Gene Symbol: GAI
Description: GRAS family transcription factor family protein
Alias: F10B6.34, F10B6_34, GAI PROTEIN, GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, RESTORATION ON GROWTH ON AMMONIA 2, RGA2, GRAS family transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     GAI

Top Publications

  1. Bai M, Shang J, Oh E, Fan M, Bai Y, Zentella R, et al. Brassinosteroid, gibberellin and phytochrome impinge on a common transcription module in Arabidopsis. Nat Cell Biol. 2012;14:810-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that GA releases DELLA-mediated inhibition of BZR1, and that the DELLA-BZR1-PIF4 interaction defines a core transcription module that mediates coordinated growth regulation by GA, BR and light signals. ..
  2. Sun X, Xue B, Jones W, Rikkerink E, Dunker A, Uversky V. A functionally required unfoldome from the plant kingdom: intrinsically disordered N-terminal domains of GRAS proteins are involved in molecular recognition during plant development. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;77:205-23 pubmed publisher
    ..This study enables us to propose a conceptual framework that guides future experimental approaches to understand structure-function relationships of the entire GRAS family. ..
  3. Josse E, Gan Y, Bou Torrent J, Stewart K, Gilday A, Jeffree C, et al. A DELLA in disguise: SPATULA restrains the growth of the developing Arabidopsis seedling. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1337-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, SPT acts in an analogous manner to the gibberellin-dependent DELLAs, REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 and GIBBERELLIC ACID INSENSITIVE, which restrain cotyledon expansion alongside SPT...
  4. Arnaud N, Girin T, Sorefan K, Fuentes S, Wood T, Lawrenson T, et al. Gibberellins control fruit patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2127-32 pubmed publisher
  5. Wang F, Zhu D, Huang X, Li S, Gong Y, Yao Q, et al. Biochemical insights on degradation of Arabidopsis DELLA proteins gained from a cell-free assay system. Plant Cell. 2009;21:2378-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This in vitro assay system could be widely adapted for dissecting cellular signaling pathways in which regulated proteolysis is a key recurrent theme. ..
  6. Achard P, Renou J, Berthomé R, Harberd N, Genschik P. Plant DELLAs restrain growth and promote survival of adversity by reducing the levels of reactive oxygen species. Curr Biol. 2008;18:656-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We therefore propose that environmental variability regulates DELLA activity [8] and that DELLAs in turn couple the downstream regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance through modulation of ROS levels. ..
  7. Fu X, Sudhakar D, Peng J, Richards D, Christou P, Harberd N. Expression of Arabidopsis GAI in transgenic rice represses multiple gibberellin responses. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1791-802 pubmed
    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are essential endogenous regulators of plant growth. GA signaling is mediated via GAI, a nuclear member of the GRAS family of plant transcription factors...
  8. Dill A, Thomas S, Hu J, Steber C, Sun T. The Arabidopsis F-box protein SLEEPY1 targets gibberellin signaling repressors for gibberellin-induced degradation. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1392-405 pubmed
    ..two-hybrid and in vitro pull-down assays, we demonstrated that SLY1 interacts directly with RGA and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a closely related DELLA protein) via their C-terminal GRAS domain...
  9. Oh E, Yamaguchi S, Hu J, Yusuke J, Jung B, Paik I, et al. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH protein, regulates gibberellin responsiveness by binding directly to the GAI and RGA promoters in Arabidopsis seeds. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1192-208 pubmed
    ..PIL5 increases the expression of two GA repressor (DELLA) genes, GA-INSENSITIVE (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA/RGA1), in darkness...

More Information


  1. Zhu L, Li X, Welander M. Overexpression of the Arabidopsis gai gene in apple significantly reduces plant size. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:289-96 pubmed
    ..In this study, we evaluated the potential of using the Arabidopsis gai (gibberellic acid insensitive) gene to dwarf apple trees...
  2. Hong G, Xue X, Mao Y, Wang L, Chen X. Arabidopsis MYC2 interacts with DELLA proteins in regulating sesquiterpene synthase gene expression. Plant Cell. 2012;24:2635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis inflorescences, it integrates both GA and JA signals into transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes and promotes sesquiterpene production. ..
  3. Locascio A, Blázquez M, Alabadi D. Dynamic regulation of cortical microtubule organization through prefoldin-DELLA interaction. Curr Biol. 2013;23:804-9 pubmed publisher
  4. Park J, Nguyen K, Park E, Jeon J, Choi G. DELLA proteins and their interacting RING Finger proteins repress gibberellin responses by binding to the promoters of a subset of gibberellin-responsive genes in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:927-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of a gai-1 boiQ pentuple mutant further indicated that the GAI protein requires BOIs to inhibit a subset of GA responses...
  5. Huang N, Yu T. The sequences of Arabidopsis GA-INSENSITIVE RNA constitute the motifs that are necessary and sufficient for RNA long-distance trafficking. Plant J. 2009;59:921-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, we examined the long-distance movement of GA-insensitive (GAI) RNA by Arabidopsis inflorescence grafting and RT-PCR analysis...
  6. Peng J, Richards D, Hartley N, Murphy G, Devos K, Flintham J, et al. 'Green revolution' genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature. 1999;400:256-61 pubmed
    ..Here we show that Rht-B1/Rht-D1 and maize dwarf-8 (d8) are orthologues of the Arabidopsis Gibberellin Insensitive (GAI) gene...
  7. Ariizumi T, Murase K, Sun T, Steber C. Proteolysis-independent downregulation of DELLA repression in Arabidopsis by the gibberellin receptor GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a SLY1-independent mechanism for GA signaling may function without DELLA degradation. ..
  8. Willige B, Ghosh S, Nill C, Zourelidou M, Dohmann E, Maier A, et al. The DELLA domain of GA INSENSITIVE mediates the interaction with the GA INSENSITIVE DWARF1A gibberellin receptor of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1209-20 pubmed
    ..and we show that these mutations confer GA insensitivity when introduced into the Arabidopsis GA INSENSITIVE (GAI) DELLA repressor...
  9. Fu X, Richards D, Fleck B, Xie D, Burton N, Harberd N. The Arabidopsis mutant sleepy1gar2-1 protein promotes plant growth by increasing the affinity of the SCFSLY1 E3 ubiquitin ligase for DELLA protein substrates. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1406-18 pubmed
    ..Growth-promoting DELLA destruction is dependent on SLY1 availability, on the strength of the interaction between SLY1 and the DELLA target, and on promotion of the SCFSLY1-DELLA interaction by DELLA phosphorylation. ..
  10. Griffiths J, Murase K, Rieu I, Zentella R, Zhang Z, Powers S, et al. Genetic characterization and functional analysis of the GID1 gibberellin receptors in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:3399-414 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, yeast three-hybrid assays showed that the GA-GID1 complex promotes the interaction between RGA and the F-box protein SLY1, a component of the SCF(SLY1) E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets the DELLA protein for degradation. ..
  11. Haywood V, Yu T, Huang N, Lucas W. Phloem long-distance trafficking of GIBBERELLIC ACID-INSENSITIVE RNA regulates leaf development. Plant J. 2005;42:49-68 pubmed
    ..of long-distance trafficking in the delivery of transcripts from two members of the GRAS family, namely CmGAIP and GAI. These two homologs were chosen because of their involvement as transcriptional regulators in GA signaling...
  12. Hou X, Lee L, Xia K, Yan Y, Yu H. DELLAs modulate jasmonate signaling via competitive binding to JAZs. Dev Cell. 2010;19:884-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Because DELLAs serve as central regulators that mediate the crosstalk of various phytohormones, our model also suggests a candidate mechanism by which JA signaling may be fine-tuned by other signaling pathways through DELLAs. ..
  13. Li Q, Wang C, Jiang L, Li S, Sun S, He J. An interaction between BZR1 and DELLAs mediates direct signaling crosstalk between brassinosteroids and gibberellins in Arabidopsis. Sci Signal. 2012;5:ra72 pubmed publisher
  14. Feng S, Martinez C, Gusmaroli G, Wang Y, Zhou J, Wang F, et al. Coordinated regulation of Arabidopsis thaliana development by light and gibberellins. Nature. 2008;451:475-9 pubmed publisher
  15. Nakajima M, Shimada A, Takashi Y, Kim Y, Park S, Ueguchi Tanaka M, et al. Identification and characterization of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors. Plant J. 2006;46:880-9 pubmed
    ..The expression of each AtGID1 clone in the rice gid1-1 mutant rescued the GA-insensitive dwarf phenotype. These results demonstrate that all three AtGID1s functioned as GA receptors in Arabidopsis. ..
  16. Gallego Bartolome J, Minguet E, Grau Enguix F, Abbas M, Locascio A, Thomas S, et al. Molecular mechanism for the interaction between gibberellin and brassinosteroid signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13446-51 pubmed publisher
    ..the integration of these two signaling pathways occurs through the physical interaction between the DELLA protein GAI, which is a major negative regulator of the GA pathway, and BRASSINAZOLE RESISTANT1 (BZR1), a transcription factor ..
  17. Achard P, Cheng H, De Grauwe L, Decat J, Schoutteten H, Moritz T, et al. Integration of plant responses to environmentally activated phytohormonal signals. Science. 2006;311:91-4 pubmed
    ..The growth restraint conferred by DELLA proteins is beneficial and promotes survival. We propose that DELLAs permit flexible and appropriate modulation of plant growth in response to changes in natural environments. ..
  18. Murase K, Hirano Y, Sun T, Hakoshima T. Gibberellin-induced DELLA recognition by the gibberellin receptor GID1. Nature. 2008;456:459-63 pubmed publisher promoting degradation of the transcriptional regulator DELLA proteins, including GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE (GAI)...
  19. Wang H, Pan J, Li Y, Lou D, Hu Y, Yu D. The DELLA-CONSTANS Transcription Factor Cascade Integrates Gibberellic Acid and Photoperiod Signaling to Regulate Flowering. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Disruption of CO rescued the earlier flowering phenotype of the gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1 mutant (dellap), while a gain-of-function mutation in GA INSENSITIVE (GAI, a member of the ..
  20. Navarro L, Bari R, Achard P, Lisón P, Nemri A, Harberd N, et al. DELLAs control plant immune responses by modulating the balance of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling. Curr Biol. 2008;18:650-5 pubmed publisher
    ..insensitive to gene induction by Methyl-Jasmonate (MeJA), whereas the constitutively active dominant DELLA mutant gai[6] was sensitized for JA-responsive gene induction, implicating DELLAs in JA-signaling and/or perception...
  21. Plackett A, Ferguson A, Powers S, Wanchoo Kohli A, Phillips A, Wilson Z, et al. DELLA activity is required for successful pollen development in the Columbia ecotype of Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2014;201:825-36 pubmed publisher
    ..including mutants in both ecotypes lacking the DELLA paralogues REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA) and GA INSENSITIVE (GAI). Ler displays a less severe fertility phenotype than Col-0 under GA treatment...
  22. Ma Z, Hu X, Cai W, Huang W, Zhou X, Luo Q, et al. Arabidopsis miR171-targeted scarecrow-like proteins bind to GT cis-elements and mediate gibberellin-regulated chlorophyll biosynthesis under light conditions. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004519 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that the miR171-SCL module is critical for mediating GA-DELLA signaling in the coordinate regulation of chlorophyll biosynthesis and leaf growth in light. ..
  23. Fleck B, Harberd N. Evidence that the Arabidopsis nuclear gibberellin signalling protein GAI is not destabilised by gibberellin. Plant J. 2002;32:935-47 pubmed
    ..The Arabidopsis genome contains genes encoding five different DELLA proteins, the best known of which are GAI and RGA...
  24. Davière J, Wild M, Regnault T, Baumberger N, Eisler H, Genschik P, et al. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height. Curr Biol. 2014;24:1923-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height. ..
  25. Shahnejat Bushehri S, Nobmann B, Devi Allu A, Balazadeh S. JUB1 suppresses Pseudomonas syringae-induced defense responses through accumulation of DELLA proteins. Plant Signal Behav. 2016;11:e1181245 pubmed publisher
    ..tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) and mediates the crosstalk between growth and immunity. ..
  26. Achard P, Liao L, Jiang C, Desnos T, Bartlett J, Fu X, et al. DELLAs contribute to plant photomorphogenesis. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:1163-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude that DELLAs are a major component of the adaptively significant mechanism via which light regulates plant growth during photomorphogenesis. ..
  27. Conti L, Nelis S, Zhang C, Woodcock A, Swarup R, Galbiati M, et al. Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier protein SUMO enables plants to control growth independently of the phytohormone gibberellin. Dev Cell. 2014;28:102-10 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that plants have developed a GA-independent mechanism to control growth. ..
  28. Suzuki H, Park S, Okubo K, Kitamura J, Ueguchi Tanaka M, Iuchi S, et al. Differential expression and affinities of Arabidopsis gibberellin receptors can explain variation in phenotypes of multiple knock-out mutants. Plant J. 2009;60:48-55 pubmed publisher
  29. Rombolá Caldentey B, Rueda Romero P, Iglesias Fernández R, Carbonero P, Oñate Sánchez L. Arabidopsis DELLA and two HD-ZIP transcription factors regulate GA signaling in the epidermis through the L1 box cis-element. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2905-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that, upon seed imbibition, increased GA levels reduce DELLA protein abundance and release ATML1/PDF2 to activate L1 box gene expression, thus enhancing germination potential. ..
  30. Luo J, Ma N, Pei H, Chen J, Li J, Gao J. A DELLA gene, RhGAI1, is a direct target of EIN3 and mediates ethylene-regulated rose petal cell expansion via repressing the expression of RhCesA2. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:5075-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, RhCesA2 was a direct target of RhGAI1. This work uncovers the transcriptional regulation of RhGAI1 by ethylene and provides a better understanding of how ethylene regulates petal expansion in roses. ..
  31. Shi H, Wei Y, Wang Q, Reiter R, He C. Melatonin mediates the stabilization of DELLA proteins to repress the floral transition in Arabidopsis. J Pineal Res. 2016;60:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study provides direct link between melatonin and floral transition, and indicates the novel involvement of DELLAs-activated FLC in melatonin-mediated flowering in Arabidopsis. ..
  32. Cao D, Hussain A, Cheng H, Peng J. Loss of function of four DELLA genes leads to light- and gibberellin-independent seed germination in Arabidopsis. Planta. 2005;223:105-13 pubmed, encodes the predominant repressor of seed germination in Arabidopsis and show that the other DELLA genes GAI,RGA and RGL1 enhance the function of RGL2...
  33. Boccaccini A, Santopolo S, Capauto D, Lorrai R, Minutello E, Belcram K, et al. Independent and interactive effects of DOF affecting germination 1 (DAG1) and the Della proteins GA insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of ga1-3 (RGA) in embryo development and seed germination. BMC Plant Biol. 2014;14:200 pubmed publisher
    ..Among others, PIL5 induces the expression of the genes encoding the two DELLA proteins GA INSENSITIVE 1 (GAI) and REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA)...
  34. Ogawa M, Kusano T, Katsumi M, Sano H. Rice gibberellin-insensitive gene homolog, OsGAI, encodes a nuclear-localized protein capable of gene activation at transcriptional level. Gene. 2000;245:21-9 pubmed
    This paper reports isolation and properties of a rice gene, OsGAI, a putative homolog of the GAI of Arabidopsis thaliana. OsGAI encodes a polypeptide of 625 amino acids, which shows 53-55% identity to GAI and RGA from A...
  35. Piskurewicz U, Turecková V, Lacombe E, Lopez Molina L. Far-red light inhibits germination through DELLA-dependent stimulation of ABA synthesis and ABI3 activity. EMBO J. 2009;28:2259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that repression of germination by FR light involves stabilized DELLA factors GAI, RGA and RGL2 that stimulate endogenous ABA synthesis...
  36. Truong H, Caboche M, Daniel Vedele F. Sequence and characterization of two Arabidopsis thaliana cDNAs isolated by functional complementation of a yeast gln3 gdh1 mutant. FEBS Lett. 1997;410:213-8 pubmed
    ..The two clones (RGA1 and RGA2) are homologous to each other and to the SCARECROW (SCR) gene that is involved in regulating an asymmetric cell ..
  37. Leone M, Keller M, Cerrudo I, Ballaré C. To grow or defend? Low red : far-red ratios reduce jasmonate sensitivity in Arabidopsis seedlings by promoting DELLA degradation and increasing JAZ10 stability. New Phytol. 2014;204:355-67 pubmed publisher
    ..rapidly reduced DELLA protein abundance, and the inhibitory effect of FR on jasmonate signaling was missing in the gai-1 mutant, which encodes a stable version of the GAI DELLA protein...
  38. Qi T, Huang H, Wu D, Yan J, Qi Y, Song S, et al. Arabidopsis DELLA and JAZ proteins bind the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex to modulate gibberellin and jasmonate signaling synergy. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1118-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides deep insights into the molecular mechanisms for integration of different hormonal signals to synergistically regulate plant development...
  39. Xu F, Li T, Xu P, Li L, DU S, Lian H, et al. DELLA proteins physically interact with CONSTANS to regulate flowering under long days in Arabidopsis. FEBS Lett. 2016;590:541-9 pubmed publisher
  40. Crocco C, Locascio A, Escudero C, Alabadí D, Blázquez M, Botto J. The transcriptional regulator BBX24 impairs DELLA activity to promote shade avoidance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Commun. 2015;6:6202 pubmed publisher
    ..The proposed molecular mechanism provides reversible regulation of the activity of a key transcription factor that may prove especially relevant under fluctuating light conditions. ..
  41. Ariizumi T, Hauvermale A, Nelson S, Hanada A, Yamaguchi S, Steber C. Lifting della repression of Arabidopsis seed germination by nonproteolytic gibberellin signaling. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:2125-39 pubmed publisher
  42. Chen M, Maodzeka A, Zhou L, Ali E, Wang Z, Jiang L. Removal of DELLA repression promotes leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Plant Sci. 2014;219-220:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the wild type (WT), leaf senescence occurred earlier in the mutant ga1-3 gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1 (abbreviated as Q-DELLA/ga1-3) whose DELLA repression was removed, whereas leaf senescence ..
  43. Liu B, De Storme N, Geelen D. Gibberellin Induces Diploid Pollen Formation by Interfering with Meiotic Cytokinesis. Plant Physiol. 2017;173:338-353 pubmed publisher
    ..defects in meiotic cell division and reproductive ploidy stability occur in Arabidopsis plants depleted of RGA and GAI, two members of the DELLA family that function as suppressor of GA signaling...
  44. Lim S, Park J, Lee N, Jeong J, Toh S, Watanabe A, et al. ABA-insensitive3, ABA-insensitive5, and DELLAs Interact to activate the expression of SOMNUS and other high-temperature-inducible genes in imbibed seeds in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:4863-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that ABI3, ABI5, and DELLAs mediate high-temperature signaling to activate the expression of SOM and other high-temperature-inducible genes, thereby inhibiting seed germination. ..
  45. De Grauwe L, Chaerle L, Dugardeyn J, Decat J, Rieu I, Vriezen W, et al. Reduced gibberellin response affects ethylene biosynthesis and responsiveness in the Arabidopsis gai eto2-1 double mutant. New Phytol. 2008;177:128-41 pubmed
    ..reveal how the modulation of the ethylene and GA pathways affects global plant growth, the gibberellin-insensitive (gai), ethylene-overproducing 2-1 (eto2-1) double mutant, which has decreased GA signalling (resulting from gai) and ..
  46. Guo W, Cong Y, Hussain N, Wang Y, Liu Z, Jiang L, et al. The remodeling of seedling development in response to long-term magnesium toxicity and regulation by ABA-DELLA signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2014;55:1713-26 pubmed publisher
    ..mutants, ABA-insensitive mutant abi1-1 and constitutive elevated GA response mutant quadruple-DELLA (DELLA-Q: gai-t6 rga-t2 rgl1-1 rgl2-1) were monitored under MgT and normal magnesium conditions...
  47. Hussain A, Cao D, Peng J. Identification of conserved tyrosine residues important for gibberellin sensitivity of Arabidopsis RGL2 protein. Planta. 2007;226:475-83 pubmed
    ..Plant J 44:88-99, 2005). Here we report that four DELLA proteins of Arabidopsis, namely GAI, RGL1, RGL2 and RGL3, expressed in tobacco BY2 cells, are degradable by GA...
  48. Feurtado J, Huang D, Wicki Stordeur L, Hemstock L, Potentier M, Tsang E, et al. The Arabidopsis C2H2 zinc finger INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1/ENHYDROUS promotes the transition to germination by regulating light and hormonal signaling during seed maturation. Plant Cell. 2011;23:1772-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The physical interaction of ENY with DELLAs and an ENY-triggered accumulation of DELLA transcripts during maturation support the conclusion that ENY mediates GA effects to balance ABA-promoted maturation during late seed development. ..
  49. Boccaccini A, Santopolo S, Capauto D, Lorrai R, Minutello E, Serino G, et al. The DOF protein DAG1 and the DELLA protein GAI cooperate in negatively regulating the AtGA3ox1 gene. Mol Plant. 2014;7:1486-1489 pubmed publisher
  50. Busov V, Meilan R, Pearce D, Rood S, Ma C, Tschaplinski T, et al. Transgenic modification of gai or rgl1 causes dwarfing and alters gibberellins, root growth, and metabolite profiles in Populus. Planta. 2006;224:288-99 pubmed
    In Arabidopsis and other plants, gibberellin (GA)-regulated responses are mediated by proteins including GAI, RGA and RGL1-3 that contain a functional DELLA domain...
  51. Yoshida H, Hirano K, Sato T, Mitsuda N, Nomoto M, Maeo K, et al. DELLA protein functions as a transcriptional activator through the DNA binding of the indeterminate domain family proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:7861-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the coregulators DELLA and SCL3, using IDDs as transcriptional scaffolds for DNA binding, antagonistically regulate the expression of their downstream targets to control the GA signaling pathway. ..
  52. Hou X, Zhou J, Liu C, Liu L, Shen L, Yu H. Nuclear factor Y-mediated H3K27me3 demethylation of the SOC1 locus orchestrates flowering responses of Arabidopsis. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4601 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish NF-Y complexes as critical mediators of epigenetic marks that regulate the response to environmental or intrinsic signals in plants. ..
  53. Xu H, Iwashiro R, Li T, Harada T. Long-distance transport of Gibberellic Acid Insensitive mRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana. BMC Plant Biol. 2013;13:165 pubmed publisher
    The Gibberellic Acid (GA) signal is governed by the GAI (Gibberellic Acid Insensitive) repressor, which is characterized by a highly conserved N-terminal DELLA domain...
  54. Fukazawa J, Teramura H, Murakoshi S, Nasuno K, Nishida N, Ito T, et al. DELLAs function as coactivators of GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 in regulation of gibberellin homeostasis and signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:2920-38 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we identified an Arabidopsis thaliana DELLA binding transcription factor, GAI-ASSOCIATED FACTOR1 (GAF1). GAF1 shows high homology to INDETERMINATE DOMAIN1 (IDD1)/ENHYDROUS...
  55. Peng J, Richards D, Moritz T, Ezura H, Carol P, Harberd N. Molecular and physiological characterization of arabidopsis GAI alleles obtained in targeted Ds-tagging experiments. Planta. 2002;214:591-6 pubmed
    Bioactive gibberellin (GA) is an essential regulator of vascular plant development. The GAI gene of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. encodes a product (GAI) that is involved in GA signalling...
  56. Zentella R, Sui N, Barnhill B, Hsieh W, Hu J, Shabanowitz J, et al. The Arabidopsis O-fucosyltransferase SPINDLY activates nuclear growth repressor DELLA. Nat Chem Biol. 2017;13:479-485 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding may have broader importance because SPY orthologs are conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, thus suggesting that intracellular O-fucosylation may regulate a wide range of biological processes in diverse organisms. ..
  57. Zentella R, Hu J, Hsieh W, Matsumoto P, Dawdy A, Barnhill B, et al. O-GlcNAcylation of master growth repressor DELLA by SECRET AGENT modulates multiple signaling pathways in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2016;30:164-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal a direct role of OGT in repressing DELLA activity and indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of DELLAs provides a fine-tuning mechanism in coordinating multiple signaling activities during plant development. ..
  58. Middleton A, Ubeda Tomas S, Griffiths J, Holman T, Hedden P, Thomas S, et al. Mathematical modeling elucidates the role of transcriptional feedback in gibberellin signaling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:7571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, although the contribution of other individual feedback loops seems relatively small, GID1 and DELLA transcriptional regulation acts synergistically with GA20ox feedback. ..
  59. Penfield S, Gilday A, Halliday K, Graham I. DELLA-mediated cotyledon expansion breaks coat-imposed seed dormancy. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2366-70 pubmed
    ..We propose that DELLA-mediated, light-, temperature-, and hormone-responsive cotyledon expansion prior to radicle emergence overcomes dormancy imposed by the seed coat and underlies seed-dormancy control in Arabidopsis. ..
  60. Qin Q, Wang W, Guo X, Yue J, Huang Y, Xu X, et al. Arabidopsis DELLA protein degradation is controlled by a type-one protein phosphatase, TOPP4. PLoS Genet. 2014;10:e1004464 pubmed publisher
    ..The severely dwarfed topp4-1 phenotypes were partially rescued by the DELLA deficient mutants rga-t2 and gai-t6, suggesting that the DELLA proteins RGA and GAI are required for the biological function of TOPP4...
  61. Gallego Bartolome J, Alabadi D, Blázquez M. DELLA-induced early transcriptional changes during etiolated development in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23918 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we have investigated the global, early transcriptional response triggered by the Arabidopsis DELLA protein GAI during skotomorphogenesis, a developmental program tightly regulated by GAs...