Gene Symbol: GIGANTEA
Description: gigantea protein (GI)
Alias: GIGANTEA, T22J18.6, T22J18_6, gigantea protein (GI)
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Oliverio K, Crepy M, Martin Tryon E, Milich R, Harmer S, Putterill J, et al. GIGANTEA regulates phytochrome A-mediated photomorphogenesis independently of its role in the circadian clock. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:495-502 pubmed
    b>GIGANTEA (GI) is a nuclear protein involved in the promotion of flowering by long days, in light input to the circadian clock, and in seedling photomorphogenesis under continuous red light but not far-red light (FR)...
  2. Huq E, Tepperman J, Quail P. GIGANTEA is a nuclear protein involved in phytochrome signaling in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:9789-94 pubmed by using the T-DNA insertion and found that the disrupted gene is identical to the recently described GIGANTEA (GI) gene identified as being involved in control of flowering time...
  3. Gould P, Locke J, Larue C, Southern M, Davis S, Hanano S, et al. The molecular basis of temperature compensation in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1177-87 pubmed
    ..affects the rhythmic accumulation of transcripts encoding the clock components TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION1 (TOC1), GIGANTEA (GI), and the partially redundant genes CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) and LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY)...
  4. Kim W, Fujiwara S, Suh S, Kim J, Kim Y, Han L, et al. ZEITLUPE is a circadian photoreceptor stabilized by GIGANTEA in blue light. Nature. 2007;449:356-60 pubmed
    ..Here we show that GIGANTEA (GI) is essential to establish and sustain oscillations of ZTL by a direct protein-protein interaction...
  5. Edwards J, Martin A, Andriunas F, Offler C, Patrick J, McCurdy D. GIGANTEA is a component of a regulatory pathway determining wall ingrowth deposition in phloem parenchyma transfer cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2010;63:651-61 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis of public microarray datasets derived from the leaves of plants subjected to these treatments identified GIGANTEA (GI) as one of 46 genes that are commonly up-regulated twofold or more under both high-light and cold conditions...
  6. Kurepa J, Smalle J, Van Montagu M, Inze D. Oxidative stress tolerance and longevity in Arabidopsis: the late-flowering mutant gigantea is tolerant to paraquat. Plant J. 1998;14:759-64 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the mutant gigantea (gi-3) with the longest delay in flowering time had a high tolerance level to paraquat-induced oxidative stress...
  7. Martin Tryon E, Kreps J, Harmer S. GIGANTEA acts in blue light signaling and has biochemically separable roles in circadian clock and flowering time regulation. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:473-86 pubmed
    ..Using a clock-regulated luciferase reporter, we isolated new alleles of ZEITLUPE, LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL, and GIGANTEA (GI)...
  8. Dalchau N, Baek S, Briggs H, Robertson F, Dodd A, Gardner M, et al. The circadian oscillator gene GIGANTEA mediates a long-term response of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock to sucrose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:5104-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mathematical studies identified GIGANTEA (GI) as being associated with sucrose sensing...
  9. Tseng T, Salome P, McClung C, Olszewski N. SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movements. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1550-63 pubmed
    ..b>GIGANTEA (GI) was recovered from a yeast two-hybrid screen for proteins that interact with the TPR domain...

More Information


  1. Cao S, Ye M, Jiang S. Involvement of GIGANTEA gene in the regulation of the cold stress response in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Rep. 2005;24:683-90 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis GIGANTEA (GI) gene has been shown to regulate several developmental processes, including photoperiod-mediated flowering, phytochrome B signaling, circadian clock, and carbohydrate metabolism...
  2. Mizoguchi T, Wright L, Fujiwara S, Cremer F, Lee K, Onouchi H, et al. Distinct roles of GIGANTEA in promoting flowering and regulating circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2255-70 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, a circadian clock-controlled flowering pathway comprising the genes GIGANTEA (GI), CONSTANS (CO), and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) promotes flowering specifically under long days...
  3. Sawa M, Nusinow D, Kay S, Imaizumi T. FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in Arabidopsis. Science. 2007;318:261-5 pubmed
    ..The FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1), and GIGANTEA (GI) proteins regulate CO transcription in Arabidopsis...
  4. Jung J, Seo Y, Seo P, Reyes J, Yun J, Chua N, et al. The GIGANTEA-regulated microRNA172 mediates photoperiodic flowering independent of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2736-48 pubmed
    ..Here, we demonstrate that the GIGANTEA (GI)-regulated miR172 defines a unique genetic pathway that regulates photoperiodic flowering by inducing ..
  5. Wenkel S, Turck F, Singer K, Gissot L, Le Gourrierec J, Samach A, et al. CONSTANS and the CCAAT box binding complex share a functionally important domain and interact to regulate flowering of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2971-84 pubmed
    ..During plant evolution, the number of genes encoding HAP proteins was greatly amplified, and these proteins may have acquired novel functions, such as mediating the effect of CCT domain proteins on gene expression. ..
  6. Brock M, Tiffin P, Weinig C. Sequence diversity and haplotype associations with phenotypic responses to crowding: GIGANTEA affects fruit set in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:3050-62 pubmed
    ..For one gene, GIGANTEA (GI), we detected significant haplotype structure...
  7. Oka M, Miyamoto K, Okada K, Ueda J. Auxin polar transport and flower formation in Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with indoleacetamide hydrolase (iaaH) gene. Plant Cell Physiol. 1999;40:231-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the construction of the system of auxin polar transport and its normal activities are essential for the differentiation and the formation of floral meristem in the early growth stage of Arabidopsis thaliana. ..
  8. Fornara F, de Montaigu A, Sánchez Villarreal A, Takahashi Y, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Huettel B, et al. The GI-CDF module of Arabidopsis affects freezing tolerance and growth as well as flowering. Plant J. 2015;81:695-706 pubmed publisher
    ..The GIGANTEA (GI) protein is central in diverse signaling pathways, including photoperiodic, sugar and light signaling ..
  9. Kubota A, Ito S, Shim J, Johnson R, Song Y, Breton G, et al. TCP4-dependent induction of CONSTANS transcription requires GIGANTEA in photoperiodic flowering in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2017;13:e1006856 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, TCP4 binds to another flowering regulator, GIGANTEA (GI), in the nucleus, and induces CO expression in a GI-dependent manner...
  10. Park H, Kim W, Yun D. A role for GIGANTEA: keeping the balance between flowering and salinity stress tolerance. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:e24820 pubmed publisher
    ..The model shows GI as a transitory regulator of SOS pathway activity whose presence or amount connects flowering to environmental conditions. ..
  11. de Montaigu A, Coupland G. The timing of GIGANTEA expression during day/night cycles varies with the geographical origin of Arabidopsis accessions. Plant Signal Behav. 2017;12:e1342026 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that daily rhythms of GIGANTEA expression respond to day length in a way that depends on the latitude of origin of Arabidopsis accessions...
  12. Sawa M, Kay S. GIGANTEA directly activates Flowering Locus T in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11698-703 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that GIGANTEA (GI) regulates the timing of CO expression, together with FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX protein 1...
  13. Song Y, Estrada D, Johnson R, Kim S, Lee S, MacCoss M, et al. Distinct roles of FKF1, Gigantea, and Zeitlupe proteins in the regulation of Constans stability in Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17672-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we demonstrated that the FKF1-interacting proteins Gigantea (GI) and Zeitlupe (ZTL) are involved in CO stability regulation...
  14. Kim W, Ali Z, Park H, Park S, Cha J, Pérez Hormaeche J, et al. Release of SOS2 kinase from sequestration with GIGANTEA determines salt tolerance in Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2013;4:1352 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report a link between the flowering time regulator, GIGANTEA (GI), and adaptation to salt stress that is mechanistically based on GI degradation under saline conditions, thus ..
  15. Ando E, Ohnishi M, Wang Y, Matsushita T, Watanabe A, Hayashi Y, et al. TWIN SISTER OF FT, GIGANTEA, and CONSTANS have a positive but indirect effect on blue light-induced stomatal opening in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1529-38 pubmed
    ..We show in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) that TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF), CONSTANS (CO), and GIGANTEA (GI) provide a positive effect on stomatal opening...
  16. Galka M, Rajagopalan N, Buhrow L, Nelson K, Switala J, Cutler A, et al. Identification of Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0133033 pubmed publisher
    ..While the low occupancy (+)-ABA binding site and weak non-competitive inhibition of catalysis may not be relevant, the high affinity site may allow ABA to act as a negative effector of Rubisco activation. ..
  17. Wollenberg A, Strasser B, Cerdán P, Amasino R. Acceleration of flowering during shade avoidance in Arabidopsis alters the balance between FLOWERING LOCUS C-mediated repression and photoperiodic induction of flowering. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1681-94 pubmed publisher
    ..A low red to far-red ratio required the photoperiod-pathway genes GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) to fully accelerate flowering in long days and did not promote flowering in short days...
  18. Kawamura H, Ito S, Yamashino T, Niwa Y, Nakamichi N, Mizuno T. Characterization of genetic links between two clock-associated genes, GI and PRR5 in the current clock model of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008;72:2770-4 pubmed
    The GI (GIGANTEA) and PRR5 (PSEUDO-RESPONSE REGULATOR 5) genes are crucially implicated in the Arabidopsis circadian clock...
  19. Berns M, Nordström K, Cremer F, Tóth R, Hartke M, Simon S, et al. Evening expression of arabidopsis GIGANTEA is controlled by combinatorial interactions among evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3999-4018 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis thaliana GIGANTEA (GI) contributes to photoperiodic flowering, circadian clock control, and photoreceptor signaling, and its ..
  20. Black M, Stockum C, Dickson J, Putterill J, Arcus V. Expression, purification and characterisation of GIGANTEA: a circadian clock-controlled regulator of photoperiodic flowering in plants. Protein Expr Purif. 2011;76:197-204 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) GIGANTEA (GI) gene is a central component of the photoperiodic flowering pathway...
  21. Han Y, Zhang X, Wang W, Wang Y, Ming F. The suppression of WRKY44 by GIGANTEA-miR172 pathway is involved in drought response of Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e73541 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, plants with loss-of-function mutations of GIGANTEA (GI) and CONSTANS (CO) exhibited abnormal drought-escape phenotypes...
  22. Kim J, Geng R, Gallenstein R, Somers D. The F-box protein ZEITLUPE controls stability and nucleocytoplasmic partitioning of GIGANTEA. Development. 2013;140:4060-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has shown that the F-box protein ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and clock element GIGANTEA (GI) heterodimerize in the cytosol, thereby stabilizing ZTL...
  23. Cha J, Kim J, Kim T, Zeng Q, Wang L, Lee S, et al. GIGANTEA is a co-chaperone which facilitates maturation of ZEITLUPE in the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Nat Commun. 2017;8:3 pubmed publisher
    ..b>GIGANTEA is a unique plant protein involved in the maintenance and control of numerous facets of plant physiology and ..
  24. Günl M, Liew E, David K, Putterill J. Analysis of a post-translational steroid induction system for GIGANTEA in Arabidopsis. BMC Plant Biol. 2009;9:141 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the link between the flowering time gene GIGANTEA (GI) and downstream genes, an inducible GI system was developed in Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh...
  25. Riboni M, Robustelli Test A, Galbiati M, Tonelli C, Conti L. ABA-dependent control of GIGANTEA signalling enables drought escape via up-regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis thaliana. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:6309-6322 pubmed
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, activation of the DE response requires the photoperiodic response gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF)...
  26. Riboni M, Galbiati M, Tonelli C, Conti L. GIGANTEA enables drought escape response via abscisic acid-dependent activation of the florigens and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1706-19 pubmed publisher
    ..flowering time mutants under DE-triggering conditions revealed the central role of the flower-promoting gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in the DE response...
  27. Kim Y, Han S, Yeom M, Kim H, Lim J, Cha J, et al. Balanced nucleocytosolic partitioning defines a spatial network to coordinate circadian physiology in plants. Dev Cell. 2013;26:73-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show, using experimentation and mathematical modeling, that spatial segregation of GIGANTEA (GI), a critical component of plant circadian systems, into nuclear and cytosolic compartments leads to ..
  28. Kim Y, Yeom M, Kim H, Lim J, Koo H, Hwang D, et al. GIGANTEA and EARLY FLOWERING 4 in Arabidopsis exhibit differential phase-specific genetic influences over a diurnal cycle. Mol Plant. 2012;5:678-87 pubmed publisher
    The endogenous circadian clock regulates many physiological processes related to plant survival and adaptability. GIGANTEA (GI), a clock-associated protein, contributes to the maintenance of circadian period length and amplitude, and also ..
  29. Soppe W, Bentsink L, Koornneef M. The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 1999;126:4763-70 pubmed
    ..By comparing the length of the juvenile and adult phases of vegetative growth for wild-type, efs and the double mutant plants, it is apparent that efs mainly reduces the length of the adult phase. ..
  30. Paltiel J, Amin R, Gover A, Ori N, Samach A. Novel roles for GIGANTEA revealed under environmental conditions that modify its expression in Arabidopsis and Medicago truncatula. Planta. 2006;224:1255-68 pubmed
    b>GIGANTEA (GI) is a large nuclear protein which is involved in circadian-clock function, red-light signaling and photoperiodic flowering...
  31. Sawa M, Kay S. [Molecular mechanism by which plant determines flowering timing with circadian clock]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2008;53:739-46 pubmed
  32. Yu J, Rubio V, Lee N, Bai S, Lee S, Kim S, et al. COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stability. Mol Cell. 2008;32:617-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a model in which ELF3 acts as a substrate adaptor, enabling COP1 to modulate light input signal to the circadian clock through targeted destabilization of GI. ..
  33. Chen M, Ni M. RFI2, a RING-domain zinc finger protein, negatively regulates CONSTANS expression and photoperiodic flowering. Plant J. 2006;46:823-33 pubmed
    ..Both co-2 and gigantea-2 (gi-2) were epistatic to rfi2-1 in their flowering responses...
  34. Ding Z, Millar A, Davis A, Davis S. TIME FOR COFFEE encodes a nuclear regulator in the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1522-36 pubmed
    ..Neither its abundance nor its cellular distribution was found to be clock regulated. We suggest that TIC encodes a nucleus-acting clock regulator working close to the central oscillator. ..
  35. Nakagawa M, Komeda Y. Flowering of Arabidopsis cop1 mutants in darkness. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:398-406 pubmed
    ..The delay in flowering in the double mutants was not strongly influenced by the light conditions, whereas that of the gi-2 cop1-6 double mutant was reduced in darkness. ..