Gene Symbol: HSP21
Description: heat shock protein 21
Alias: T29A15.160, T29A15_160, heat shock protein 21, heat shock protein 21
Species: thale cress
Products:     HSP21

Top Publications

  1. Zhong L, Zhou W, Wang H, Ding S, Lu Q, Wen X, et al. Chloroplast small heat shock protein HSP21 interacts with plastid nucleoid protein pTAC5 and is essential for chloroplast development in Arabidopsis under heat stress. Plant Cell. 2013;25:2925-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we characterized the role of HSP21, a plastid nucleoid-localized sHSP, in chloroplast development under heat stress...
  2. Rutsdottir G, Härmark J, Weide Y, Hebert H, Rasmussen M, Wernersson S, et al. Structural model of dodecameric heat-shock protein Hsp21: Flexible N-terminal arms interact with client proteins while C-terminal tails maintain the dodecamer and chaperone activity. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:8103-8121 pubmed publisher
    ..9. We took interest in Hsp21, a chloroplast-localized sHsp crucial for plant stress resistance, which has even longer N-terminal arms than ..
  3. Chen S, He N, Chen J, Guo F. Identification of core subunits of photosystem II as action sites of HSP21, which is activated by the GUN5-mediated retrograde pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2017;89:1106-1118 pubmed publisher
    ..Physiological evidence suggests that the small chloroplast heat-shock protein 21 (HSP21) is involved in plant thermotolerance, but the molecular mechanism of its action remains largely unknown...
  4. Jenkins M, Suzuki T, Mount D. Evidence that heat and ultraviolet radiation activate a common stress-response program in plants that is altered in the uvh6 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiol. 1997;115:1351-8 pubmed
    ..Mutant uvh6 plants induced heat-shock protein HSP21 at a lower threshold temperature than wild-type plants, indicating that the uvh6 mutant was exhibiting signs of ..
  5. Waters E, Nguyen S, Eskandar R, Behan J, Sanders Reed Z. The recent evolution of a pseudogene: diversity and divergence of a mitochondria-localized small heat shock protein in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genome. 2008;51:177-86 pubmed publisher
    ..organelle-localized small heat shock proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana: the chloroplast-localized (CP) protein HSP21 and two mitochondria-localized (MT) proteins, HSP23.5 and HSP23.6...
  6. Nishizawa A, Yabuta Y, Yoshida E, Maruta T, Yoshimura K, Shigeoka S. Arabidopsis heat shock transcription factor A2 as a key regulator in response to several types of environmental stress. Plant J. 2006;48:535-47 pubmed
    ..Our present results indicate that HsfA2 is a key regulator in the induction of the defence system under several types of environmental stress. ..
  7. Lambert W, Rutsdottir G, Hussein R, Bernfur K, Kjellström S, Emanuelsson C. Probing the transient interaction between the small heat-shock protein Hsp21 and a model substrate protein using crosslinking mass spectrometry. Cell Stress Chaperones. 2013;18:75-85 pubmed publisher
    ..tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry to explore the interaction between the plant small heat-shock protein Hsp21 and a thermosensitive model substrate protein, malate dehydrogenase...
  8. Xu X, Song H, Zhou Z, Shi N, Ying Q, Wang H. Functional characterization of AtHsp90.3 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana under heat stress. Biotechnol Lett. 2010;32:979-87 pubmed publisher
    ..3 under heat stress. These results indicate that overexpressing AtHsp90.3 impaired plant tolerance to heat stress and proper homeostasis of Hsp90 was critical for cellular stress response and/or tolerance in plants. ..
  9. Lambert W, Koeck P, Ahrman E, Purhonen P, Cheng K, Elmlund D, et al. Subunit arrangement in the dodecameric chloroplast small heat shock protein Hsp21. Protein Sci. 2011;20:291-301 pubmed publisher
    ..A chloroplast-localized sHsp, Hsp21, provides protection to client proteins to increase plant stress resistance...

More Information


  1. Bernfur K, Rutsdottir G, Emanuelsson C. The chloroplast-localized small heat shock protein Hsp21 associates with the thylakoid membranes in heat-stressed plants. Protein Sci. 2017;26:1773-1784 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we have investigated Hsp21, a non-metazoan sHsp expressed in the chloroplasts in green plants which experience huge environmental ..