Gene Symbol: ELF4
Description: EARLY FLOWERING-like protein (DUF1313)
Alias: EARLY FLOWERING 4, T28M21.24, T28M21_24, EARLY FLOWERING-like protein (DUF1313)
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Khanna R, Kikis E, Quail P. EARLY FLOWERING 4 functions in phytochrome B-regulated seedling de-etiolation. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1530-8 pubmed
    ..Recently, this locus was identified as EARLY FLOWERING 4, a gene implicated in floral induction and regulating the expression of the gene CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED ..
  2. Nusinow D, Helfer A, Hamilton E, King J, Imaizumi T, Schultz T, et al. The ELF4-ELF3-LUX complex links the circadian clock to diurnal control of hypocotyl growth. Nature. 2011;475:398-402 pubmed publisher
    ..a protein complex (called the evening complex)--composed of the proteins encoded by EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), ELF4 and the transcription-factor-encoding gene LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX; also known as PHYTOCLOCK 1)--that directly regulates ..
  3. Kikis E, Khanna R, Quail P. ELF4 is a phytochrome-regulated component of a negative-feedback loop involving the central oscillator components CCA1 and LHY. Plant J. 2005;44:300-13 pubmed
    ..and mutant seedlings to examine the role of these oscillator components, and to determine the function of ELF3 and ELF4 in their light-regulated expression...
  4. Doyle M, Davis S, Bastow R, McWatters H, Kozma Bognar L, Nagy F, et al. The ELF4 gene controls circadian rhythms and flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature. 2002;419:74-7 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the gene EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), which is involved in photoperiod perception and circadian regulation...
  5. Liew L, Hecht V, Laurie R, Knowles C, Vander Schoor J, Macknight R, et al. DIE NEUTRALIS and LATE BLOOMER 1 contribute to regulation of the pea circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3198-211 pubmed publisher
    ..that LATE1 participates in the clock and provide evidence that DNE is the ortholog of Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4)...
  6. Higham C, Husmeier D. A Bayesian approach for parameter estimation in the extended clock gene circuit of Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013;14 Suppl 10:S3 pubmed publisher
  7. McWatters H, Kolmos E, Hall A, Doyle M, Amasino R, Gyula P, et al. ELF4 is required for oscillatory properties of the circadian clock. Plant Physiol. 2007;144:391-401 pubmed
    ..We have previously characterized the EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4) locus of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as being important for robust rhythms...
  8. Khanna R, Shen Y, Toledo Ortiz G, Kikis E, Johannesson H, Hwang Y, et al. Functional profiling reveals that only a small number of phytochrome-regulated early-response genes in Arabidopsis are necessary for optimal deetiolation. Plant Cell. 2006;18:2157-71 pubmed
  9. Ding Z, Millar A, Davis A, Davis S. TIME FOR COFFEE encodes a nuclear regulator in the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1522-36 pubmed
    ..Neither its abundance nor its cellular distribution was found to be clock regulated. We suggest that TIC encodes a nucleus-acting clock regulator working close to the central oscillator. ..

More Information


  1. Pouteau S, Carré I, Gaudin V, Ferret V, Lefebvre D, Wilson M. Diversification of photoperiodic response patterns in a collection of early-flowering mutants of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the frequency of circadian defects in mutants with normal photoperiodic responses suggested that the circadian clock may regulate the number of leaves independently of its effect on daylength perception. ..
  2. Kang M, Yoo S, Kwon H, Lee B, Cho J, Noh Y, et al. Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9728 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that DET1 is a strong repressor of flowering and has a pivotal role in maintaining photoperiod sensitivity in the regulation of flowering time. ..
  3. Huang H, Yoo C, Bindbeutel R, Goldsworthy J, Tielking A, Alvarez S, et al. PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis. elife. 2016;5:e13292 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PCH1 is a new factor that regulates photoperiod-responsive growth by integrating the clock with light perception pathways through modulating daily phyB-signaling. ..
  4. Kolmos E, Nowak M, Werner M, Fischer K, Schwarz G, Mathews S, et al. Integrating ELF4 into the circadian system through combined structural and functional studies. HFSP J. 2009;3:350-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Several genes have been arranged in these oscillation loops, but the position of the core-clock gene ELF4 in this network was previously undetermined...
  5. Herrero E, Kolmos E, Bujdoso N, Yuan Y, Wang M, Berns M, et al. EARLY FLOWERING4 recruitment of EARLY FLOWERING3 in the nucleus sustains the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2012;24:428-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4) is required to sustain this oscillator and that the elf4 mutant is arrhythmic...
  6. Doyle M, Bizzell C, Keller M, Michaels S, Song J, Noh Y, et al. HUA2 is required for the expression of floral repressors in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2005;41:376-85 pubmed
    ..An allele of HUA2 from Landsberg erecta (Ler) contains a premature stop codon and acts as an enhancer of early flowering 4 (elf4) mutants...
  7. Choudhary M, Nomura Y, Wang L, Nakagami H, Somers D. Quantitative Circadian Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Reveals Extensive Clock Control of Key Components in Physiological, Metabolic, and Signaling Pathways. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:2243-60 pubmed publisher
    ..enough to quantitate oscillations in the phosphorylation of low abundance clock proteins (early flowering4; ELF4 and pseudoresponse regulator3; PRR3) as well as other transcription factors and kinases...
  8. Kim Y, Yeom M, Kim H, Lim J, Koo H, Hwang D, et al. GIGANTEA and EARLY FLOWERING 4 in Arabidopsis exhibit differential phase-specific genetic influences over a diurnal cycle. Mol Plant. 2012;5:678-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Similarly, EARLY FLOWERING 4 (ELF4), another clock regulator, also contributes to these processes...