Gene Symbol: GRF2
Description: general regulatory factor 2
Alias: 14-3-3 PROTEIN G-BOX FACTOR14 OMEGA, 14-3-3OMEGA, F3F9.16, F3F9_16, GF14 OMEGA, general regulatory factor 2, general regulatory factor 2
Species: thale cress
Products:     GRF2

Top Publications

  1. Yoon G, Kieber J. 14-3-3 regulates 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase protein turnover in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1016-28 pubmed publisher
  2. Ghorbel M, Cotelle V, Ebel C, Zaïdi I, Ormancey M, Galaud J, et al. Regulation of the wheat MAP kinase phosphatase 1 by 14-3-3 proteins. Plant Sci. 2017;257:37-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Such findings strongly suggest that 14-3-3 proteins, in conjunction with specific divalent cations, may stimulate TMKP1 activity and point-out that 14-3-3 proteins bind and regulate the activity of a MKP in eukaryotes. ..
  3. Huang S, Chang C, Wang P, Tsai M, Hsu P, Chang I. A type III ACC synthase, ACS7, is involved in root gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:4343-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results indicate that AtACS7 is involved in root gravitropism in a calcium-dependent manner in Arabidopsis...
  4. Lu G, Sehnke P, Ferl R. Phosphorylation and calcium binding properties of an Arabidopsis GF14 brain protein homolog. Plant Cell. 1994;6:501-10 pubmed
    Arabidopsis GF14 omega was originally described because of its apparent association with a DNA-protein complex; it is a member of the 14-3-3 kinase regulatory protein family that is conserved throughout eukaryotes...
  5. Gao J, van Kleeff P, Oecking C, Li K, Erban A, Kopka J, et al. Light modulated activity of root alkaline/neutral invertase involves the interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Plant J. 2014;80:785-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The nature of the light-induced signal that travels from the shoot to root and the question whether this signal is transmitted via cytosolic Ca(++) changes that activate calcium-dependent kinases, await further study. ..
  6. Sehnke P, Henry R, Cline K, Ferl R. Interaction of a plant 14-3-3 protein with the signal peptide of a thylakoid-targeted chloroplast precursor protein and the presence of 14-3-3 isoforms in the chloroplast stroma. Plant Physiol. 2000;122:235-42 pubmed
    ..These isoforms represent two distinct phylogenetic 14-3-3 groupings. These data suggest a novel interorganellar role for these phylogenetically distinct 14-3-3 proteins. ..
  7. Gampala S, Kim T, He J, Tang W, Deng Z, Bai M, et al. An essential role for 14-3-3 proteins in brassinosteroid signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Dev Cell. 2007;13:177-89 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates that multiple mechanisms are required for BR regulation of gene expression and plant growth. ..
  8. Gökirmak T, Denison F, Laughner B, Paul A, Ferl R. Phosphomimetic mutation of a conserved serine residue in Arabidopsis thaliana 14-3-3ω suggests a regulatory role of phosphorylation in dimerization and target interactions. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2015;97:296-303 pubmed publisher
  9. Gehl C, Kaufholdt D, Hamisch D, Bikker R, Kudla J, Mendel R, et al. Quantitative analysis of dynamic protein-protein interactions in planta by a floated-leaf luciferase complementation imaging (FLuCI) assay using binary Gateway vectors. Plant J. 2011;67:542-53 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Denison F, Gokirmak T, Ferl R. Phosphorylation-related modification at the dimer interface of 14-3-3? dramatically alters monomer interaction dynamics. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2014;541:1-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may have dramatic implications for 14-3-3 structure and function in vivo. ..
  2. Pan S, Sehnke P, Ferl R, Gurley W. Specific interactions with TBP and TFIIB in vitro suggest that 14-3-3 proteins may participate in the regulation of transcription when part of a DNA binding complex. Plant Cell. 1999;11:1591-602 pubmed
  3. Chi J, Roeper J, Schwarz G, Fischer Schrader K. Dual binding of 14-3-3 protein regulates Arabidopsis nitrate reductase activity. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2015;20:277-86 pubmed publisher
  4. Kanamaru K, Wang R, Su W, Crawford N. Ser-534 in the hinge 1 region of Arabidopsis nitrate reductase is conditionally required for binding of 14-3-3 proteins and in vitro inhibition. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:4160-5 pubmed
  5. Lee B, Jeon J, Lee M, Kim J. Genetic interaction between GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR and CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON in organ separation. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e988071 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that the signaling pathway of GRFs may be genetically associated with that of CUCs in the organ separation process. ..