Gene Symbol: FD
Description: Basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family protein
Alias: FD-1, T19K4.30, atbzip14, Basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Koornneef M, Hanhart C, van der Veen J. A genetic and physiological analysis of late flowering mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol Gen Genet. 1991;229:57-66 pubmed
    ..fca, fve, fy and fpa, vernalization has a large effect both under LD and short day (SD) conditions, whereas co, gi, fd and fwa mutants are almost completely insensitive to this treatment...
  2. Huang N, Jane W, Chen J, Yu T. Arabidopsis thaliana CENTRORADIALIS homologue (ATC) acts systemically to inhibit floral initiation in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;72:175-84 pubmed publisher
    ..ATC probably antagonizes FT activity, because both ATC and FT interact with FD and affect the same downstream meristem identity genes APETALA1, in an opposite manner...
  3. Wigge P, Kim M, Jaeger K, Busch W, Schmid M, Lohmann J, et al. Integration of spatial and temporal information during floral induction in Arabidopsis. Science. 2005;309:1056-9 pubmed
    ..Integration of temporal and spatial information is mediated in part by the bZIP transcription factor FD, which is already expressed at the shoot apex before floral induction...
  4. Jang S, Torti S, Coupland G. Genetic and spatial interactions between FT, TSF and SVP during the early stages of floral induction in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2009;60:614-25 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations clarify the relationships between these early regulators of the floral transition, and further emphasize the relatedness of mechanisms acting in the leaf and meristem to control flowering time. ..
  5. Ryu J, Lee H, Seo P, Jung J, Ahn J, Park C. The Arabidopsis floral repressor BFT delays flowering by competing with FT for FD binding under high salinity. Mol Plant. 2014;7:377-87 pubmed publisher
    ..we found that BFT delays flowering under high salinity by competing with FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) for binding to the FD transcription factor. The flowering time of FD-deficient fd-2 mutant was insensitive to high salinity...
  6. Abe M, Kobayashi Y, Yamamoto S, Daimon Y, Yamaguchi A, Ikeda Y, et al. FD, a bZIP protein mediating signals from the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex. Science. 2005;309:1052-6 pubmed
    ..A bZIP transcription factor, FD, preferentially expressed in the shoot apex is required for FT to promote flowering...
  7. Hanano S, Goto K. Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1 is involved in the regulation of flowering time and inflorescence development through transcriptional repression. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3172-84 pubmed publisher
    ..FT is believed to function in a transcriptional activator complex by interacting with FD. Here, we demonstrate that TFL1 is involved in the transcriptional repression of genes that are activated by FT...
  8. Haung M, Yang C. EMF genes interact with late-flowering genes to regulate Arabidopsis shoot development. Plant Cell Physiol. 1998;39:382-93 pubmed
    ..Nine late-flowering mutants, ft, fca, ld, fd, fpa, fe, fy, fha, and fve, caused different degrees of increase in the number of sessile leaves, the size of ..
  9. Kawamoto N, Sasabe M, Endo M, Machida Y, Araki T. Calcium-dependent protein kinases responsible for the phosphorylation of a bZIP transcription factor FD crucial for the florigen complex formation. Sci Rep. 2015;5:8341 pubmed publisher
    ..in the shoot apex, where it forms a complex with a basic region/leucine-zipper (bZIP) transcription factor, FD. Formation of the florigen complex depends on the supposed phosphorylation of FD; hitherto, however, the responsible ..

More Information


  1. Hou C, Yang C. Comparative analysis of the pteridophyte Adiantum MFT ortholog reveals the specificity of combined FT/MFT C and N terminal interaction with FD for the regulation of the downstream gene AP1. Plant Mol Biol. 2016;91:563-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Protein pull-down assays indicated that Arabidopsis FD proteins interact with full-length FT and AcMFT, as well as peptides encoded by 1-3 exon fragments or the 4th exon ..
  2. Smith H, Ung N, Lal S, Courtier J. Specification of reproductive meristems requires the combined function of SHOOT MERISTEMLESS and floral integrators FLOWERING LOCUS T and FD during Arabidopsis inflorescence development. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..specified on the periphery of the inflorescence meristem by the combined activities of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT)-FD complex and the flower meristem identity gene LEAFY...
  3. Seedat N, Dinsdale A, Ong E, Gendall A. Acceleration of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana by Cape Verde Islands alleles of FLOWERING H is dependent on the floral promoter FD. J Exp Bot. 2013;64:2767-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, the early flowering allele of FLH requires the floral integrator FD, but not FT, to accelerate flowering...