Gene Symbol: FHY1
Description: far-red elongated hypocotyl 1
Alias: FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 1, FRY1, PAT3, PHYTOCHROME A SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION 3, far-red elongated hypocotyl 1, far-red elongated hypocotyl 1
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Desnos T, Puente P, Whitelam G, Harberd N. FHY1: a phytochrome A-specific signal transducer. Genes Dev. 2001;15:2980-90 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the molecular cloning and functional characterization of Arabidopsis FHY1. FHY1 encodes a product (FHY1) that specifically transduces signals downstream of the far-red (FR) light-responsive ..
  2. Zhou Q, Hare P, Yang S, Zeidler M, Huang L, Chua N. FHL is required for full phytochrome A signaling and shares overlapping functions with FHY1. Plant J. 2005;43:356-70 pubmed
    ..The signaling intermediate FHY1 appears to either participate directly in relaying the phyA signal or to positively regulate a critical signaling ..
  3. Hiltbrunner A, Viczian A, Bury E, Tscheuschler A, Kircher S, Toth R, et al. Nuclear accumulation of the phytochrome A photoreceptor requires FHY1. Curr Biol. 2005;15:2125-30 pubmed
    ..Among all phyA signaling mutants, fhy1 and fhy3 (far-red elongated hypocotyl 1 and 3) have the most severe hyposensitive phenotype, indicating that they ..
  4. Hiltbrunner A, Tscheuschler A, Viczian A, Kunkel T, Kircher S, Schafer E. FHY1 and FHL act together to mediate nuclear accumulation of the phytochrome A photoreceptor. Plant Cell Physiol. 2006;47:1023-34 pubmed
    ..In fact, one of the most severe phyA signaling mutants, fhy1 (far red elongated hypocotyl 1), is strongly affected in nuclear accumulation of phyA...
  5. Müller R, Fernández A, Hiltbrunner A, Schafer E, Kretsch T. The histidine kinase-related domain of Arabidopsis phytochrome a controls the spectral sensitivity and the subcellular distribution of the photoreceptor. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear accumulation of the photoreceptor molecule upon red light irradiation, even though it still interacts with FHY1 (for far-red long hypocotyl 1) and FHL (for FHY1-like protein), two factors that are essential for nuclear ..
  6. Sheerin D, Menon C, Zur Oven Krockhaus S, Enderle B, Zhu L, Johnen P, et al. Light-activated phytochrome A and B interact with members of the SPA family to promote photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis by reorganizing the COP1/SPA complex. Plant Cell. 2015;27:189-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these data provide a molecular mechanism for the inactivation of the COP1/SPA complex by phyA- and phyB-mediated light perception. ..
  7. Hirsch J, Misson J, Crisp P, David P, Bayle V, Estavillo G, et al. A novel fry1 allele reveals the existence of a mutant phenotype unrelated to 5'->3' exoribonuclease (XRN) activities in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16724 pubmed publisher
    Mutations in the FRY1/SAL1 Arabidopsis locus are highly pleiotropic, affecting drought tolerance, leaf shape and root growth...
  8. Yang S, Jang I, Henriques R, Chua N. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 and FHY1-LIKE associate with the Arabidopsis transcription factors LAF1 and HFR1 to transmit phytochrome A signals for inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Plant Cell. 2009;21:1341-59 pubmed publisher
    ..investigated the genetic and molecular relationship between two homologous proteins, FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) and FHY1-LIKE (FHL), and two transcription factors, LONG AFTER FAR-RED LIGHT1 (LAF1) and LONG HYPOCOTYL IN FAR-..
  9. Zeidler M, Bolle C, Chua N. The phytochrome A specific signaling component PAT3 is a positive regulator of Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001;42:1193-200 pubmed
    ..The recessive mutation co-segregated with the T-DNA resistance marker and could be allelic to fhy1. A 2,248-bp genomic fragment of the PAT3 locus can complement the pat3 mutant phenotype...

More Information


  1. Chen F, Li B, Demone J, Charron J, Shi X, Deng X. Photoreceptor partner FHY1 has an independent role in gene modulation and plant development under far-red light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:11888-93 pubmed publisher
    ..the far-red light (FR) signal into a strategy for optimizing plant growth, FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) mediates the nuclear translocation of the FR photoreceptor phytochrome A (phyA) and facilitates the association of ..
  2. Jang I, Henriques R, Chua N. Three transcription factors, HFR1, LAF1 and HY5, regulate largely independent signaling pathways downstream of phytochrome A. Plant Cell Physiol. 2013;54:907-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous work has shown that FHY1/FHL distribute phyA signals directly to HFR1 and LAF1, both of which regulate largely independent pathways, but the ..
  3. Chen F, Shi X, Chen L, Dai M, Zhou Z, Shen Y, et al. Phosphorylation of FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 is a key mechanism defining signaling dynamics of phytochrome A under red and far-red light in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:1907-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a phyA pathway in which FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1), an essential partner of phyA, directly guides phyA to target gene promoters and coactivates transcription...
  4. Rausenberger J, Tscheuschler A, Nordmeier W, Wüst F, Timmer J, Schafer E, et al. Photoconversion and nuclear trafficking cycles determine phytochrome A's response profile to far-red light. Cell. 2011;146:813-25 pubmed publisher
    ..According to our model, the dissociation rate of the phyA-FHY1/FHL nuclear import complex is a principle determinant of the phyA action peak...
  5. Pfeiffer A, Kunkel T, Hiltbrunner A, Neuhaus G, Wolf I, Speth V, et al. A cell-free system for light-dependent nuclear import of phytochrome. Plant J. 2009;57:680-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of phytochrome A (phyA), this step occurs with the help of FHY1 (far-red-elongated hypocotyl 1), a specific transport protein...
  6. Genoud T, Schweizer F, Tscheuschler A, Debrieux D, Casal J, Schafer E, et al. FHY1 mediates nuclear import of the light-activated phytochrome A photoreceptor. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000143 pubmed publisher
    ..Nuclear accumulation of phyA is dependent on two related proteins called FHY1 (Far-red elongated HYpocotyl 1) and FHL (FHY1 Like), with FHY1 playing the predominant function...
  7. Shen Y, Zhou Z, Feng S, Li J, Tan Wilson A, Qu L, et al. Phytochrome A mediates rapid red light-induced phosphorylation of Arabidopsis FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 in a low fluence response. Plant Cell. 2009;21:494-506 pubmed publisher
    ..FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) and its homolog FHY1-LIKE (FHL) define two positive regulators in the phyA signaling pathway...
  8. Saijo Y, Zhu D, Li J, Rubio V, Zhou Z, Shen Y, et al. Arabidopsis COP1/SPA1 complex and FHY1/FHY3 associate with distinct phosphorylated forms of phytochrome A in balancing light signaling. Mol Cell. 2008;31:607-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, underphosphorylated phyA predominantly associates with the phyA-signaling intermediates FHY3 and FHY1. However, COP1 associates with underphosphorylated phyA in the absence of FHY3 or FHY1, suggesting that phyA ..
  9. Shen Y, Feng S, Ma L, Lin R, Qu L, Chen Z, et al. Arabidopsis FHY1 protein stability is regulated by light via phytochrome A and 26S proteasome. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1234-43 pubmed
    ..Among the phyA downstream signaling components, Far-red Elongated Hypocotyl 1 (FHY1) is a genetically defined positive regulator of photomorphogenesis in far-red light...
  10. Li J, Li G, Gao S, Martinez C, He G, Zhou Z, et al. Arabidopsis transcription factor ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 plays a role in the feedback regulation of phytochrome A signaling. Plant Cell. 2010;22:3634-49 pubmed publisher
    ..FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1 (FHY1) and its homolog FHY1-LIKE (FHL) are two small plant-specific proteins essential for light-regulated phyA nuclear ..
  11. Sokolova V, Bindics J, Kircher S, Adam E, Schafer E, Nagy F, et al. Missense mutation in the amino terminus of phytochrome A disrupts the nuclear import of the photoreceptor. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:107-18 pubmed publisher
    ..of phyA-5 is brought about by weakened binding affinity of the mutant photoreceptor to nuclear import facilitators FHY1 (for FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL1) and FHL (for FHY1-LIKE)...
  12. Chen F, Li B, Li G, Charron J, Dai M, Shi X, et al. Arabidopsis Phytochrome A Directly Targets Numerous Promoters for Individualized Modulation of Genes in a Wide Range of Pathways. Plant Cell. 2014;26:1949-1966 pubmed
  13. Huang H, Yoo C, Bindbeutel R, Goldsworthy J, Tielking A, Alvarez S, et al. PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis. elife. 2016;5:e13292 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PCH1 is a new factor that regulates photoperiod-responsive growth by integrating the clock with light perception pathways through modulating daily phyB-signaling. ..