Gene Symbol: HEMA1
Description: Glutamyl-tRNA reductase family protein
Alias: Arabidopsis thaliana hemA 1, AtHEMA1, F19C14.9, F19C14_9, Glutamyl-tRNA reductase family protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     HEMA1

Top Publications

  1. Goslings D, Meskauskiene R, Kim C, Lee K, Nater M, Apel K. Concurrent interactions of heme and FLU with Glu tRNA reductase (HEMA1), the target of metabolic feedback inhibition of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, in dark- and light-grown Arabidopsis plants. Plant J. 2004;40:957-67 pubmed
    ..The interaction with FLU is specific for the Glu tRNA reductase encoded by HEMA1 that is expressed in photosynthetically active tissues...
  2. Czarnecki O, Hedtke B, Melzer M, Rothbart M, Richter A, Schr ter Y, et al. An Arabidopsis GluTR binding protein mediates spatial separation of 5-aminolevulinic acid synthesis in chloroplasts. Plant Cell. 2011;23:4476-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results regarding GluTRBP support a model of plant ALA synthesis that is organized in two separate ALA pools in the chloroplast to provide appropriate substrate amounts for balanced synthesis of heme and chlorophyll...
  3. Apitz J, Nishimura K, Schmied J, Wolf A, Hedtke B, van Wijk K, et al. Posttranslational Control of ALA Synthesis Includes GluTR Degradation by Clp Protease and Stabilization by GluTR-Binding Protein. Plant Physiol. 2016;170:2040-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are supported with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hema1 mutants expressing a truncated GluTR lacking the 29 N-terminal amino acid residues of the mature protein...
  4. Kumar A, Soll D. Antisense HEMA1 RNA expression inhibits heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis in arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2000;122:49-56 pubmed
    ..of the HEMA gene for chlorophyll and heme synthesis, transgenic Arabidopsis plants that expressed antisense HEMA1 mRNA from the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated...
  5. McCormac A, Terry M. Light-signalling pathways leading to the co-ordinated expression of HEMA1 and Lhcb during chloroplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2002;32:549-59 pubmed
    ..achieved, we have made a detailed study of the light-regulated signalling pathways mediating the expression of the HEMA1 and Lhcb genes encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase, the first committed enzyme of 5-aminolaevulinic acid formation, ..
  6. Nishimura K, Apitz J, Friso G, Kim J, Ponnala L, Grimm B, et al. Discovery of a Unique Clp Component, ClpF, in Chloroplasts: A Proposed Binary ClpF-ClpS1 Adaptor Complex Functions in Substrate Recognition and Delivery. Plant Cell. 2015;27:2677-91 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a testable model in which ClpS1 and ClpF form a binary adaptor for selective substrate recognition and delivery to ClpC, reflecting an evolutionary adaptation of the Clp system to the plastid proteome. ..
  7. Zhang Z, Yao Q, Wang L. Expression of yeast Hem1 controlled by Arabidopsis HemA1 promoter enhances leaf photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:4369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..into the genome of tobacco (Nicoliana tabacum) under the control of Arabidopsis thaliana HemA1 gene promoter (AtHemA1 P). All transgenic lines transcribed the YHem1 gene, especially under light condition...
  8. Fang Y, Zhao S, Zhang F, Zhao A, Zhang W, Zhang M, et al. The Arabidopsis glutamyl-tRNA reductase (GluTR) forms a ternary complex with FLU and GluTR-binding protein. Sci Rep. 2016;6:19756 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrated that GluTR binds tightly with GBP but does not bind to GSAM under the same condition. These findings allow us to suggest a biological role of the ternary complex for the regulation of plant GluTR. ..
  9. Zhan G, Li R, Hu Z, Liu J, Deng L, Lu S, et al. Cosuppression of RBCS3B in Arabidopsis leads to severe photoinhibition caused by ROS accumulation. Plant Cell Rep. 2014;33:1091-108 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that photoinhibition was due to accumulation of ROS, which accelerated photodamage of PSII and inhibited the repair of PSII in RBCS3B-7. ..

More Information


  1. Kauss D, Bischof S, Steiner S, Apel K, Meskauskiene R. FLU, a negative feedback regulator of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis, is physically linked to the final steps of the Mg(++)-branch of this pathway. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:211-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the notion that FLU links chlorophyll synthesis and the target of feedback control, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, thereby allowing also the Mg-branch to control the initial step of tetrapyrrole synthesis. ..
  2. Zhang M, Zhang F, Fang Y, Chen X, Chen Y, Zhang W, et al. The Non-canonical Tetratricopeptide Repeat (TPR) Domain of Fluorescent (FLU) Mediates Complex Formation with Glutamyl-tRNA Reductase. J Biol Chem. 2015;290:17559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also provide insights into the spatial regulation of ALA synthesis by the membrane-located FLU protein. ..
  3. Ilag L, Kumar A, Soll D. Light regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis at the level of 5-aminolevulinate formation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1994;6:265-75 pubmed
    ..Thus, light may regulate ALA, and hence chlorophyll formation, by exerting coordinated transcriptional control over both enzymes of the C5 pathway. ..
  4. McCormac A, Terry M. The nuclear genes Lhcb and HEMA1 are differentially sensitive to plastid signals and suggest distinct roles for the GUN1 and GUN5 plastid-signalling pathways during de-etiolation. Plant J. 2004;40:672-85 pubmed
    ..seedlings, we followed the expression of three nuclear genes, Lhcb, HEMA1 and GSA, under a variety of treatments (Norflurazon, lincomycin and a far-red light pre-treatment) leading to ..
  5. Schmied J, Hedtke B, Grimm B. Overexpression of HEMA1 encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase. J Plant Physiol. 2011;168:1372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..2007). Here, the regulatory impact of GluTR was investigated by overexpression of AtHEMA1 in Arabidopsis and tobacco plants...
  6. Zhao A, Fang Y, Chen X, Zhao S, Dong W, Lin Y, et al. Crystal structure of Arabidopsis glutamyl-tRNA reductase in complex with its stimulator protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6630-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a catalytic mechanism model for GluTR, through which photosynthetic organisms can achieve precise regulation of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis. ..