FT

Summary

Gene Symbol: FT
Description: PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein
Alias: F5I14.3, F5I14_3, FLOWERING LOCUS T, REDUCED STEM BRANCHING 8, RSB8, PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein) family protein
Species: thale cress
Products:     FT

Top Publications

  1. Abe M, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto S, Daimon Y, Yamaguchi A, Ikeda Y, et al. FD, a bZIP protein mediating signals from the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex. Science. 2005;309:1052-6 pubmed
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is expressed in the vasculature of cotyledons ..
  2. Jaeger K, Wigge P. FT protein acts as a long-range signal in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1050-4 pubmed
    ..This mobile signal was later termed "florigen," but its nature has been unclear. The gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a major output of both the photoperiod and the vernalization pathways controlling the floral ..
  3. Smith H, Ung N, Lal S, Courtier J. Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..meristems are specified on the periphery of the inflorescence meristem by the combined activities of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-FD complex and the flower meristem identity gene LEAFY...
  4. Yamagishi N, Sasaki S, Yamagata K, Komori S, Nagase M, Wada M, et al. Promotion of flowering and reduction of a generation time in apple seedlings by ectopical expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene using the Apple latent spherical virus vector. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;75:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..of rapid flowering in apple seedlings using the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector expressing a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Apple seedlings could be flowered at 1...
  5. Hiraoka K, Yamaguchi A, Abe M, Araki T. The florigen genes FT and TSF modulate lateral shoot outgrowth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:352-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth analysis of lateral shoots in mutants of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) revealed a delay in the onset of outgrowth and a reduction of the growth ..
  6. Michaels S, Himelblau E, Kim S, Schomburg F, Amasino R. Integration of flowering signals in winter-annual Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;137:149-56 pubmed
    ..integrate signals from the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, we have examined activation-tagged alleles of FT and the FT homolog, TSF (TWIN SISTER OF FT), in a winter-annual background...
  7. Cao S, Kumimoto R, Gnesutta N, Calogero A, Mantovani R, Holt B. A distal CCAAT/NUCLEAR FACTOR Y complex promotes chromatin looping at the FLOWERING LOCUS T promoter and regulates the timing of flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Photoperiod-dependent flowering depends on timely expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT); however, the coordination of various cis-regulatory elements in the FT promoter is not well understood...
  8. Kobayashi Y, Kaya H, Goto K, Iwabuchi M, Araki T. A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals. Science. 1999;286:1960-2 pubmed
    ..b>FT, together with LFY, promotes flowering and is positively regulated by CO...
  9. Kardailsky I, Shukla V, Ahn J, Dagenais N, Christensen S, Nguyen J, et al. Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT. Science. 1999;286:1962-5 pubmed
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which acts in parallel with the meristem-identity gene LEAFY (LFY) to induce flowering of Arabidopsis, was isolated by activation tagging...
  10. Schwartz C, Balasubramanian S, Warthmann N, Michael T, Lempe J, Sureshkumar S, et al. Cis-regulatory changes at FLOWERING LOCUS T mediate natural variation in flowering responses of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2009;183:723-32, 1SI-7SI pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant analysis and subsequent molecular studies have revealed that one of these integrator genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), responds to photoperiod and temperature cues, two environmental parameters that greatly influence ..

Detail Information

Publications75

  1. Abe M, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto S, Daimon Y, Yamaguchi A, Ikeda Y, et al. FD, a bZIP protein mediating signals from the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex. Science. 2005;309:1052-6 pubmed
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a conserved promoter of flowering that acts downstream of various regulatory pathways, including one that mediates photoperiodic induction through CONSTANS (CO), and is expressed in the vasculature of cotyledons ..
  2. Jaeger K, Wigge P. FT protein acts as a long-range signal in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1050-4 pubmed
    ..This mobile signal was later termed "florigen," but its nature has been unclear. The gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is a major output of both the photoperiod and the vernalization pathways controlling the floral ..
  3. Smith H, Ung N, Lal S, Courtier J. Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..meristems are specified on the periphery of the inflorescence meristem by the combined activities of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-FD complex and the flower meristem identity gene LEAFY...
  4. Yamagishi N, Sasaki S, Yamagata K, Komori S, Nagase M, Wada M, et al. Promotion of flowering and reduction of a generation time in apple seedlings by ectopical expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana FT gene using the Apple latent spherical virus vector. Plant Mol Biol. 2011;75:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..of rapid flowering in apple seedlings using the Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector expressing a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. Apple seedlings could be flowered at 1...
  5. Hiraoka K, Yamaguchi A, Abe M, Araki T. The florigen genes FT and TSF modulate lateral shoot outgrowth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:352-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Growth analysis of lateral shoots in mutants of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) revealed a delay in the onset of outgrowth and a reduction of the growth ..
  6. Michaels S, Himelblau E, Kim S, Schomburg F, Amasino R. Integration of flowering signals in winter-annual Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;137:149-56 pubmed
    ..integrate signals from the photoperiod and vernalization pathways, we have examined activation-tagged alleles of FT and the FT homolog, TSF (TWIN SISTER OF FT), in a winter-annual background...
  7. Cao S, Kumimoto R, Gnesutta N, Calogero A, Mantovani R, Holt B. A distal CCAAT/NUCLEAR FACTOR Y complex promotes chromatin looping at the FLOWERING LOCUS T promoter and regulates the timing of flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Photoperiod-dependent flowering depends on timely expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT); however, the coordination of various cis-regulatory elements in the FT promoter is not well understood...
  8. Kobayashi Y, Kaya H, Goto K, Iwabuchi M, Araki T. A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals. Science. 1999;286:1960-2 pubmed
    ..b>FT, together with LFY, promotes flowering and is positively regulated by CO...
  9. Kardailsky I, Shukla V, Ahn J, Dagenais N, Christensen S, Nguyen J, et al. Activation tagging of the floral inducer FT. Science. 1999;286:1962-5 pubmed
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which acts in parallel with the meristem-identity gene LEAFY (LFY) to induce flowering of Arabidopsis, was isolated by activation tagging...
  10. Schwartz C, Balasubramanian S, Warthmann N, Michael T, Lempe J, Sureshkumar S, et al. Cis-regulatory changes at FLOWERING LOCUS T mediate natural variation in flowering responses of Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetics. 2009;183:723-32, 1SI-7SI pubmed publisher
    ..Mutant analysis and subsequent molecular studies have revealed that one of these integrator genes, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), responds to photoperiod and temperature cues, two environmental parameters that greatly influence ..
  11. Liu L, Liu C, Hou X, Xi W, Shen L, Tao Z, et al. FTIP1 is an essential regulator required for florigen transport. PLoS Biol. 2012;10:e1001313 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the proteins encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis and its orthologs in other plants are identified as the long-sought florigen, whether ..
  12. Yoo S, Chung K, Kim J, Lee J, Hong S, Yoo S, et al. CONSTANS activates SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 through FLOWERING LOCUS T to promote flowering in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:770-8 pubmed
    CONSTANS (CO) regulates flowering time by positively regulating expression of two floral integrators, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1), in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  13. Corbesier L, Vincent C, Jang S, Fornara F, Fan Q, Searle I, et al. FT protein movement contributes to long-distance signaling in floral induction of Arabidopsis. Science. 2007;316:1030-3 pubmed
    ..The identity of the long-distance signal has yet to be determined. In Arabidopsis, activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcription in leaf vascular tissue (phloem) induces flowering...
  14. Moon J, Lee H, Kim M, Lee I. Analysis of flowering pathway integrators in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:292-9 pubmed
    ..The key genes integrating multiple flowering pathways are FT, SOC1 and LFY. To elucidate the interactions among these integrators, genetic analyses were performed...
  15. Mathieu J, Warthmann N, Küttner F, Schmid M. Export of FT protein from phloem companion cells is sufficient for floral induction in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1055-60 pubmed
    ..and molecular analyses, primarily in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice, have shown that CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) play central roles in photoperiod-dependent flowering...
  16. Teper Bamnolker P, Samach A. The flowering integrator FT regulates SEPALLATA3 and FRUITFULL accumulation in Arabidopsis leaves. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2661-75 pubmed
    ..Transcripts of the Arabidopsis thaliana flowering-promoting gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) are present in leaf tissue but can also promote flowering when artificially introduced into the ..
  17. Jeong J, Song H, Ko J, Jeong Y, Kwon Y, Seol J, et al. Repression of FLOWERING LOCUS T chromatin by functionally redundant histone H3 lysine 4 demethylases in Arabidopsis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8033 pubmed publisher
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) plays a key role as a mobile floral induction signal that initiates the floral transition. Therefore, precise control of FT expression is critical for the reproductive success of flowering plants...
  18. Lopez Vernaza M, Yang S, Muller R, Thorpe F, de Leau E, Goodrich J. Antagonistic roles of SEPALLATA3, FT and FLC genes as targets of the polycomb group gene CURLY LEAF. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30715 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the suppressors correspond to mutations in FPA and FT, two genes promoting flowering, and in SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) which encodes a co-factor for AG protein...
  19. Adrian J, Farrona S, Reimer J, Albani M, Coupland G, Turck F. cis-Regulatory elements and chromatin state coordinately control temporal and spatial expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:1425-40 pubmed publisher
    Flowering time of summer annual Arabidopsis thaliana accessions is largely determined by the timing of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression in the leaf vasculature...
  20. Liu H, Yu X, Li K, Klejnot J, Yang H, Lisiero D, et al. Photoexcited CRY2 interacts with CIB1 to regulate transcription and floral initiation in Arabidopsis. Science. 2008;322:1535-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, CIB1 stimulates FT messenger RNA expression, and it interacts with chromatin DNA of the FT gene that possesses various E-box elements ..
  21. Jiang D, Wang Y, Wang Y, He Y. Repression of FLOWERING LOCUS C and FLOWERING LOCUS T by the Arabidopsis Polycomb repressive complex 2 components. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3404 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we show that during vegetative development CLF and FIE strongly repress the expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a key flowering-time integrator, and that CLF also directly interacts with and mediates the deposition ..
  22. Notaguchi M, Abe M, Kimura T, Daimon Y, Kobayashi T, Yamaguchi A, et al. Long-distance, graft-transmissible action of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T protein to promote flowering. Plant Cell Physiol. 2008;49:1645-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the nature of florigen has long remained elusive. Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) is expressed in cotyledons and leaves in response to inductive long days (LDs)...
  23. Song Y, Smith R, To B, Millar A, Imaizumi T. FKF1 conveys timing information for CONSTANS stabilization in photoperiodic flowering. Science. 2012;336:1045-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, FKF1 simultaneously removes CYCLING DOF FACTOR 1 (CDF1), which represses CO and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcription...
  24. Farrona S, Thorpe F, Engelhorn J, Adrian J, Dong X, Sarid Krebs L, et al. Tissue-specific expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis is maintained independently of polycomb group protein repression. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show the role of PcG proteins in the spatial regulation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), a main activator of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana exclusively expressed in the vasculature...
  25. Mizoguchi T, Wright L, Fujiwara S, Cremer F, Lee K, Onouchi H, et al. Distinct roles of GIGANTEA in promoting flowering and regulating circadian rhythms in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2005;17:2255-70 pubmed
    ..a circadian clock-controlled flowering pathway comprising the genes GIGANTEA (GI), CONSTANS (CO), and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) promotes flowering specifically under long days...
  26. Ahn J, Miller D, Winter V, Banfield M, Lee J, Yoo S, et al. A divergent external loop confers antagonistic activity on floral regulators FT and TFL1. EMBO J. 2006;25:605-14 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis genes FT and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) encode related proteins with similarity to human Raf kinase inhibitor protein...
  27. Castillejo C, Pelaz S. The balance between CONSTANS and TEMPRANILLO activities determines FT expression to trigger flowering. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Those inductive photoperiods are perceived in leaves [1] and initiate a long-distance signaling mediated by CO and FT. CO is expressed in the phloem according to a circadian rhythm [2-4]...
  28. Jang S, Torti S, Coupland G. Genetic and spatial interactions between FT, TSF and SVP during the early stages of floral induction in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;60:614-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the interactions in Arabidopsis between three of these integrators, flowering locus T (FT), twin sister of FT (TSF) and suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 (SOC1), as well as their ..
  29. Wigge P, Kim M, Jaeger K, Busch W, Schmid M, Lohmann J, et al. Integration of spatial and temporal information during floral induction in Arabidopsis. Science. 2005;309:1056-9 pubmed
    ..An important integrator of these inputs is the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes a small, possibly mobile protein...
  30. Wenkel S, Turck F, Singer K, Gissot L, Le Gourrierec J, Samach A, et al. CONSTANS and the CCAAT box binding complex share a functionally important domain and interact to regulate flowering of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2971-84 pubmed
    ..This phenotype was correlated with reduced abundance of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) mRNA and no change in CO mRNA levels...
  31. Han P, García Ponce B, Fonseca Salazar G, Alvarez Buylla E, Yu H. AGAMOUS-LIKE 17, a novel flowering promoter, acts in a FT-independent photoperiod pathway. Plant J. 2008;55:253-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, another target of CO, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), did not affect AGL17 expression, and vice versa...
  32. Tiwari S, Shen Y, Chang H, Hou Y, Harris A, Ma S, et al. The flowering time regulator CONSTANS is recruited to the FLOWERING LOCUS T promoter via a unique cis-element. New Phytol. 2010;187:57-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This element is present in tandem within the FLOWERING LOCUS T promoter and is sufficient for CO binding and activity...
  33. Tseng T, Salome P, McClung C, Olszewski N. SPINDLY and GIGANTEA interact and act in Arabidopsis thaliana pathways involved in light responses, flowering, and rhythms in cotyledon movements. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1550-63 pubmed
    ..GI acts in the long-day flowering pathway upstream of CONSTANS (CO) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Loss of GI function causes late flowering and reduces CO and FT RNA levels...
  34. Hsu C, Adams J, Kim H, No K, Ma C, Strauss S, et al. FLOWERING LOCUS T duplication coordinates reproductive and vegetative growth in perennial poplar. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:10756-61 pubmed publisher
    ..and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (..
  35. Iñigo S, Alvarez M, Strasser B, Califano A, Cerdán P. PFT1, the MED25 subunit of the plant Mediator complex, promotes flowering through CONSTANS dependent and independent mechanisms in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;69:601-12 pubmed publisher
    ..A low R:FR decreases active phyB and consequently increases active CO, which in turn activates the expression of FT, the plant florigen. Other phytochromes like phyD and phyE seem to have redundant roles with phyB...
  36. Yoo S, Chen C, Rojas M, Daimon Y, Ham B, Araki T, et al. Phloem long-distance delivery of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) to the apex. Plant J. 2013;75:456-68 pubmed publisher
    Cucurbita moschata FLOWERING LOCUS T-LIKE 2 (hereafter FTL2) and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), components of the plant florigenic signaling system, move long-distance through the phloem from source leaves to ..
  37. Graeff M, Straub D, Eguen T, Dolde U, Rodrigues V, Brandt R, et al. MicroProtein-Mediated Recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS Trimeric Complex Represses Flowering in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2016;12:e1005959 pubmed publisher
    ..Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions...
  38. Adams S, Allen T, Whitelam G. Interaction between the light quality and flowering time pathways in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;60:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Bla-6, FLC blocks promotion to flowering by reduced R/FR by inhibiting expression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in a dose-dependent manner...
  39. Lu K, Huang N, Liu Y, Lu C, Yu T. Long-distance movement of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T RNA participates in systemic floral regulation. RNA Biol. 2012;9:653-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent analyses of Arabidopsis and rice revealed FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) protein as a systemic florigenic signal...
  40. Jin S, Jung H, Chung K, Lee J, Ahn J. FLOWERING LOCUS T has higher protein mobility than TWIN SISTER OF FT. J Exp Bot. 2015;66:6109-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), which encodes a proposed phloem-mobile florigen, has a close homologue, TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF)...
  41. Thines B, Youn Y, Duarte M, Harmon F. The time of day effects of warm temperature on flowering time involve PIF4 and PIF5. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:1141-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Flowering in each condition relied to varying degrees on the activity of CO , FT , PIF4 , and PIF5 , as well as the action of unknown genes...
  42. Nakamura Y, Andr s F, Kanehara K, Liu Y, D rmann P, Coupland G. Arabidopsis florigen FT binds to diurnally oscillating phospholipids that accelerate flowering. Nat Commun. 2014;5:3553 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis FT protein is a component of florigen, which transmits photoperiodic flowering signals from leaf companion cells to the shoot apex. Here, we show that FT specifically binds phosphatidylcholine (PC) in vitro...
  43. Wickland D, Hanzawa Y. The FLOWERING LOCUS T/TERMINAL FLOWER 1 Gene Family: Functional Evolution and Molecular Mechanisms. Mol Plant. 2015;8:983-97 pubmed publisher
    ..the flowering transition and inflorescence architecture are modulated by two homologous proteins, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1)...
  44. Jaeger K, Pullen N, Lamzin S, Morris R, Wigge P. Interlocking feedback loops govern the dynamic behavior of the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:820-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) act through FD and FD PARALOG to regulate the transition...
  45. Riboni M, Galbiati M, Tonelli C, Conti L. GIGANTEA enables drought escape response via abscisic acid-dependent activation of the florigens and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS. Plant Physiol. 2013;162:1706-19 pubmed publisher
    ..conditions revealed the central role of the flower-promoting gene GIGANTEA (GI) and the florigen genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TWIN SISTER OF FT (TSF) in the DE response...
  46. Wendell M, Ripel L, Lee Y, Rognli O, Torre S, Olsen J. Thermoperiodic Control of Floral Induction Involves Modulation of the Diurnal FLOWERING LOCUS T Expression Pattern. Plant Cell Physiol. 2017;58:466-477 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) action through LEAFY (LFY), time to floral transition in ft-1 and lfy-1 was similar under all ..
  47. Ho W, Weigel D. Structural features determining flower-promoting activity of Arabidopsis FLOWERING LOCUS T. Plant Cell. 2014;26:552-64 pubmed publisher
    In Arabidopsis thaliana, the genes FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) have antagonistic roles in regulating the onset of flowering: FT activates and TFL1 represses flowering...
  48. Del Olmo I, López J, Vázquez J, Raynaud C, Piñeiro M, Jarillo J. Arabidopsis DNA polymerase ϵ recruits components of Polycomb repressor complex to mediate epigenetic gene silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:5597-614 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Pol ϵ is involved in the epigenetic silencing of the floral integrator genes FT and SOC1, but the molecular nature of the transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms involved remains elusive...
  49. Yun J, Kim Y, Jung J, Seo P, Park C. The AT-hook motif-containing protein AHL22 regulates flowering initiation by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T chromatin in Arabidopsis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:15307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..that the AT-hook protein AHL22 (AT-hook motif nuclear localized 22) regulates flowering time by modifying FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) chromatin in Arabidopsis. AHL22 binds to a stretch of the AT-rich sequence in the FT locus...
  50. Kang X, Zhou Y, Sun X, Ni M. HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1 and its C-terminal regulatory function control FLOWERING LOCUS T expression. Plant J. 2007;52:937-48 pubmed
    ..mutant, hypersensitive to red and blue 1 (hrb1), flowered late and showed attenuated expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) over both long days and short days...
  51. Endo M, Nakamura S, Araki T, Mochizuki N, Nagatani A. Phytochrome B in the mesophyll delays flowering by suppressing FLOWERING LOCUS T expression in Arabidopsis vascular bundles. Plant Cell. 2005;17:1941-52 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, mesophyll phyB-GFP suppressed the expression of a key flowering regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T, in the vascular bundles of cotyledons...
  52. Wang C, Guthrie C, Sarmast M, Dehesh K. BBX19 interacts with CONSTANS to repress FLOWERING LOCUS T transcription, defining a flowering time checkpoint in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2014;26:3589-602 pubmed publisher
    ..we show that the circadian-controlled expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana floral transition regulators FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and CONSTANS (CO) is antiphasic to that of BBX19, a transcription factor with two B-Box motifs...
  53. Lazaro A, Valverde F, Piñeiro M, Jarillo J. The Arabidopsis E3 ubiquitin ligase HOS1 negatively regulates CONSTANS abundance in the photoperiodic control of flowering. Plant Cell. 2012;24:982-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, hos1 causes a shift in the regular long-day pattern of expression of flowering locus T (FT) transcript, starting to rise 4 h after dawn in the mutant...
  54. Deng S, Chua N. Inverted-Repeat RNAs Targeting FT Intronic Regions Promote FT Expression in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2015;56:1667-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we confirmed that promoter methylation of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) led to gene silencing; in contrast, we found that intragenic methylation triggered by RNA-directed DNA ..
  55. Klocko A, Ma C, Robertson S, Esfandiari E, Nilsson O, Strauss S. FT overexpression induces precocious flowering and normal reproductive development in Eucalyptus. Plant Biotechnol J. 2016;14:808-19 pubmed publisher
    ..grandis × urophylla hybrid (SP7) with a variety of constructs that enable overexpression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)...
  56. Schwartz C, Lee J, Amasino R. Variation in shade-induced flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana results from FLOWERING LOCUS T allelic variation. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187768 pubmed publisher
    ..For all three accessions, the reduced FR flowering-time effect mapped to the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) region, and the FT alleles from these accessions are expressed at a lower level in FR-enriched light ..
  57. Ikeda Y, Kobayashi Y, Yamaguchi A, Abe M, Araki T. Molecular basis of late-flowering phenotype caused by dominant epi-alleles of the FWA locus in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:205-20 pubmed
    ..The previous reports that fwa suppressed the precocious-flowering phenotype of plants overexpressing FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) suggest that the flowering pathway(s) either at and/or downstream of FT is blocked by FWA...
  58. Ryu J, Lee H, Seo P, Jung J, Ahn J, Park C. The Arabidopsis floral repressor BFT delays flowering by competing with FT for FD binding under high salinity. Mol Plant. 2014;7:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we found that BFT delays flowering under high salinity by competing with FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) for binding to the FD transcription factor...
  59. Kim J, Lee J, Kim W, Jung H, Huijser P, Ahn J. The microRNA156-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE3 module regulates ambient temperature-responsive flowering via FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;159:461-78 pubmed publisher
    ..show that the microRNA156 (miR156)-SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE3 (SPL3) module directly regulates FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression in the leaf to control ambient temperature-responsive flowering...
  60. Duplat Bermúdez L, Ruiz Medrano R, Landsman D, Mariño Ramírez L, Xoconostle Cazares B. Transcriptomic analysis of Arabidopsis overexpressing flowering locus T driven by a meristem-specific promoter that induces early flowering. Gene. 2016;587:120-31 pubmed publisher
    Here we analyzed in leaves the effect of FT overexpression driven by meristem-specific KNAT1 gene homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana (Lincoln et al., 1994; Long et al., 1996) on the transcriptomic response during plant development...
  61. Liu L, Adrian J, Pankin A, Hu J, Dong X, von Korff M, et al. Induced and natural variation of promoter length modulates the photoperiodic response of FLOWERING LOCUS T. Nat Commun. 2014;5:4558 pubmed publisher
    b>FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) regulates the floral transition in many plant species by integrating environmental seasonal signals and internal cues...
  62. Kim S, Yu X, Michaels S. Regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T expression in response to changing light quality. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:269-79 pubmed publisher
  63. Yu Y, Liu Z, Wang L, Kim S, Seo P, Qiao M, et al. WRKY71 accelerates flowering via the direct activation of FLOWERING LOCUS T and LEAFY in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2016;85:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene expression analysis showed that the transcript abundance of the flowering time integrator gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and the floral meristem identity genes LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1) and FRUITFULL (FUL) were greater in ..
  64. Huang N, Jane W, Chen J, Yu T. Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC) acts systemically to inhibit floral initiation in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;72:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This remote-control system may integrate environmental cues to modulate floral initiation. Recently, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) was found to be a florigen...
  65. Wang H, Pan J, Li Y, Lou D, Hu Y, Yu D. The DELLA-CONSTANS Transcription Factor Cascade Integrates Gibberellic Acid and Photoperiod Signaling to Regulate Flowering. Plant Physiol. 2016;172:479-88 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we found that GA-induced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) under LDs was dependent on CONSTANS (CO), a critical transcription factor positively involved in ..
  66. Yoo S, Wu X, Lee J, Ahn J. AGAMOUS-LIKE 6 is a floral promoter that negatively regulates the FLC/MAF clade genes and positively regulates FT in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2011;65:62-76 pubmed publisher
    ..time by AGL6 through control of the transcription of both a subset of the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) family genes and FT, two key regulators of flowering time...
  67. Zhai Q, Zhang X, Wu F, Feng H, Deng L, Xu L, et al. Transcriptional Mechanism of Jasmonate Receptor COI1-Mediated Delay of Flowering Time in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2015;27:2814-28 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway delays the flowering time of Arabidopsis thaliana by inhibiting the expression of the florigen gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)...
  68. Kang M, Jin H, Noh Y, Noh B. Repression of flowering under a noninductive photoperiod by the HDA9-AGL19-FT module in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2015;206:281-94 pubmed publisher
    ..early under noninductive short-day (SD) conditions and had increased expression of the floral integrator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and the floral activator AGAMOUS-LIKE 19 (AGL19) compared with the wild-type...
  69. Kinmonth Schultz H, Tong X, Lee J, Song Y, Ito S, Kim S, et al. Cool night-time temperatures induce the expression of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T to regulate flowering in Arabidopsis. New Phytol. 2016;211:208-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Night-time CO induction was diminished in flowering bhlh (fbh)-quadruple mutants. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) transcript levels were reduced at dusk, but increased at the end of cooler nights...
  70. Seo E, Yu J, Ryu K, Lee M, Lee I. WEREWOLF, a regulator of root hair pattern formation, controls flowering time through the regulation of FT mRNA stability. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:1867-77 pubmed publisher
    A key floral activator, FT, integrates stimuli from long-day, vernalization, and autonomous pathways and triggers flowering by directly regulating floral meristem identity genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  71. Zhu Y, Liu L, Shen L, Yu H. NaKR1 regulates long-distance movement of FLOWERING LOCUS T in Arabidopsis. Nat Plants. 2016;2:16075 pubmed publisher
    ..Although FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) has been identified as part of the mobile floral stimuli in Arabidopsis thaliana, the mechanisms ..
  72. Fernandez D, Wang C, Zheng Y, Adamczyk B, Singhal R, Hall P, et al. The MADS-Domain Factors AGAMOUS-LIKE15 and AGAMOUS-LIKE18, along with SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE and AGAMOUS-LIKE24, Are Necessary to Block Floral Gene Expression during the Vegetative Phase. Plant Physiol. 2014;165:1591-1603 pubmed
    ..AGL15 and AGL18 were previously shown to act redundantly as floral repressors and upstream of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana)...
  73. Tripathi P, Carvallo M, Hamilton E, Preuss S, Kay S. Arabidopsis B-BOX32 interacts with CONSTANS-LIKE3 to regulate flowering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:172-177 pubmed publisher
    ..Using different genetic and biochemical assays, we have validated this interaction and shown that COL3 targets FT in the presence of BBX32 to regulate the flowering pathway...
  74. Soppe W, Bentsink L, Koornneef M. The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 1999;126:4763-70 pubmed
    ..By comparing the length of the juvenile and adult phases of vegetative growth for wild-type, efs and the double mutant plants, it is apparent that efs mainly reduces the length of the adult phase. ..