Gene Symbol: FKF1
Description: flavin-binding, kelch repeat, f box 1
Alias: ''flavin-binding, ADO3, T23K23.10, T23K23_10, f box 1, f box 1'', flavin-binding, kelch repeat, flavin-binding, kelch repeat, f box 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Imaizumi T, Schultz T, Harmon F, Ho L, Kay S. FKF1 F-box protein mediates cyclic degradation of a repressor of CONSTANS in Arabidopsis. Science. 2005;309:293-7 pubmed
    ..FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1) protein regulates CO transcription, although the molecular mechanism is unknown...
  2. Sawa M, Nusinow D, Kay S, Imaizumi T. FKF1 and GIGANTEA complex formation is required for day-length measurement in Arabidopsis. Science. 2007;318:261-5 pubmed
    ..The FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1), and GIGANTEA (GI) proteins regulate CO transcription in Arabidopsis...
  3. Yasuhara M, Mitsui S, Hirano H, Takanabe R, Tokioka Y, Ihara N, et al. Identification of ASK and clock-associated proteins as molecular partners of LKP2 (LOV kelch protein 2) in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2004;55:2015-27 pubmed
    The ADO/FKF/LKP/ZTL family of proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh. have a LOV domain, an F-box motif, and a kelch repeat region...
  4. Kim W, Fujiwara S, Suh S, Kim J, Kim Y, Han L, et al. ZEITLUPE is a circadian photoreceptor stabilized by GIGANTEA in blue light. Nature. 2007;449:356-60 pubmed
    ..This mechanism of establishing and sustaining robust oscillations of ZTL results in the high-amplitude TOC1 rhythms necessary for proper clock function. ..
  5. Kang M, Yoo S, Kwon H, Lee B, Cho J, Noh Y, et al. Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9728 pubmed publisher
    ..Under SD, the det1-1 mutation causes daytime expression of FKF1 and CO; however, their altered expression has only a small effect on early flowering in det1-1 mutants...
  6. Baudry A, Ito S, Song Y, Strait A, Kiba T, Lu S, et al. F-box proteins FKF1 and LKP2 act in concert with ZEITLUPE to control Arabidopsis clock progression. Plant Cell. 2010;22:606-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that FLAVIN BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX1 (FKF1) and LOV KELCH PROTEIN2 (LKP2) play similar roles to ZTL in the circadian clock ..
  7. Takase T, Nishiyama Y, Tanihigashi H, Ogura Y, Miyazaki Y, Yamada Y, et al. LOV KELCH PROTEIN2 and ZEITLUPE repress Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering under non-inductive conditions, dependent on FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX1. Plant J. 2011;67:608-21 pubmed publisher
    LOV KELCH PROTEIN2 (LKP2), ZEITLUPE (ZTL)/LOV KELCH PROTEIN1 (LKP1) and FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX1 (FKF1) constitute a family of Arabidopsis F-box proteins that regulate the circadian clock...
  8. Imaizumi T, Tran H, Swartz T, Briggs W, Kay S. FKF1 is essential for photoperiodic-specific light signalling in Arabidopsis. Nature. 2003;426:302-6 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the clock-controlled FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX (FKF1) protein has an essential role in generating the diurnal CO peak and that this function is ..
  9. Nakasako M, Matsuoka D, Zikihara K, Tokutomi S. Quaternary structure of LOV-domain containing polypeptide of Arabidopsis FKF1 protein. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:1067-71 pubmed
    Flavin-binding, Kelch repeat, F-box (FKF1) protein is a photoreceptor to regulate flowering of Arabidopsis. The protein has a light, oxygen and voltage (LOV)-sensing domain binding a flavin mononucleotide...

More Information


  1. Song Y, Estrada D, Johnson R, Kim S, Lee S, MacCoss M, et al. Distinct roles of FKF1, Gigantea, and Zeitlupe proteins in the regulation of Constans stability in Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:17672-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The flavin-binding, KELCH repeat, F-box1 (FKF1) protein binds to CO protein specifically in the long-day afternoon and stabilizes it, although ..
  2. Zhang B, Wang L, Zeng L, Zhang C, Ma H. Arabidopsis TOE proteins convey a photoperiodic signal to antagonize CONSTANS and regulate flowering time. Genes Dev. 2015;29:975-87 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, CONSTANS (CO) and FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT F-BOX1 (FKF1) promote flowering by inducing FLOWER LOCUS T (FT) expression in the long-day afternoon...
  3. Fukamatsu Y, Mitsui S, Yasuhara M, Tokioka Y, Ihara N, Fujita S, et al. Identification of LOV KELCH PROTEIN2 (LKP2)-interacting factors that can recruit LKP2 to nuclear bodies. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:1340-9 pubmed
    ..The CCT motif in CO or COL1 was not sufficient for interaction with LKP2. LKP2 recognized CO with F-box and kelch repeat-containing regions, while it recognized COL1 with an LOV domain...
  4. Takahashi N, Kuroda H, Kuromori T, Hirayama T, Seki M, Shinozaki K, et al. Expression and interaction analysis of Arabidopsis Skp1-related genes. Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:83-91 pubmed
    ..As a result, we found diverse binding specificities: ASK1, ASK2, ASK11 and ASK12 interacted well with COI1, FKF1, UFO-like protein, LRR-containing F-box proteins, and other F-box proteins with unknown C-terminal motifs...
  5. Zikihara K, Iwata T, Matsuoka D, Kandori H, Todo T, Tokutomi S. Photoreaction cycle of the light, oxygen, and voltage domain in FKF1 determined by low-temperature absorption spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 2006;45:10828-37 pubmed
    Flavin-binding Kelch repeat F-box (FKF1) protein plays important roles in the photoregulation of flowering in Arabidopsis...
  6. Nakasone Y, Zikihara K, Tokutomi S, Terazima M. Kinetics of conformational changes of the FKF1-LOV domain upon photoexcitation. Biophys J. 2010;99:3831-9 pubmed publisher
    ..dynamics of a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain from the blue light sensor protein, FKF1 (flavin-binding Kelch repeat F-box) was studied by means of the pulsed laser-induced transient grating method...
  7. Mas P, Kim W, Somers D, Kay S. Targeted degradation of TOC1 by ZTL modulates circadian function in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature. 2003;426:567-70 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the TOC1-ZTL interaction is important in the control of TOC1 protein stability, and is probably responsible for the regulation of circadian period by the clock. ..
  8. Sawa M, Kay S. [Molecular mechanism by which plant determines flowering timing with circadian clock]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2008;53:739-46 pubmed
  9. Nelson D, Lasswell J, Rogg L, Cohen M, Bartel B. FKF1, a clock-controlled gene that regulates the transition to flowering in Arabidopsis. Cell. 2000;101:331-40 pubmed
    ..We isolated a late-flowering Arabidopsis mutant, fkf1, that is rescued by vemalization or gibberellin treatment...
  10. Song Y, Smith R, To B, Millar A, Imaizumi T. FKF1 conveys timing information for CONSTANS stabilization in photoperiodic flowering. Science. 2012;336:1045-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1) protein stabilizes CO protein in the afternoon in long days...