Gene Symbol: IRX3
Description: Cellulose synthase family protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     IRX3

Top Publications

  1. Zhang Y, Nikolovski N, Sorieul M, Vellosillo T, McFarlane H, Dupree R, et al. Golgi-localized STELLO proteins regulate the assembly and trafficking of cellulose synthase complexes in Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2016;7:11656 pubmed publisher
    ..Point mutations in the predicted catalytic domains of the STELLO proteins indicate that they are glycosyltransferases facing the Golgi lumen. Hence, we have uncovered proteins that regulate CSC assembly in the plant Golgi apparatus. ..
  2. Atanassov I, Pittman J, Turner S. Elucidating the mechanisms of assembly and subunit interaction of the cellulose synthase complex of Arabidopsis secondary cell walls. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:3833-41 pubmed publisher
    ..with preferential purification of CESA monomers, we developed a strategy based on dual epitope tagging of the CESA7 protein to select for CESA multimers...
  3. Taylor N, Howells R, Huttly A, Vickers K, Turner S. Interactions among three distinct CesA proteins essential for cellulose synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:1450-5 pubmed
    ..have an identical phenotype to previously described mutations in two other members of this gene family (IRX1 and IRX3)...
  4. Brown D, Zeef L, Ellis J, Goodacre R, Turner S. Identification of novel genes in Arabidopsis involved in secondary cell wall formation using expression profiling and reverse genetics. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2281-95 pubmed
    ..similar expression pattern to the secondary cell wall-specific cellulose synthase genes IRREGULAR XYLEM1 (IRX1) and IRX3. Cross-referencing this analysis with publicly available microarray data resulted in the selection of 16 genes for ..
  5. Taylor N, Scheible W, Cutler S, Somerville C, Turner S. The irregular xylem3 locus of Arabidopsis encodes a cellulose synthase required for secondary cell wall synthesis. Plant Cell. 1999;11:769-80 pubmed
    The irregular xylem3 (irx3) mutant of Arabidopsis has a severe deficiency in secondary cell wall cellulose deposition that leads to collapsed xylem cells...
  6. Endo S, Pesquet E, Yamaguchi M, Tashiro G, Sato M, Toyooka K, et al. Identifying new components participating in the secondary cell wall formation of vessel elements in zinnia and Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our strategy has succeeded in finding two novel components in SCW formation and has opened the door for in-depth analysis of their molecular functions. ..
  7. Betancur L, Singh B, Rapp R, Wendel J, Marks M, Roberts A, et al. Phylogenetically distinct cellulose synthase genes support secondary wall thickening in arabidopsis shoot trichomes and cotton fiber. J Integr Plant Biol. 2010;52:205-20 pubmed publisher
  8. Kumar M, Wightman R, Atanassov I, Gupta A, Hurst C, Hemsley P, et al. S-Acylation of the cellulose synthase complex is essential for its plasma membrane localization. Science. 2016;353:166-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of Arabidopsis CESA7 reveals four cysteines in variable region 2 (VR2) and two cysteines at the carboxy terminus (CT) as S-acylation ..
  9. Bosca S, Barton C, Taylor N, Ryden P, Neumetzler L, Pauly M, et al. Interactions between MUR10/CesA7-dependent secondary cellulose biosynthesis and primary cell wall structure. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:1353-63 pubmed
    ..known to be involved in primary and secondary cell wall biosynthesis, are generally unaffected; however, the CesA7 transcript is specifically suppressed in the mur10-1 allele...

More Information


  1. Ha M, MacKinnon I, Šturcová A, Apperley D, McCann M, Turner S, et al. Structure of cellulose-deficient secondary cell walls from the irx3 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Phytochemistry. 2002;61:7-14 pubmed
    In the Arabidopsis mutant irx3, truncation of the AtCesA7 gene encoding a xylem-specific cellulose synthase results in reduced cellulose synthesis in the affected xylem cells and collapse of mature xylem vessels...
  2. Zhong R, Demura T, Ye Z. SND1, a NAC domain transcription factor, is a key regulator of secondary wall synthesis in fibers of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:3158-70 pubmed
    ..Together, our results reveal that SND1 is a key transcriptional activator involved in secondary wall biosynthesis in fibers. ..
  3. Timmers J, Vernhettes S, Desprez T, Vincken J, Visser R, Trindade L. Interactions between membrane-bound cellulose synthases involved in the synthesis of the secondary cell wall. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:978-82 pubmed publisher
    ..A model is proposed for the secondary rosette structure. The RING-motif proved not to be essential for the interaction between the CESA proteins. ..
  4. Reiter W, Chapple C, Somerville C. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana with altered cell wall polysaccharide composition. Plant J. 1997;12:335-45 pubmed
    ..Mutants with complex changes in monosaccharide composition are represented by the mur9, mur10 and mur11 loci...
  5. Liang Y, Xie X, Lindsay S, Wang Y, Masle J, Williamson L, et al. Cell wall composition contributes to the control of transpiration efficiency in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2010;64:679-86 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the identification of a new allele of the Arabidopsis CesA7 cellulose synthase locus designated AtCesA7(irx3-5) involved in the control of TE. Leaves of the AtCesA7(irx3-5) mutant are warmer than the wild type (WT)...
  6. Watanabe Y, Meents M, McDonnell L, Barkwill S, SampathKumar A, Cartwright H, et al. Visualization of cellulose synthases in Arabidopsis secondary cell walls. Science. 2015;350:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of secondary cell wall thickenings was associated with a redistribution and enrichment of CESA7-containing cellulose synthase complexes (CSCs) into narrow membrane domains...
  7. Taylor N. Identification of cellulose synthase AtCesA7 (IRX3) in vivo phosphorylation sites--a potential role in regulating protein degradation. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;64:161-71 pubmed of the cellulose synthases essential for secondary cell wall cellulose synthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana, AtCesA7, is phosphorylated in vivo...
  8. Carroll A, Mansoori N, Li S, Lei L, Vernhettes S, Visser R, et al. Complexes with mixed primary and secondary cellulose synthases are functional in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:726-37 pubmed publisher
    ..were used to assess the interactions between three primary (CESA1, CESA3, CESA6), and three secondary (CESA4, CESA7, CESA8) Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CESAs...