 and MPK3; however, the specificity of their negative regulation by phosphatases is not fully known...
  44. Xu J, Li Y, Wang Y, Liu H, Lei L, Yang H, et al. Activation of MAPK kinase 9 induces ethylene and camalexin biosynthesis and enhances sensitivity to salt stress in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26996-7006 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that MKK9, an MKK, is an upstream activator of the MPKs MPK3 and MPK6 both in vitro and in planta...
  45. Lee J, Ellis B. Arabidopsis MAPK phosphatase 2 (MKP2) positively regulates oxidative stress tolerance and inactivates the MPK3 and MPK6 MAPKs. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:25020-9 pubmed
    Two closely related Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), MPK3 and MPK6, are rapidly but transiently activated in plants exposed to ozone...
  46. Moon H, Lee B, Choi G, Shin D, Prasad D, Lee O, et al. NDP kinase 2 interacts with two oxidative stress-activated MAPKs to regulate cellular redox state and enhances multiple stress tolerance in transgenic plants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:358-63 pubmed
    ..treatment induced the phosphorylation of two endogenous proteins whose molecular weights suggested they are AtMPK3 and AtMPK6, two H(2)O(2)-activated A. thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinases...
  47. Furlan G, Nakagami H, Eschen Lippold L, Jiang X, Majovsky P, Kowarschik K, et al. Changes in PUB22 Ubiquitination Modes Triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 Dampen the Immune Response. Plant Cell. 2017;29:726-745 pubmed publisher
    ..the E3 ubiquitin ligase PUB22 that dampens the immune response is triggered by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 (MPK3), best known for its function in the activation of signaling...
  48. González Besteiro M, Bartels S, Albert A, Ulm R. Arabidopsis MAP kinase phosphatase 1 and its target MAP kinases 3 and 6 antagonistically determine UV-B stress tolerance, independent of the UVR8 photoreceptor pathway. Plant J. 2011;68:727-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The MKP1-interacting proteins MPK3 and MPK6 are activated by UV-B stress and are hyperactivated in mkp1...
  49. Wang P, Du Y, Zhao X, Miao Y, Song C. The MPK6-ERF6-ROS-responsive cis-acting Element7/GCC box complex modulates oxidative gene transcription and the oxidative response in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:1392-408 pubmed publisher
    ..These data might provide new insight into the mechanisms that regulate ROS-responsive gene transcription via a complex of MPK6, ERF6, and the ROSE7/GCC box under oxidative stress or a fluctuating light environment. ..
  50. Wang F, Shang Y, Fan B, Yu J, Chen Z. Arabidopsis LIP5, a positive regulator of multivesicular body biogenesis, is a critical target of pathogen-responsive MAPK cascade in plant basal defense. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004243 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD ..
  51. Droillard M, Boudsocq M, Barbier Brygoo H, Laurière C. Different protein kinase families are activated by osmotic stresses in Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspensions. Involvement of the MAP kinases AtMPK3 and AtMPK6. FEBS Lett. 2002;527:43-50 pubmed
    ..Using specific antibodies, two of the MAP kinases were identified as AtMPK6 and AtMPK3. The two other protein kinases, durably activated by high hyperosmolarity, did not belong to the MAP kinase family...
  52. Xu J, Meng J, Meng X, Zhao Y, Liu J, Sun T, et al. Pathogen-Responsive MPK3 and MPK6 Reprogram the Biosynthesis of Indole Glucosinolates and Their Derivatives in Arabidopsis Immunity. Plant Cell. 2016;28:1144-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathogen-responsive MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE3 (MPK3) and MPK6 have essential functions in the induction of camalexin, the major phytoalexin in Arabidopsis...
  53. Hord C, Sun Y, Pillitteri L, Torii K, Wang H, Zhang S, et al. Regulation of Arabidopsis early anther development by the mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK3 and MPK6, and the ERECTA and related receptor-like kinases. Mol Plant. 2008;1:645-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Two closely related genes encoding MAPKs, MPK3 and MPK6, function redundantly in regulating stomatal patterning...
  54. Lei L, Li Y, Wang Q, Xu J, Chen Y, Yang H, et al. Activation of MKK9-MPK3/MPK6 enhances phosphate acquisition in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2014;203:1146-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Using in-gel kinase assays, we determined the activities of MPK3 and MPK6 in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings under both LP and Pi-sufficient (Murashige and Skoog, MS) conditions...
  55. Pecher P, Eschen Lippold L, Herklotz S, Kuhle K, Naumann K, Bethke G, et al. The Arabidopsis thaliana mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3 and MPK6 target a subclass of 'VQ-motif'-containing proteins to regulate immune responses. New Phytol. 2014;203:592-606 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of the Arabidopsis thaliana VQ-motif-containing proteins (VQPs) were phosphorylated by the MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6, and renamed MPK3/6-targeted VQPs (MVQs)...
  56. Zhang J, Shao F, Li Y, Cui H, Chen L, Li H, et al. A Pseudomonas syringae effector inactivates MAPKs to suppress PAMP-induced immunity in plants. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;1:175-85 pubmed
    ..The MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 physically interact with HopAI1 indicating that they are direct targets of HopAI1...
  57. Sidonskaya E, Schweighofer A, Shubchynskyy V, Kammerhofer N, Hofmann J, Wieczorek K, et al. Plant resistance against the parasitic nematode Heterodera schachtii is mediated by MPK3 and MPK6 kinases, which are controlled by the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1 in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..MAPK phosphatases control kinase activities and the signalling outcome. The involvement and the role of MPK3 and MPK6, as well as the MAPK phosphatase AP2C1, is demonstrated during parasitism of the beet cyst nematode ..