Gene Symbol: ELF3
Description: hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein family protein
Alias: EARLY FLOWERING 3, F17H15.25, PYK20, hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Nusinow D, Helfer A, Hamilton E, King J, Imaizumi T, Schultz T, et al. The ELF4-ELF3-LUX complex links the circadian clock to diurnal control of hypocotyl growth. Nature. 2011;475:398-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify a protein complex (called the evening complex)--composed of the proteins encoded by EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), ELF4 and the transcription-factor-encoding gene LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX; also known as PHYTOCLOCK 1)--..
  2. Thines B, Harmon F. Ambient temperature response establishes ELF3 as a required component of the core Arabidopsis circadian clock. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3257-62 pubmed publisher
    ..External light and temperature cues set the core molecular oscillator to local conditions. In Arabidopsis, EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) is thought to act as an evening-specific repressor of light signals to the clock, thus serving a ..
  3. Reed J, Nagpal P, Bastow R, Solomon K, Dowson Day M, Elumalai R, et al. Independent action of ELF3 and phyB to control hypocotyl elongation and flowering time. Plant Physiol. 2000;122:1149-60 pubmed
    ..In a screen for Arabidopsis mutants with phenotypes similar to those of phyB mutants, we isolated two new elf3 mutants...
  4. Coluccio M, Sanchez S, Kasulin L, Yanovsky M, Botto J. Genetic mapping of natural variation in a shade avoidance response: ELF3 is the candidate gene for a QTL in hypocotyl growth regulation. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:167-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic and quantitative complementation analyses demonstrated that ELF3 is the most likely candidate gene underlying natural variation at EODINDEX1...
  5. Covington M, Panda S, Liu X, Strayer C, Wagner D, Kay S. ELF3 modulates resetting of the circadian clock in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1305-15 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis early flowering 3 (elf3) mutation causes arrhythmic circadian output in continuous light, but there is some evidence of clock function in darkness...
  6. Zagotta M, Hicks K, Jacobs C, Young J, Hangarter R, Meeks Wagner D. The Arabidopsis ELF3 gene regulates vegetative photomorphogenesis and the photoperiodic induction of flowering. Plant J. 1996;10:691-702 pubmed
    ..The early-flowering 3 (elf3) mutant of Arabidopsis, which is insensitive to photoperiod with regard to floral initiation has been characterized ..
  7. Jimenez Gomez J, Wallace A, Maloof J. Network analysis identifies ELF3 as a QTL for the shade avoidance response in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001100 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel network analysis detected EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3; AT2G25930) as the most likely candidate gene affecting the shade avoidance response in our population...
  8. Hall A, Bastow R, Davis S, Hanano S, McWatters H, Hibberd V, et al. The TIME FOR COFFEE gene maintains the amplitude and timing of Arabidopsis circadian clocks. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2719-29 pubmed
    ..to late subjective night, when human activity may require coffee, in contrast to the function of EARLY-FLOWERING3 (ELF3) in the late day to early night...
  9. Liu X, Covington M, Fankhauser C, Chory J, Wagner D. ELF3 encodes a circadian clock-regulated nuclear protein that functions in an Arabidopsis PHYB signal transduction pathway. Plant Cell. 2001;13:1293-304 pubmed
    ..Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) and PHYTOCHROME B (PHYB) genes cause early flowering and influence the activity of circadian clock-..

More Information


  1. Kikis E, Khanna R, Quail P. ELF4 is a phytochrome-regulated component of a negative-feedback loop involving the central oscillator components CCA1 and LHY. Plant J. 2005;44:300-13 pubmed
    ..wild-type and mutant seedlings to examine the role of these oscillator components, and to determine the function of ELF3 and ELF4 in their light-regulated expression...
  2. Yu J, Rubio V, Lee N, Bai S, Lee S, Kim S, et al. COP1 and ELF3 control circadian function and photoperiodic flowering by regulating GI stability. Mol Cell. 2008;32:617-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Blue-light-sensing cryptochromes, the E3 ubiquitin-ligase COP1, and clock-associated proteins ELF3 and GI regulate this process, although the regulatory link between them is unclear...
  3. Dixon L, Knox K, Kozma Bognar L, Southern M, Pokhilko A, Millar A. Temporal repression of core circadian genes is mediated through EARLY FLOWERING 3 in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2011;21:120-5 pubmed publisher
    ..b>EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) has been implicated as a repressor of light signaling to the clock [2, 3] and, paradoxically, as an ..
  4. Puzio P, Lausen J, Almeida Engler J, Cai D, Gheysen G, Grundler F. Isolation of a gene from Arabidopsis thaliana related to nematode feeding structures. Gene. 1999;239:163-72 pubmed
    ..This tagged gene, designated pyk20, encodes a transcript of 2.6 kb...
  5. Niinuma K, Someya N, Kimura M, Yamaguchi I, Hamamoto H. Circadian rhythm of circumnutation in inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:1423-7 pubmed
    ..toc1 appears to shorten the period and elf3 causes an arrhythmic phenotype in circumnutation speed in LL, suggesting that a common circadian clock may control ..
  6. Lu S, Webb C, Knowles S, Kim S, Wang Z, Tobin E. CCA1 and ELF3 Interact in the control of hypocotyl length and flowering time in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;158:1079-88 pubmed publisher
    ..EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) modulates light input to the clock and is also postulated to be part of the clock mechanism...
  7. Kim W, Hicks K, Somers D. Independent roles for EARLY FLOWERING 3 and ZEITLUPE in the control of circadian timing, hypocotyl length, and flowering time. Plant Physiol. 2005;139:1557-69 pubmed
    ..b>EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3) is a novel protein of unknown biochemical function...
  8. Anwer M, Boikoglou E, Herrero E, Hallstein M, Davis A, Velikkakam James G, et al. Natural variation reveals that intracellular distribution of ELF3 protein is associated with function in the circadian clock. elife. 2014;3: pubmed publisher
    ..Extensive variation led us to identify EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL)...
  9. Raschke A, Ibañez C, Ullrich K, Anwer M, Becker S, Glöckner A, et al. Natural variants of ELF3 affect thermomorphogenesis by transcriptionally modulating PIF4-dependent auxin response genes. BMC Plant Biol. 2015;15:197 pubmed publisher
    ..Transgenic complementation demonstrated that allelic variation in the circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is underlying this QTL...
  10. Joseph B, Lau L, Kliebenstein D. Quantitative Variation in Responses to Root Spatial Constraint within Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2015;27:2227-43 pubmed publisher
    ..polygenic trait and, using quantitative validation studies, we showed that natural variation in EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) controls the link between root constraint and altered shoot growth...
  11. Nefissi R, Natsui Y, Miyata K, Oda A, Hase Y, Nakagawa M, et al. Double loss-of-function mutation in EARLY FLOWERING 3 and CRYPTOCHROME 2 genes delays flowering under continuous light but accelerates it under long days and short days: an important role for Arabidopsis CRY2 to accelerate flowering time in continuou. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:2731-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The circadian clock plays pivotal roles in this process. In Arabidopsis, LHY, CCA1, ELF3, and other clock proteins play major roles in maintaining circadian rhythms...
  12. Huang H, Yoo C, Bindbeutel R, Goldsworthy J, Tielking A, Alvarez S, et al. PCH1 integrates circadian and light-signaling pathways to control photoperiod-responsive growth in Arabidopsis. elife. 2016;5:e13292 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PCH1 is a new factor that regulates photoperiod-responsive growth by integrating the clock with light perception pathways through modulating daily phyB-signaling. ..
  13. Soppe W, Bentsink L, Koornneef M. The early-flowering mutant efs is involved in the autonomous promotion pathway of Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 1999;126:4763-70 pubmed
    ..By comparing the length of the juvenile and adult phases of vegetative growth for wild-type, efs and the double mutant plants, it is apparent that efs mainly reduces the length of the adult phase. ..
  14. Pouteau S, Carré I, Gaudin V, Ferret V, Lefebvre D, Wilson M. Diversification of photoperiodic response patterns in a collection of early-flowering mutants of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2008;148:1465-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the frequency of circadian defects in mutants with normal photoperiodic responses suggested that the circadian clock may regulate the number of leaves independently of its effect on daylength perception. ..
  15. Nieto C, López Salmerón V, Davière J, Prat S. ELF3-PIF4 interaction regulates plant growth independently of the Evening Complex. Curr Biol. 2015;25:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..During early night, PIF4 and PIF5 transcription is repressed by the Evening Complex (EC) proteins EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), EARLY FLOWERING4 (ELF4), and LUX ARRHYTHMO (LUX)...
  16. Strasser B, Alvarez M, Califano A, Cerdán P. A complementary role for ELF3 and TFL1 in the regulation of flowering time by ambient temperature. Plant J. 2009;58:629-40 pubmed publisher
    ..regulates flowering by two genetically distinguishable pathways, one requiring TFL1 and another requiring ELF3. The delay in flowering time observed at lower temperatures was partially suppressed in single elf3 and tfl1 ..
  17. Press M, Lanctot A, Queitsch C. PIF4 and ELF3 Act Independently in Arabidopsis thaliana Thermoresponsive Flowering. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0161791 pubmed publisher
    ..A particularly important stimulus is temperature. Previous work has identified the interplay of PIF4 and ELF3 as a central circuit underlying thermal responses in Arabidopsis thaliana...
  18. Herrero E, Kolmos E, Bujdoso N, Yuan Y, Wang M, Berns M, et al. EARLY FLOWERING4 recruitment of EARLY FLOWERING3 in the nucleus sustains the Arabidopsis circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2012;24:428-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This phenotype is shared with both elf3 and lux...
  19. Undurraga S, Press M, Legendre M, Bujdoso N, Bale J, Wang H, et al. Background-dependent effects of polyglutamine variation in the Arabidopsis thaliana gene ELF3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19363-7 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana to dissect the phenotypic consequences of natural variation in the polyQ tract encoded by EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3), a key developmental gene...
  20. Kolmos E, Herrero E, Bujdoso N, Millar A, Toth R, Gyula P, et al. A reduced-function allele reveals that EARLY FLOWERING3 repressive action on the circadian clock is modulated by phytochrome signals in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2011;23:3230-46 pubmed publisher
    Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is essential for the generation of circadian rhythms...
  21. Yoshida R, Fekih R, Fujiwara S, Oda A, Miyata K, Tomozoe Y, et al. Possible role of early flowering 3 (ELF3) in clock-dependent floral regulation by short vegetative phase (SVP) in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2009;182:838-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in the clock gene early flowering 3 (ELF3) were identified as suppressors...
  22. Kinoshita T, Ono N, Hayashi Y, Morimoto S, Nakamura S, Soda M, et al. FLOWERING LOCUS T regulates stomatal opening. Curr Biol. 2011;21:1232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..phenotype in phot1 phot2) 1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana and showed that scs1-1 carries a novel null early flowering 3 (elf3) allele in a phot1 phot2 background...
  23. Box M, Huang B, Domijan M, Jaeger K, Khattak A, Yoo S, et al. ELF3 controls thermoresponsive growth in Arabidopsis. Curr Biol. 2015;25:194-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We find that the transcriptional regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) controls elongation growth in response to temperature...
  24. Wang C, Sarmast M, Jiang J, Dehesh K. The Transcriptional Regulator BBX19 Promotes Hypocotyl Growth by Facilitating COP1-Mediated EARLY FLOWERING3 Degradation in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2015;27:1128-39 pubmed publisher
    ..function of BBX19 is dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC1 (COP1), EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3), and PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) and PIF5...
  25. Kang M, Yoo S, Kwon H, Lee B, Cho J, Noh Y, et al. Negative regulatory roles of DE-ETIOLATED1 in flowering time in Arabidopsis. Sci Rep. 2015;5:9728 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we propose that DET1 is a strong repressor of flowering and has a pivotal role in maintaining photoperiod sensitivity in the regulation of flowering time. ..
  26. Higham C, Husmeier D. A Bayesian approach for parameter estimation in the extended clock gene circuit of Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013;14 Suppl 10:S3 pubmed publisher
  27. Choudhary M, Nomura Y, Wang L, Nakagami H, Somers D. Quantitative Circadian Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Arabidopsis Reveals Extensive Clock Control of Key Components in Physiological, Metabolic, and Signaling Pathways. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2015;14:2243-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that removal of this phosphorylatable site diminishes interaction with early flowering3 (ELF3), a key partner in a tripartite evening complex required for circadian cycling...
  28. Ding Z, Millar A, Davis A, Davis S. TIME FOR COFFEE encodes a nuclear regulator in the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1522-36 pubmed
    ..Neither its abundance nor its cellular distribution was found to be clock regulated. We suggest that TIC encodes a nucleus-acting clock regulator working close to the central oscillator. ..