Gene Symbol: MKK4
Description: mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASE 4, ATMEK4, ATMKK4, F19C24.26, F19C24_26, MAP KINASE KINASE 4, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4
Species: thale cress
Products:     MKK4

Top Publications

  1. Meng X, Wang H, He Y, Liu Y, Walker J, Torii K, et al. A MAPK cascade downstream of ERECTA receptor-like protein kinase regulates Arabidopsis inflorescence architecture by promoting localized cell proliferation. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4948-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar to an er mutant, loss of function of MPK3/MPK6 or their upstream MAPK kinases (MAPKKs; or MKKs), MKK4/MKK5, resulted in shortened pedicels and clustered inflorescences...
  2. Asai T, Tena G, Plotnikova J, Willmann M, Chiu W, Gomez Gomez L, et al. MAP kinase signalling cascade in Arabidopsis innate immunity. Nature. 2002;415:977-83 pubmed
    ..Here we identify a complete plant MAP kinase cascade (MEKK1, MKK4/MKK5 and MPK3/MPK6) and WRKY22/WRKY29 transcription factors that function downstream of the flagellin receptor FLS2,..
  3. Wang H, Ngwenyama N, Liu Y, Walker J, Zhang S. Stomatal development and patterning are regulated by environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:63-73 pubmed
    ..MPK6, two environmentally responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and their upstream MAPK kinases, MKK4 and MKK5, are key regulators of stomatal development and patterning...
  4. Kim S, Woo D, Kim J, Lee S, Chung W, Moon Y. Arabidopsis MKK4 mediates osmotic-stress response via its regulation of MPK3 activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;412:150-4 pubmed publisher
    Plants have developed disparate regulatory pathways to adapt to environmental stresses. In this study, we identified MKK4 as an important mediator of plant response to osmotic stress...
  5. Khan M, Rozhon W, Bigeard J, Pflieger D, Husar S, Pitzschke A, et al. Brassinosteroid-regulated GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases phosphorylate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinases, which control stomata development in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:7519-27 pubmed publisher
    ..that BIN2 and its homologues, GSK3/Shaggy-like kinases involved in BR signaling, can phosphorylate the MAPK kinases MKK4 and MKK5, which are members of the MAPK module YODA-MKK4/5-MPK3/6 that controls stomata development and patterning...
  6. Cheng Z, Li J, Niu Y, Zhang X, Woody O, Xiong Y, et al. Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway. Nature. 2015;521:213-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems. ..
  7. Persak H, Pitzschke A. Tight interconnection and multi-level control of Arabidopsis MYB44 in MAPK cascade signalling. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57547 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, the MAPK MPK3 and its upstream regulator MAPK kinase MKK4 initiate the adaptation response to numerous abiotic and biotic stresses...
  8. Lee H, Back K. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways are required for melatonin-mediated defense responses in plants. J Pineal Res. 2016;60:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Using an array of MAP kinase kinase (MKK) knockout mutants, we found that four MKKs, namely MKK4, MKK5, MKK7, and MKK9, are responsible for the activation of MPK3 and MPK6 by melatonin, indicating that melatonin-..
  9. Ichimura K, Mizoguchi T, Irie K, Morris P, Giraudat J, Matsumoto K, et al. Isolation of ATMEKK1 (a MAP kinase kinase kinase)-interacting proteins and analysis of a MAP kinase cascade in Arabidopsis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;253:532-43 pubmed
    ..By contrast, other combinations of MAPKs and MAPKKs did not suppress these yeast mutations. These results suggest that ATMEKK1, ATMKK2/MEK1, and ATMPK4 may constitute a MAP kinase cascade. ..

More Information


  1. Samuel M, Chaal B, Lampard G, Green B, Ellis B. Surviving the passage: Non-canonical stromal targeting of an Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase. Plant Signal Behav. 2008;3:6-12 pubmed
    ..In vitro uptake experiments confirm the predicted import of an oxidant-responsive MAPKK, AtMKK4, into the chloroplast...
  2. Zhao C, Nie H, Shen Q, Zhang S, Lukowitz W, Tang D. EDR1 physically interacts with MKK4/MKK5 and negatively regulates a MAP kinase cascade to modulate plant innate immunity. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004389 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we showed that EDR1 negatively regulates the MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 kinase cascade in Arabidopsis...
  3. Yamada K, Yamaguchi K, Shirakawa T, Nakagami H, Mine A, Ishikawa K, et al. The Arabidopsis CERK1-associated kinase PBL27 connects chitin perception to MAPK activation. EMBO J. 2016;35:2468-2483 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PBL27 is the MAPKKK kinase that provides the missing link between the cell surface chitin receptor and the intracellular MAPK cascade in plants. ..
  4. Cho S, Larue C, Chevalier D, Wang H, Jinn T, Zhang S, et al. Regulation of floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:15629-34 pubmed publisher
    ..receptor-like protein kinases HAESA (HAE) and HAESA-like 2 (HSL2), the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase 4 (MKK4) and MKK5, and a dominant-negative form of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 6 (MPK6) in a mpk3 mutant background ..
  5. Patharkar O, Walker J. Floral organ abscission is regulated by a positive feedback loop. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:2906-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study helps define the mechanisms and regulatory networks involved in a receptor-mediated signaling pathway that controls floral organ abscission. ..