Gene Symbol: EIN2
Description: NRAMP metal ion transporter family protein
Species: thale cress

Top Publications

  1. Alonso J, Hirayama T, Roman G, Nourizadeh S, Ecker J. EIN2, a bifunctional transducer of ethylene and stress responses in Arabidopsis. Science. 1999;284:2148-52 pubmed
    ..Ethylene regulates plant growth, development, and responsiveness to a variety of stresses. Cloning of the Arabidopsis EIN2 gene identifies a central component of the ethylene signaling pathway...
  2. Li Z, Peng J, Wen X, Guo H. Ethylene-insensitive3 is a senescence-associated gene that accelerates age-dependent leaf senescence by directly repressing miR164 transcription in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2013;25:3311-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We further found that EIN3 acts downstream of ORESARA2 (ORE2)/ORE3/EIN2 to repress miR164 transcription and upregulate the transcript levels of ORE1/NAC2, a target gene of miR164...
  3. Qiao H, Shen Z, Huang S, Schmitz R, Urich M, Briggs S, et al. Processing and subcellular trafficking of ER-tethered EIN2 control response to ethylene gas. Science. 2012;338:390-3 pubmed publisher
    Ethylene gas is essential for many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an NRAMP-like integral membrane protein, plays an essential role in ethylene signaling, but its function remains ..
  4. Kim J, Woo H, Kim J, Lim P, Lee I, Choi S, et al. Trifurcate feed-forward regulation of age-dependent cell death involving miR164 in Arabidopsis. Science. 2009;323:1053-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ORE1 expression is up-regulated concurrently with leaf aging by EIN2 but is negatively regulated by miR164...
  5. Ju C, Yoon G, Shemansky J, Lin D, Ying Z, Chang J, et al. CTR1 phosphorylates the central regulator EIN2 to control ethylene hormone signaling from the ER membrane to the nucleus in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19486-91 pubmed publisher
    ..TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) Raf-like protein kinase, as well as the molecular events surrounding ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an ER membrane-localized Nramp homolog that positively regulates ethylene responses...
  6. Niu Y, Guo F. Nitric oxide regulates dark-induced leaf senescence through EIN2 in Arabidopsis. J Integr Plant Biol. 2012;54:516-25 pubmed publisher
    The nitric oxide (NO)-deficient mutant nos1/noa1 exhibited an early leaf senescence phenotype. ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 (EIN2) was previously reported to function as a positive regulator of ethylene-induced senescence...
  7. An F, Zhao Q, Ji Y, Li W, Jiang Z, Yu X, et al. Ethylene-induced stabilization of ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 and EIN3-LIKE1 is mediated by proteasomal degradation of EIN3 binding F-box 1 and 2 that requires EIN2 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2384-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, we found that EIN2 is indispensable for mediating ethylene-induced EIN3/EIL1 accumulation and EBF1/2 degradation, whereas MKK9 is not ..
  8. Zhang F, Qi B, Wang L, Zhao B, Rode S, Riggan N, et al. EIN2-dependent regulation of acetylation of histone H3K14 and non-canonical histone H3K23 in ethylene signalling. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13018 pubmed publisher
    Ethylene gas is essential for many developmental processes and stress responses in plants. EIN2 plays a key role in ethylene signalling but its function remains enigmatic...
  9. Kim J, Patterson S, Binder B. Reducing jasmonic acid levels causes ein2 mutants to become ethylene responsive. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:226-30 pubmed publisher
    It has previously been shown that jasmonic acid affects the ethylene signaling pathway. EIN2 is a central component of ethylene signaling that is downstream of the receptors...

More Information


  1. Leon P, Sheen J. Sugar and hormone connections. Trends Plant Sci. 2003;8:110-6 pubmed
    ..The effects of sugar and osmotic stress on morphogenesis and gene expression are distinct. The plasticity of plant growth and development are exemplified by the complex interplay of sugar and hormone signalling. ..
  2. Ghassemian M, Nambara E, Cutler S, Kawaide H, Kamiya Y, McCourt P. Regulation of abscisic acid signaling by the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2000;12:1117-26 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to determine negative regulators of ABA signaling, we identified mutants, designated enhanced response to ABA3 (era3), that increased the sensitivity of the seed to ABA...
  3. Wen X, Zhang C, Ji Y, Zhao Q, He W, An F, et al. Activation of ethylene signaling is mediated by nuclear translocation of the cleaved EIN2 carboxyl terminus. Cell Res. 2012;22:1613-6 pubmed publisher
  4. Liu R, Chen L, Jia Z, Lu B, Shi H, Shao W, et al. Transcription factor AtMYB44 regulates induced expression of the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 gene in Arabidopsis responding to a harpin protein. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2011;24:377-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The pathway depends on ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), an essential component of ethylene signaling, to regulate defense responses in the plant following treatment with ..
  5. Cao S, Chen Z, Liu G, Jiang L, Yuan H, Ren G, et al. The Arabidopsis Ethylene-Insensitive 2 gene is required for lead resistance. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2009;47:308-12 pubmed publisher
    The Arabidopsis Ethylene-Insensitive 2 (EIN2) gene has been shown to be involved in the regulation of abiotic and biotic stresses, including ozone stress, high salt, oxidative stress and disease resistance...
  6. Bisson M, Groth G. New insight in ethylene signaling: autokinase activity of ETR1 modulates the interaction of receptors and EIN2. Mol Plant. 2010;3:882-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2), an integral membrane protein of the ER network, has been identified as the central regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway...
  7. Zhu L, Liu D, Li Y, Li N. Functional phosphoproteomic analysis reveals that a serine-62-phosphorylated isoform of ethylene response factor110 is involved in Arabidopsis bolting. Plant Physiol. 2013;161:904-17 pubmed publisher
  8. Desikan R, Last K, Harrett Williams R, Tagliavia C, Harter K, Hooley R, et al. Ethylene-induced stomatal closure in Arabidopsis occurs via AtrbohF-mediated hydrogen peroxide synthesis. Plant J. 2006;47:907-16 pubmed
    ..Stomata of the ethylene signalling ein2-1 and arr2 mutants do not close in response to either ethylene or H(2)O(2) but do generate H(2)O(2) following ..
  9. Consonni C, Humphry M, Hartmann H, Livaja M, Durner J, Westphal L, et al. Conserved requirement for a plant host cell protein in powdery mildew pathogenesis. Nat Genet. 2006;38:716-20 pubmed
  10. Li W, Ma M, Feng Y, Li H, Wang Y, Ma Y, et al. EIN2-directed translational regulation of ethylene signaling in Arabidopsis. Cell. 2015;163:670-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethylene is a gaseous phytohormone that plays vital roles in plant growth and development. Previous studies uncovered EIN2 as an essential signal transducer linking ethylene perception on ER to transcriptional regulation in the nucleus ..
  11. Mühlenbock P, Szechynska Hebda M, Plaszczyca M, Baudo M, Mateo A, Mullineaux P, et al. Chloroplast signaling and LESION SIMULATING DISEASE1 regulate crosstalk between light acclimation and immunity in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2008;20:2339-56 pubmed publisher
    ..and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ethylene that signals through ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2)...
  12. Wang Y, Liu C, Li K, Sun F, Hu H, Zhao Y, et al. Arabidopsis EIN2 modulates stress response through abscisic acid response pathway. Plant Mol Biol. 2007;64:633-44 pubmed
    The nuclear protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) is a central component of the ethylene signal transduction pathway in plants, and plays an important role in mediating cross-links between several hormone response pathways, including ..
  13. Tian Q, Sun P, Zhang W. Ethylene is involved in nitrate-dependent root growth and branching in Arabidopsis thaliana. New Phytol. 2009;184:918-31 pubmed publisher
    ..in root development in Arabidopsis thaliana using wild types and mutants defective in ethylene signaling (etr1, ein2) and nitrate transporters (chl1, nrt2.1)...
  14. Li H, Wong W, Zhu L, Guo H, Ecker J, Li N. Phosphoproteomic analysis of ethylene-regulated protein phosphorylation in etiolated seedlings of Arabidopsis mutant ein2 using two-dimensional separations coupled with a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Proteomics. 2009;9:1646-61 pubmed publisher
    ..adopted to investigate the differential protein phosphorylation by ethylene in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive 2 (ein2) mutant...
  15. Feng G, Liu G, Xiao J. The Arabidopsis EIN2 restricts organ growth by retarding cell expansion. Plant Signal Behav. 2015;10:e1017169 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethylene insensitve 2 (EIN2) was first identified by a genetic screen for ethylene insensitivity and is regarded as a central component of ..
  16. Adams Phillips L, Briggs A, Bent A. Disruption of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation mechanisms alters responses of Arabidopsis to biotic stress. Plant Physiol. 2010;152:267-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation is a functional component in plant responses to biotic stress. ..
  17. Muday G, Brady S, Argueso C, Deruère J, Kieber J, DeLong A. RCN1-regulated phosphatase activity and EIN2 modulate hypocotyl gravitropism by a mechanism that does not require ethylene signaling. Plant Physiol. 2006;141:1617-29 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, the ethylene insensitive2-1 (ein2-1) and ein2-5 mutations dramatically reduce gravitropic bending in hypocotyls...
  18. Qiao H, Chang K, Yazaki J, Ecker J. Interplay between ethylene, ETP1/ETP2 F-box proteins, and degradation of EIN2 triggers ethylene responses in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2009;23:512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..and characterized, little is known about the function of the integral membrane protein ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), a central regulator of all ethylene responses...
  19. Larkindale J, Hall J, Knight M, Vierling E. Heat stress phenotypes of Arabidopsis mutants implicate multiple signaling pathways in the acquisition of thermotolerance. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:882-97 pubmed
    ..Ethylene signaling mutants (ein2 and etr1) and reactive oxygen metabolism mutants (vtc1, vtc2, npq1, and cad2) were more defective in basal than ..
  20. Du J, Li M, Kong D, Wang L, Lv Q, Wang J, et al. Nitric oxide induces cotyledon senescence involving co-operation of the NES1/MAD1 and EIN2-associated ORE1 signalling pathways in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:4051-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, two positive regulators of leaf senescence, the ethylene signalling component EIN2 and the transcription factor ORE1/AtNAC2/ANAC092, were found to function during nitric oxide-induced senescence in ..
  21. Garnica Vergara A, Barrera Ortiz S, Muñoz Parra E, Raya González J, Méndez Bravo A, Macías Rodríguez L, et al. The volatile 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one from Trichoderma atroviride regulates Arabidopsis thaliana root morphogenesis via auxin signaling and ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 2 functioning. New Phytol. 2016;209:1496-512 pubmed publisher
    ..AFB3 auxin receptors and ARF7 and ARF19 transcription factors influenced the lateral root response to 6-PP, whereas EIN2 modulated 6-PP sensing in primary roots...
  22. Merchante C, Brumos J, Yun J, Hu Q, Spencer K, Enríquez P, et al. Gene-specific translation regulation mediated by the hormone-signaling molecule EIN2. Cell. 2015;163:684-97 pubmed publisher
    ..this translation regulatory machinery, the ethylene signaling component EBF2, indicates that the signaling molecule EIN2 and the nonsense-mediated decay proteins UPFs play a central role in this ethylene-induced translational response...
  23. Kim H, Hong S, Kim Y, Lee I, Jun J, Phee B, et al. Gene regulatory cascade of senescence-associated NAC transcription factors activated by ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2-mediated leaf senescence signalling in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2014;65:4023-36 pubmed publisher
    ..It was previously reported that the trifurcate feed-forward pathway involving EIN2, ORE1, and miR164 in Arabidopsis regulates age-dependent leaf senescence and cell death...
  24. Fujita H, Syono K. Genetic analysis of the effects of polar auxin transport inhibitors on root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 1996;37:1094-101 pubmed
    ..specifically affected the root-elongation process, and they were shown ultimately to be allelic to aux1 and ein2, respectively, which are known as mutations that affect responses to phytohormones...
  25. Glazebrook J. Genes controlling expression of defense responses in Arabidopsis--2001 status. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2001;4:301-8 pubmed
    ..Genes required for jasmonic-acid-dependent signaling and for induced systemic resistance have also been identified. ..
  26. Lei G, Shen M, Li Z, Zhang B, Duan K, Wang N, et al. EIN2 regulates salt stress response and interacts with a MA3 domain-containing protein ECIP1 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell Environ. 2011;34:1678-92 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its roles in salt stress response are less known. Here we studied functions of EIN2, a central membrane protein of ethylene signalling, and its interacting protein ECIP1 in salt stress responses...
  27. Mersmann S, Bourdais G, Rietz S, Robatzek S. Ethylene signaling regulates accumulation of the FLS2 receptor and is required for the oxidative burst contributing to plant immunity. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:391-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Flagellin Sensitive2 (FLS2) accumulation was reduced in etr1 and ein2, indicating a requirement of ethylene signaling for FLS2 expression...
  28. Bisson M, Bleckmann A, Allekotte S, Groth G. EIN2, the central regulator of ethylene signalling, is localized at the ER membrane where it interacts with the ethylene receptor ETR1. Biochem J. 2009;424:1-6 pubmed publisher
    Genetic studies have identified the membrane protein EIN2 (ethylene insensitive 2) as a central component of ethylene signalling in Arabidopsis...
  29. Fischer U, Ikeda Y, Ljung K, Serralbo O, Singh M, Heidstra R, et al. Vectorial information for Arabidopsis planar polarity is mediated by combined AUX1, EIN2, and GNOM activity. Curr Biol. 2006;16:2143-9 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that combinatorial action of the auxin influx carrier AUX1, ETHYLENE-INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) , and GNOM genes mediates the vector for coordinate hair positioning...
  30. Binder B, Mortimore L, Stepanova A, Ecker J, Bleecker A. Short-term growth responses to ethylene in Arabidopsis seedlings are EIN3/EIL1 independent. Plant Physiol. 2004;136:2921-7 pubmed
    ..Phase I is transient, while phase II results in sustained growth inhibition. The EIN2 membrane protein is required for both the first and second phases of growth inhibition by ethylene, while the ..
  31. Galvão R, Li M, Kothadia S, Haskel J, Decker P, Van Buskirk E, et al. Photoactivated phytochromes interact with HEMERA and promote its accumulation to establish photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2012;26:1851-63 pubmed publisher
  32. Clay N, Adio A, Denoux C, Jander G, Ausubel F. Glucosinolate metabolites required for an Arabidopsis innate immune response. Science. 2009;323:95-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that well-studied plant metabolites, previously identified as important in avoiding damage by herbivores, are also required as a component of the plant defense response against microbial pathogens...
  33. Zhang Y, Liu J, Chai J, Xing D. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 mediates nuclear translocation of ORE3 to promote ORE9 gene expression in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence. J Exp Bot. 2016;67:83-94 pubmed publisher
    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a potent promoter of plant senescence. ORESARA3 (ORE3)/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), a protein similar to the members of the disease-related Nramp metal transporter family, is involved in cross-talk among ..
  34. Adie B, Pérez Pérez J, Perez Perez M, Godoy M, Sanchez Serrano J, Schmelz E, et al. ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defenses in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1665-81 pubmed
    ..The results support a model for ABA affecting JA biosynthesis in the activation of defenses against this oomycete. ..
  35. Etchells J, Provost C, Turner S. Plant vascular cell division is maintained by an interaction between PXY and ethylene signalling. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002997 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, blocking ethylene signalling using a variety of ethylene insensitive mutants such as ein2 enhances the cell division defect of pxy...
  36. Cooper B. Separation anxiety: an analysis of ethylene-induced cleavage of EIN2. Plant Signal Behav. 2013;8:e24721 pubmed publisher
    Since the discovery of the CTR1 protein kinase and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized EIN2 protein nearly 20 y ago, plant biologists have wondered how these proteins respectively serve as negative and positive regulators of ethylene-..
  37. Bisson M, Groth G. New paradigm in ethylene signaling: EIN2, the central regulator of the signaling pathway, interacts directly with the upstream receptors. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:164-6 pubmed
    The membrane protein ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), which is supposed to act between the soluble serine/threonine kinase CTR1 and the EIN3/EIL family of transcription factors, is a central and most critical element of the ethylene ..