Gene Symbol: HXK1
Description: hexokinase 1
Alias: ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HEXOKINASE 1, ATHXK1, F19B15.160, F19B15_160, GIN2, GLUCOSE INSENSITIVE 2, HEXOKINASE, hexokinase 1, hexokinase 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Moore B, Zhou L, Rolland F, Hall Q, Cheng W, Liu Y, et al. Role of the Arabidopsis glucose sensor HXK1 in nutrient, light, and hormonal signaling. Science. 2003;300:332-6 pubmed
    ..Analyses of Arabidopsis glucose insensitive2 (gin2) mutants define the physiological functions of a specific hexokinase (HXK1) in the plant glucose-signaling network. HXK1 coordinates intrinsic signals with extrinsic light intensity...
  2. Cho Y, Sheen J, Yoo S. Low glucose uncouples hexokinase1-dependent sugar signaling from stress and defense hormone abscisic acid and C2H4 responses in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:1180-2 pubmed publisher
  3. Leon P, Sheen J. Sugar and hormone connections. Trends Plant Sci. 2003;8:110-6 pubmed
    ..The effects of sugar and osmotic stress on morphogenesis and gene expression are distinct. The plasticity of plant growth and development are exemplified by the complex interplay of sugar and hormone signalling. ..
  4. Cho Y, Yoo S, Sheen J. Regulatory functions of nuclear hexokinase1 complex in glucose signaling. Cell. 2006;127:579-89 pubmed
    Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (HXK1) is a glucose sensor that integrates nutrient and hormone signals to govern gene expression and plant growth in response to environmental cues...
  5. Kelly G, David Schwartz R, Sade N, Moshelion M, Levi A, Alchanatis V, et al. The pitfalls of transgenic selection and new roles of AtHXK1: a high level of AtHXK1 expression uncouples hexokinase1-dependent sugar signaling from exogenous sugar. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:47-51 pubmed publisher
  6. Eastmond P, van Dijken A, Spielman M, Kerr A, Tissier A, Dickinson H, et al. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase 1, which catalyses the first step in trehalose synthesis, is essential for Arabidopsis embryo maturation. Plant J. 2002;29:225-35 pubmed
    ..trehalose-6-phosphate (T-6-P) is required to regulate sugar influx into glycolysis via the inhibition of hexokinase and a deficiency in TPS1 prevents growth on sugars (Thevelein and Hohmann, 1995)...
  7. Cho Y, Yoo S. Signaling role of fructose mediated by FINS1/FBP in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001263 pubmed publisher
    ..For fructose signaling responses, the plant glucose sensor HEXOKINASE1 (HXK1) was dispensable, while FRUCTOSE INSENSITIVE1 (FINS1), a putative FRUCTOSE-1,6-BISPHOSPHATASE, played a crucial ..
  8. Balasubramanian R, Karve A, Kandasamy M, Meagher R, Moore B. A role for F-actin in hexokinase-mediated glucose signaling. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:1423-34 pubmed
    ..Here we have shown that within normal experimental detection limits, AtHXK1 is localized continuously to mitochondria...
  9. Reda M. Regulation of nitrate reduction in Arabidopsis WT and hxk1 mutant under C and N metabolites. Physiol Plant. 2013;149:260-72 pubmed publisher
    As in plants sugar sensing and signal transduction involve pathways dependent or independent on hexokinase 1 (HXK1) as a glucose sensor, research was conducted to determine which pathway is responsible for regulation of the nitrate ..

More Information


  1. Karve A, Xia X, Moore B. Arabidopsis Hexokinase-Like1 and Hexokinase1 form a critical node in mediating plant glucose and ethylene responses. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1965-75 pubmed publisher
    ..associated with growth on high Glc medium that occurs prominently in HKL1 overexpression lines and in glucose insensitive 2-1 (gin2-1), a null mutant of Hexokinase1 (HXK1)...
  2. Kelly G, Sade N, Doron Faigenboim A, Lerner S, Shatil Cohen A, Yeselson Y, et al. Sugar and hexokinase suppress expression of PIP aquaporins and reduce leaf hydraulics that preserves leaf water potential. Plant J. 2017;91:325-339 pubmed publisher
    ..between the expression of AQPs and that of sugar-related genes, including the Arabidopsis hexokinases 1 (AtHXK1)...
  3. Kelly G, Moshelion M, David Schwartz R, Halperin O, Wallach R, Attia Z, et al. Hexokinase mediates stomatal closure. Plant J. 2013;75:977-88 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of sugars in the regulation of stomata is not yet clear. In this study, we examined the role of hexokinase (HXK), a sugar-phosphorylating enzyme involved in sugar-sensing, in guard cells and its effect on stomatal ..
  4. Brauner K, Stutz S, Paul M, Heyer A. Measuring whole plant CO2 exchange with the environment reveals opposing effects of the gin2-1 mutation in shoots and roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e973822 pubmed publisher
    ..The gin2-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana is characterized by a 50% reduction of glucokinase activity in the shoot, while ..
  5. De Jong F, Thodey K, Lejay L, Bevan M. Glucose elevates NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 protein levels and nitrate transport activity independently of its HEXOKINASE1-mediated stimulation of NITRATE TRANSPORTER2.1 expression. Plant Physiol. 2014;164:308-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of nitrate and glucose (Glc) on gene expression, nitrate transport, and growth using glucose-insensitive2-1 (gin2-1), which is defective in sugar responses...
  6. Karve A, Rauh B, Xia X, Kandasamy M, Meagher R, Sheen J, et al. Expression and evolutionary features of the hexokinase gene family in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2008;228:411-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that three of the genes encode hexokinase-like (HKL) proteins, which are about 50% identical to AtHXK1, but do not phosphorylate glucose or fructose...
  7. Feng J, Zhao S, Chen X, Wang W, Dong W, Chen J, et al. Biochemical and structural study of Arabidopsis hexokinase 1. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2015;71:367-75 pubmed publisher
    b>Hexokinase 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtHXK1) plays a dual role in glycolysis and sugar sensing for vital metabolic and physiological processes...
  8. Bruggeman Q, Prunier F, Mazubert C, de Bont L, Garmier M, Lugan R, et al. Involvement of Arabidopsis Hexokinase1 in Cell Death Mediated by Myo-Inositol Accumulation. Plant Cell. 2015;27:1801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Using two catalytically inactive HXK1 mutants, we also show that hexokinase catalytic activity is necessary for the establishment of lesions in mips1...
  9. Gharbi I, Ricard B, Rolin D, Maucourt M, Andrieu M, Bizid E, et al. Effect of hexokinase activity on tomato root metabolism during prolonged hypoxia. Plant Cell Environ. 2007;30:508-17 pubmed
    ..In contrast to maize, root hexokinase (HXK) activities did not increase during hypoxia and glucose was unable to sustain glycolytic flux under anoxia...
  10. Dai N, Schaffer A, Petreikov M, Shahak Y, Giller Y, Ratner K, et al. Overexpression of Arabidopsis hexokinase in tomato plants inhibits growth, reduces photosynthesis, and induces rapid senescence. Plant Cell. 1999;11:1253-66 pubmed
    Sugars are key regulatory molecules that affect diverse processes in higher plants. Hexokinase is the first enzyme in hexose metabolism and may be a sugar sensor that mediates sugar regulation...
  11. Kim M, Lim J, Ahn C, Park K, Kim G, Kim W, et al. Mitochondria-associated hexokinases play a role in the control of programmed cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2341-55 pubmed
    Recent findings suggest a pivotal role for mitochondria-associated hexokinase in the regulation of apoptosis in animal cells...
  12. Huang J, Tunc Ozdemir M, Chang Y, Jones A. Cooperative control between AtRGS1 and AtHXK1 in a WD40-repeat protein pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. Front Plant Sci. 2015;6:851 pubmed publisher
    b>HEXOKINASE 1 (AtHXK1) and Regulator of G-protein Signaling 1 (AtRGS1) pathways, mediate D-glucose signaling in Arabidopsis. However, it is not known the degree, if any, that these pathways overlap and how...